棋牌大全下载安装

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                              1. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 法律论文 > 自然资源国家所有权主体制度现存问题与改善

                                自然资源国家所有权主体制度现存问题与改善

                                时间:2018-12-07 09:37作者:郭洁 郭云峰
                                本文导读:这是一篇关于自然资源国家所有权主体制度现存问题与改善的文章,本文拟围绕相关制度设计如何落实强化“全民”主体地位改革方向这一主题,研究自然资源国家所有权主体制度的法权构造问题。

                                  摘    要:棋牌大全下载安装 当前的自然资源管理体制度已呈现出强化“全民”主体地位的改革价值取向。自然资源国家所有权主体制度的设计本位应从“政府”转向“全民”,并贯彻“还权于民”的自然资源国家所有权主体制度设计思想:一是按照公共所有权的本来面目设计自然资源国家所有权主体制度;二是将代表行使国家所有权的主体限定为中央和省级政府两个层级;三是按照分工和协调的原则重构自然资源国家所有权的代表行使主体制度;四是重构自然资源国家所有权的授权主体。

                                  关键词: 自然资源; 国家所有权; 主体制度; 代表行使; 分级行使;

                                  Abstract: The current reform of the natural resource management system has presented a reform value orientation that strengthens the main position of the“all people”. The design basis of the system of ownership of natural resources in the country should be changed from“government”to“all people”,and implement the design principle of the national ownership system of natural resources with“returning power to the people”. Firstly,design natural resources according to the original features of public ownership. Secondly,limit the subject of state ownership to the two levels of the central and provincial governments. Thirdly,reconstruct the representative system of the state ownership of natural resources in accordance with the principle of division of labor and coordination. Fourthly,reconstruct the authorized subject of national ownership of natural resources.

                                  Keyword: natural resources; state ownership; subject system; representative exercise; hierarchical exercise;

                                  “QUANLIYAOQIUYIGEQUANLIZHUTI”[1],GUANYUGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIWENTIDEZHENGYISHIYIGELIJIUMIXINDEHUATI。SUIRANWOGUOXIANXINGLIFACAIQUQUFENGUISHUZHUTIYUDAIBIAOXINGSHIZHUTIDEMOSHIGOUZAOZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEZHUTIZHIDU,DANXIANXINGXIANFA、WUQUANFAYIJIZIRANZIYUANDANXINGFAZHIZHONGTEDINGZIRANZIYUAN“SHUYUGUOJIASUOYOUJIQUANMINSUOYOU”“YOUGUOWUYUANDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHISUOYOUQUAN”DENGLIFABIAOSHU,QUESHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEZHUTIJIUJINGSHI“GUOJIA”“QUANMIN”HAISHI“ZHENGFU”ZAISHIJIANCENGMIANBIANDEJIQIMOHU。RANER,2019NIAN4YUEZHONGGONGZHONGYANGBANGONGTING、GUOWUYUANBANGONGTINGYINFADE《GUANYUTONGCHOUTUIJINZIRANZIYUANZICHANCHANQUANZHIDUGAIGEDEZHIDAOYIJIAN》DENGGUANFANGWENJIAN,JUNYI“QUANMINSUOYOUZIRANZIYUANZICHAN”ZHICHENGXIANXINGFALVGUIDINGZHIZHONG“SHUYUGUOJIASUOYOU,JIQUANMINSUOYOU”HUOZHE“GUOJIASUOYOU”DEZIRANZIYUAN,CHENGXIANCHUZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIZHIDUSHEJIYAOQIANGHUA“QUANMIN”ZHUTIDIWEIDEGAIGEFANGXIANG。JIANYUCI,BENWENNIWEIRAOXIANGGUANZHIDUSHEJIRUHELUOSHIQIANGHUA“QUANMIN”ZHUTIDIWEIGAIGEFANGXIANGZHEIYIZHUTI,YANJIUZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIZHIDUDEFAQUANGOUZAOWENTI。

                                  一、现行自然资源国家所有权主体制度立法的基本逻辑

                                  SIRENSUOYOUQUANHEGONGGONGSUOYOUQUANSHILIANGLEIZAIJIAZHILINIAN、ZHIDUGONGNENG、QUANLI(LI)XINGZHIYUXINGSHIDENGFANGMIANJUNCUNZAIZHONGYAOQUBIEDESUOYOUQUANLEIXING[2],YIGONGGONGSUOYOUQUANHEGONGGONGLIYIWEIMUDESUZAO、GUIZHIGUOJIASUOYOUQUAN,BIRANSHIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHIDUYUYIBAOHUSIRENLIYIDESIRENSUOYOUQUANZHIDUCUNZAIJIAODACHAYI。YOUYUGONGGONGSUOYOUQUANSHIJIEJIANSIRENSUOYOUQUANZHIDUERJIANLIDEDAIBIAOHESHIXIANGONGGONGLIYIDESUOYOUQUANZHIDUANPAI[2],GUZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIZHIDUDEXIANGGUANGUIZESHEJIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGSHIYIZHONG“NIREN”HUADEZHIDUSHEJI。ZAIXIANXINGLIFAKUANGJIAXIA,WOGUOZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIZHIDULIFADEJIBENLUOJIKEGAIKUORUXIA。

                                  第一,在自然资源国家所有权内部按照政治信托模型完成对“全民”与“国家”这一双重主体的关系构造。首先,我国是社会主义国家,人民当家作主始终是社会主义民主政治的主旋律,作为国家根本大法的宪法也在序言和总纲之中明确了“人民是国家的主人”“中华人民共和国的一切权力属于人民”等内容。物权法律制度作为对经济和社会生活的一种现实反映,也必然要反映自然资源等重要社会生产资料的社会主义公有制地位,由此关于国家所有权主体制度的相关物权立法也必须首先解决“全民”与“国家”在民法物权领域之中的相互关系问题。其次,由于人民与国家在社会主义国家的理论体系和思想意识之中是互为一体的信托关系,而非相互对立的契约关系,也只有基于政治信托所产生的国家,才能使国家居于从属地位,真正将其置于人民主权之下[3]。由此,在自然资源国家所有权主体制度的内部结构中,“全民”主体与“国家”主体之间实质上是一种政治信托关系,即作为受托人的“国家”基于委托人的高度信任而拥有行使信托事务处理的资格与权力,并承担着不辜负这种信任并完成其身为受托人的责任和义务。最后,由于“全民”不仅是自然资源国家所有权产生的委托者和授权者,也是自然资源国家所有权实际的享有者和受益者,故国家作为所有权人的身份,不仅是作为自然资源终极归属主体的“全民”对国家行使自然资源所有权行为实施正当性约束的依据,而且也是根据信托目的对自然资源开发利益的全部或者部分享有正当性收益的依据。
                                 

                                自然资源国家所有权主体制度现存问题与改善
                                 

                                  DIER,YUNYONG“CENGCENGDAIBIAO”HE“DAIBIAOXINGSHI”ZHIDUJIEJUE“QUANMIN”ZHUTIYOU“XU”XIANG“SHI”DEFALVGOUZAOWENTI。WOGUOXIANFADIJIUTIAOGUANYUZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIZHIDUDEGOUZAO,SHIJISHANGYICAIQULEYOU“GUOJIA”DAIBIAO“QUANMIN”DELIFAJISHU。GEZIRANZIYUANDANXINGLIFAJIBENSHANGCAIQUDEDOUSHITEDINGDEZIRANZIYUAN“SHUYUGUOJIASUOYOU,YOUGUOWUYUANXINGSHIGUOJIADUIMOUMOUZIYUANDEGUOJIASUOYOUQUAN”DELIFABIAOSHU,XIANFAZHIZHONGDE“QUANMIN”ZHUTIZAIXINGZHENGXINGLIFAZHIZHONGBEI“DIUQI”,GUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEZHUTIZHISHENGXIALE“GUOJIA”。YOUYUGUOJIADAIBIAOQUANMINXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEYISIXINGCHENGHEZHIXINGJUNXUYAOJIEZHUQIJIGUANSHINENGJINXING,ZAIZIRANZIYUAN“QUANMIN”SUOYOUDEFAQUANGOUZAOSHANGCHANSHENGLEYOUGUOJIAJIGUANDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEWENTI,YOUCI,ZAIZHUTIZHIDUDEJIANZAOSHANGXINGCHENGLE“QUANMIN”“GUOJIA”“GUOWUYUAN”“DIFANGZHENGFU”CENGCENGDAIBIAOHEDAIBIAOXINGSHIDEZHIDUGEJU,ERZHENGSHITONGGUOQIANSHUCENGCENGDAIBIAOHEDAIBIAOXINGSHIDELIFAJISHU,CAIZAIZHENGSHIZHIDUCENGMIANYIBUYIBUDIWANCHENGLE“QUANMIN”ZHUTIYOUXUXIANGSHIDEZHIDINGFAZHUANHUA。ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,JINGLIGUOWEIXIANFENGBOERBANBUDEWUQUANFAWEILECHEDIBIMIAN“WEIXIAN”DEZHIZE,ZHUANMENZHENDUI2005NIAN10YUEGONGBUDEWUQUANFACAOANZENGJIALEYIGEBEIXUEJIECHENGZHIWEIDUIXIANFADIJIUTIAOJINXINGTONGYIBIAOSHUDEDISISHIWUTIAO,JI“FALVGUIDINGSHUYUGUOJIASUOYOUDECAICHAN,SHUYUGUOJIASUOYOUJIQUANMINSUOYOU”,“GUOYOUCAICHANYOUGUOWUYUANDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHISUOYOUQUAN;FALVLINGYOUGUIDINGDE,YIZHAOQIGUIDING”。SHISHISHANG,YEQIAQIAZHENGSHIMINSHILIFATEBIESHIWUQUANFADEQIANSHUYUXIANFADIJIUTIAOJINHUTONGYIBIAOSHUDETIAOKUAN,JIANGZIRANZIYUANDANXINGFADENGXINGZHENGLIFASUO“DIUQI”DE“QUANMIN”ZHUTIZHONGXINNARUWUQUANFAGUANYUZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEFAQUANGOUZAOZHIZHONG,CONGERBUZHIYUZAIWUQUANZHIDUCENGMIANCHEDIQIEDUAN“QUANMIN”YUZHONGYAOZIRANZIYUANDEFALVLIANXI。

                                  DISAN,ZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDAIBIAOXINGSHIQUANDEFENJIXINGSHI。ZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDAIBIAOXINGSHIQUANDEFENJIXINGSHI,SHIZHIZAIBUGAIBIANZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANGUISHUZHUTIDEQIANTIXIA,ZAIZHONGYANGHESHENGJIXIANGGUANGUOJIAZHINENGJIGUANZHIJIAN,JIUDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEQUANXIANJINXINGZONGXIANGHEHENGXIANGDEFENQUAN,YICHEDIJIEJUELONGTONGDEZIRANZIYUAN“QUANMINSUOYOUJIGUOJIASUOYOU”GUIDINGZHIXIA,ZUOWEIZHONGYANGZHENGFUDEGUOWUYUANKEGUANSHISHISHANGWULIZHIJIEXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANSUOYOUFADE,DAIBIAOXINGSHIZHUTIBUQING、QUANZEBUMINGDENGGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIXUWEIWENTI。YOUYUZUOWEIZHONGYANGZHENGFUDEGUOWUYUANZISHENWULIZHIJIEDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHISUOYOUDEZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUAN,SHIJIANZHONGQIYIJINGTONGGUOXIANGGUANLIFASHOUYUZIYUANSUOZAIDIZHENGFUDUIXIANGGUANZIRANZIYUANDEXINGZHENGGUANLIQUAN,GEJIDIFANGZHENGFUZAISHISHISHANGQUDEDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEQUANLI。

                                  二、制度实践对自然资源“国家所有,即全民所有”的偏离

                                  (一)代表行使者“取代”所有者

                                  ZAILIFAJIESHILUNDEKUANGJIAXIA,WULUNSHIYIJUXIANFADIJIUTIAOHAISHIWUQUANFA、ZIRANZIYUANDANXINGLIFADENGXIANGGUANFALVGUIDING,“GUOJIA”HE“QUANMIN”JUNSHIGUOYOUZIRANZIYUANDESUOYOUQUANREN,GUOWUYUANZESHIDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEDAIBIAOXINGSHIZHE。GENGZHUNQUEDISHUO,GUOWUYUANSHIGUOJIAZUIGAOQUANLIJIGUANQUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIJUEDINGDEZHIXINGZHE。RANER,ZAIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEXINGSHISHIJIANZHONG,BENWEISUOYOUQUANRENDE“QUANMIN”JIWUFAJIYUQISUOYOUQUANRENDESHENFENERGUANKONGSUOYOUQUANDEXINGSHI,YEWUFADUIZUOWEI“DAIBIAOXINGSHIZHE”DEZHENGFUXINGSHIQUANLIDEXINGWEISHISHIYOUXIAODEJIANDUHEYUESHU。YITIANHAIZAODIWEILI,ZAITEDINGHAIYUZHISHANGWEIXIANGGUANQUANLIRENSHEDINGTIANHAIZAODIZHIQUANLI,KEWEISHIZHIJIEGAIBIANHAIYUZIYUANZIRANYONGTU、ZHIJIEJUEDINGTEDINGHAIYUZUIZHONGMINGYUNDEZUIZHONGYAODEFALVCHUFEN,ERZAICIGUOCHENGZHONG,QIAQIASHIZUOWEISUOYOUQUANRENDE“QUANMIN”MEINENGFAHUIZUOWEI。

                                  (二)法定代表行使主体“被动”地支配和管控资源

                                  YOUYUGUOWUYUANSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEFADINGDAIBIAOXINGSHIZHUTI,YIJUGONGFABUDEZHUANSHOUQUANDEGONGFAYUANLI,ZAIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANFALVGUANXIZHONG,SHENG、SHI、XIANSANJIZHENGFUSUOBANYANDEYINGRANJIAOSE,BINGFEISHIWANQUANDULIHUOYUGUOWUYUANCUNZAILISHUGUANXIDEQITADAIBIAOXINGSHIZHUTI,ERSHIGUOJIAHE“QUANMIN”SUOYOUZIRANZIYUANDE“ZHANYOUFUZHUREN”HEGUOWUYUANDAIBIAOXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUAN“YISI”DESHIJIZHIXINGJIGUAN。2000NIANQIANHOU,GUANGDONGSUOFASHENGDESANQIZHUJIANGSANJIAOZHOUTANTUJIUFENANSUOBAOLUCHULAIDEWENTISHI:GUOWUYUANZUOWEIFADINGDEDAIBIAOXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEZHUTI,MUQIANSHANGWUFATONGGUOJIJIDEZUOWEIYOUXIAOGUANKONGZIRANZIYUAN、ZHIZHIWAIBUQINQUANDENGFANGSHI,XUANSHIGUOJIADUIXIANGGUANZIRANZIYUANDESUOYOUQUAN,CONGERDAOZHIGUOJIASUOYOUDEBUFENZIRANZIYUANSHISHISHANG“TUIHUA”WEI“KAIFANGDEGONGCHAN”。

                                  (三)地方政府实际代表国家行使自然资源国家所有权

                                  ZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEXINGSHIZHIJIEGUANXIZHEZIRANZIYUAN“QUANMIN”XINGDESHIXIAN,XIANFAHEWUQUANFADENGFALVSUOGUIDINGDEYOUGUOWUYUANDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHISUOYOUQUANDEZHIDURENGXUJINYIBULUOSHI。ZAIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEXINGSHISHIJIANZHONG,GUOWUYUANJIYUXIANFA、ZIRANZIYUANDANXINGFA、WUQUANFADENGXIANGGUANFALVZHISHOUQUANXINGGUIDINGCHENGWEIFADINGDAIBIAOXINGSHIZHUTI,ERDIFANGZHENGFUZESHIJIEZHUXIANGGUANFALVGUIDINGDEGUANLIQUANYIJIGUANFANGMOXU,SHIJIBANYANLEGUOYOUZIRANZIYUANSUOYOUZHEHEDAIBIAOXINGSHIZHEDEJIAOSE,JINERSHIJIDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUAN。YOUCI,YEJIUXINGCHENGLEZHIDINGFACENGMIANDEGUOWUYUANDAIBIAOXINGSHIYUSHIJIANCENGMIANDEDIFANGZHENGFU“DAIBIAOXINGSHI”DEBEILI,BINGJINYIBUXINGCHENGLE“DIFANGZHENGFU”SHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHENZHENGSUOYOUQUANRENDEQUANLIWAIGUAN。QIZHONG,2000NIANZHEJIANGSHENGDONGYANGHEYIWULIANGGEXIANJISHIZHENGFUZHIJIANDEZHONGGUOSHOULISHUIQUANJIAOYIANJISHIZUIDIANXINGDETIXIAN。

                                  (四)行使主体与监管主体合一

                                  GENJUWOGUOXIANFADENGXIANGGUANFALVDEGUIDING,XINGZHENGJIGUANSHIGUOJIAQUANLIJIGUANDEZHIXINGJIGUAN,SHANGXIAJIZHIJIANSHIYIZHONGJIYULINGDAOYUBEILINGDAOGUANXIERXINGCHENGDEJIANDUGUANXI。ZAIWOGUOXIANXINGFALVDEKUANGJIAXIA,BUTONGJIBIEDEXINGZHENGJIGUANWANGWANGYEDAIBIAOZHEXINGSHIHEJIANDUZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEBUTONGQUANXIAN,DANZAIDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANGUOCHENGZHONG,MEIYIGEXINGZHENGJIGUANDOUJISHIXINGSHISUOYOUQUANDE“YUNDONGYUAN”,YOUSHISHENFUJIANDUSHIMINGDE“CAIPANYUAN”。ZAIJUDADEZIRANZIYUANKAIFALIYIDEYOUHUOXIA,SHEHUIQIYUELUNGUANYUGUOJIASHICHUNCUIDESHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIDAIBIAOZHEDELILUNJIASHENANYIWEIXI,BUKANNANZAIGONGGONGXUANZELILUNZHONGSUOMIAOSHUDEZHENGZHIGUOJIATONGYANGSHIYIGEJUYOUZIWOLIYIZHUIQIUDE“JINGJILIXINGREN”DETUJINGKAISHICHENGWEIXIANSHI:CAICHANQUANXINGSHIZHEYUJIANGUANZHEJIAOSEDEHEERWEIYIYIYUNHANLEQUANLI(LI)YIHUADEJIYIN,XINGZHENGNEIBUJIANGUANDESHILINGSHIYIZHONGZHIDUDEBIRAN。YOUCI,BUJINYOUDIFANGZHENGFUJIYUCHUNCUIHUOQUJINGJILIYIDENGFANGMIANDEKAOLIANGERZHIHUANJINGSHENGTAIHUIMIEXINGPOHUAIYUBUGU,SIYITIANHAIZAODIZAOFANG、MAIKUANG、CAIFASENLIN,GENGYOUZHIYANJIANGYUMINJUMINSHENGCUNLIYIYUBUGUDEYUMINZHENGLISHIDEQUANLIXINGSHI。

                                  三、我国自然资源国家所有权主体制度问题产生的根源

                                  (一)“全民”法律主体资格在民事立法中的消融

                                  RUDUIXIANFADENGXIANXINGFALVJIANCHIYANGEDEWENYIJIESHI,ZE“GUOJIA”HE“QUANMIN”JUNSHIGUOYOUZIRANZIYUANDESUOYOUQUANREN。DANZAIGOUZAOZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIZHIDUDEGUOCHENGZHONG,JIYU“SUOYOUQUANZHUTISHIDINGHUA”DEJISHUXUYAO,XIANGGUANLIFACAIQULEYIZUIZHIJIEXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDE“GUOJIA”,HEZUOWEI“GUOJIA”DAILIRENDE“ZHENGFU”WEIZHONGXINDEZHIDUSHEJI,YOUCIDAOZHIXIANGGUANFALVLUOSHI“QUANMIN”ZHEIYISUOYOUQUANZHUTIDEFALVTIAOKUANCHENGWEIDUIXIANFADIJIUTIAO、DISHITIAODEFUZHIHEKELONG,CHUZHONGSHENHEXUANSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIAGUIGUOJIASUOYOUWAI,ZUIDADEGONGNENGMOGUOYUYONGYITAOBIHEFANGFANKENENGFASHENGDE“LIFAWEIXIAN”DEZHIZE。YOUCI,“QUANMIN”DEFALVZHUTIZIGEZAIMINSHILIFADEGUOCHENGZHONGBEIXIAORONG,ZUIZHONGCHENGXIANZAIGONGZHONGSHIYEZHONGDESHIJIXINGSHIQUANLIZHEBIANCHENGLEZUOWEIDAILIRENDEGEJIZHENGFU。

                                棋牌大全下载安装   DIYI,SULIANLIFAJIWOGUOLIFADUIDALUFAXICHUANTONGMINSHIZHUTIFENLEIDERENTONG。ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOCHENGLIHOU,WOGUODEFALVYIZHIHEFAXUELILUNYINRUCONGDALUFAXIGUOJIAZHUANXIANGSULIAN,DANYUZIBENZHUYIZAIGUOJIAZHIDUHEFALVZHIDUSHANGQUANMIANJUELIEDESULIANJIQISUOKAICHUANGDESHEHUIZHUYIFAXI,SHIJISHANGRENTONGDALUFAXIDECHUANTONGMINSHIZHUTIFENLEI,JISULIANFAZHONG“GONGMIN”HE“FAREN”YUCHUANTONGMINFAZIRANRENYUFARENDEFENLEIANHE[4],YOUYUSULIANXIANGGUANMINSHILILUNDUORENWEISHENGCHANZILIAOSUOYOUZHISHISHEHUIZHUYISHENGCHANGUANXIDEHEXINHEJICHU[5],SHEHUIZHUYIFAXIGUOJIADESUOYOUZHIJICHUYUCHUANTONGDALUFAXIGUOJIADECHUANTONGMINSHIZHUTIFENLEIFASHENGGOULIAN,YUSHEHUIZHUYIGONGYOUZHIZHEIYIJINGJIZHIDUJICHUXIANGDUIYINGDESANZHONGSUOYOUQUAN,JIGUOJIASUOYOUQUAN、JITISUOYOUQUANHEGONGMINGERENSUOYOUQUAN,YEXUYAOZAI“FAREN”HE“GONGMIN”DEKUANGJIAZHIXIAWANCHENGSUOYOUQUANDEZHUTIGOUZAOWENTI。

                                  DIER,SULIANLIFAJIWOGUOLIFAZAISUZAOGUOJIAZHIMINSHIZHUTIZIGESHICAIQUDESHIGUOJIAJIGUANFANFARENHUADEJISHUJINLU。ANZHAOMAKESIJINGDIANLILUNDEGUANDIAN,SIYOUZHIGUIDINGLESIYOUZHIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIJIGUOJIADESIYOUXING,GONGYOUZHIGUIDINGLEGUOJIADEQUANMINXING,ERSHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIADEQUANMINXINGJUEDINGLEGUOJIASUOYOUYUQUANMINSUOYOUDEYIZHIXING;YOUYUGUOJIASHIYIGEYONGYOUGONGGONGQUANLIHEXINGSHIGONGGONGQUANLIDEGONGZHIRENYUANHEZHENGFUJIGOUSUOZUZHIDESHITI,GUGUOJIADUICAICHANDEZHIPEIHEGUANLIJIUXUYAOTONGGUOGEJIZHENGFUHEGONGZHIRENYUANDEHUODONGYUYISHIXIAN[6]。TONGGUOSHEHUIZHUYIHUAYUTIXIDEQIANSHUZHUANHUAN,ZUOWEIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIDE“QUANMIN”SHIJISHANGYIJINGBEITIHUANCHENGLEZUOWEIGUOYOUCAICHANSHIJIZHANGKONGZHEDE“ZHENGFU”,DANZUOWEIXIANXINGCUNZAIDEGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIHAISHI“QUANMIN”HE“GUOJIA”。YOUYUSULIANMINFAHEMINFALILUNYECHENGRENGUOJIAJIANJUGONGFARENGEHESIFARENGELIANGZHONGRENGE,BINGQIEGUOJIARENGEXUYAOJIEZHUGUOJIAJIGUANCAINENGSHIXIAN,DANQIMINSHILIFAQUEZAICHENGRENGUOJIASIFARENGEDETONGSHI,QUANMIANFUYUGUOJIAJIGUANYIFARENZIGE[4]。RU1922NIAN《SUEMINFADIAN》DI13TIAOGUIDING,“YIQIEXIANGYOUQUDECAICHANQUANLIHENENGGOUCHENGDANYIWU,BINGQIENENGGOUZAIFAYUANQISUHEYINGSUDEJIGUAN、SHEHUITUANTIHEQITAZUZHI,DOUYAOSHIFAREN”[4]。YOUCI,GUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEZHUTISHIJISHANGYOUCONGGUOJIABEIZHIHUANCHENGLE“GUOJIAJIGUAN”。

                                棋牌大全下载安装   DISAN,GAIGEKAIFANGHOU,WOGUOLIFAHELILUNXIANGDALUFAXIGUOJIADEZHONGXIN“KAOLONG”JINYIBUJIEGOULE“QUANMIN”DUIZIRANZIYUANDEZHANGKONGLI。GAIGEKAIFANGZHIQIAN,WULUNSHIZAIZHENGZHIYISHIXINGTAIHAISHISHEHUIGUANNIANZHIZHONG,QUANMINSUOYOUZHIZHIXIADEGUOYOUCAICHANJUNCHUYU“XIAOMIEBOXUEHEXIAOMIEYAPO”DE“SHENSHENG”GUANGHUANDELONGZHAOZHIXIA,QINZHANGUOYOUCAICHANYEJIUSHIQINFANQUANMINLIYI、YEJIUSHIQUANMINGONGDIDEZHENGZHILUOJI,YIJIJIHUAJINGJITIZHIZHIXIAGUOJIASUOYOUQUANXINGSHIYUZHENGZHIQUANLIXINGSHIHEYI、XIAOFEIZILIAOTONGYISHENGCHAN、TONGYIFENPEIDENGGUIZE,BUDUANQIANGHUAZHE“QUANMIN”DUIGUOYOUCAICHANDEKONGZHILI。RANER,GAODUJIHUAJINGJITIZHIRIYIBAOLUDEYANZHONGBIDUANDAPOLESHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIADUIGAODUJIZHONGDEJIHUAJINGJITIZHIDECHENMI,ERSHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJIGUILVDEYINRUYOUCHUFALEGUOJIASUOYOUQUANSHIXIANFANGSHICONGGONGFAXIANGSIFASHIXIANFANGSHIZHUANBIANDESHEHUIXUQIU。YOUCI,GAIGEKAIFANGYOUQISHISULIANJIETIHOU,WOGUOZAIGUOJIAZHIDUDENGFANGMIANCHENGXIANCHU“QUSULIANHUA”HEXIANGDALUFAXIGUOJIAZHONGXINKAOLONGDEZHENGTITAISHI。SHOUXIAN,GENJUDALUFAXIDECHUANTONGRENGELILUNHEMINSHIXINGWEINENGLILILUN,ZIRANRENHEFARENSHIXIANGYOUDULIFALVRENGEDELIANGLEIMINSHIZHUTI,QUANMINZUOWEIFALVZHUTIDECHOUXIANGXING、DONGTAIXING、JIHEXINGHEWAIYANDEBUQUEDINGXING,“BUSHIYEBUKENENGZAIMINFASHANGCHENGWEIRENHEYIYISHANGDEXINGWEIZHUTIHEZERENZHUTI”[7],ERGUOJIAZEYINQIZHILIJIEGOUERNENGGOUHUODETUANTIFALVRENGE,YONGYOUQUDESUOYOUQUANDEQUANLINENGLI。BINGQIE,ZAISHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIHUAYUTIXIZHONG,GUOJIABEISHIWEIQUANMINLIYIDEDAIBIAOHEHUASHEN,GUOJIASUOYOUJIQUANMINSUOYOU,GUOJIALIYIJIQUANMINLIYI,JUCI,“GUOJIA”BIANCHENGLE“QUANMIN”ZHEIYIZIRANZIYUANSUOYOUQUANZHUTIDEMINFABIAODA。QICI,ZAIDALUFAXIWUQUANLILUNZHONG,YIWUYIQUANSHIZUIJIBENDEYUANZE,ZAIWOGUOXIANFADIJIUTIAOYIMINGQUE“GUOJIASUOYOUJIQUANMINSUOYOU”DEQIANTIXIA,XIAWEIFAGUANYUZIRANZIYUANSUOYOUQUANDEFALVGUISHUZHUTIDEXUANZEZHINENGZAI“GUOJIA”HE“QUANMIN”ZHIJIANXUANZE,YOUCIZIRANZIYUANDANXINGFAGUANYUZIRANZIYUANGUI“GUOJIASUOYOU”DEGUIDING,SHIZHISHANGRUOHUALEQUANMINDUIZIRANZIYUANDEKONGZHIQUAN,ERWUQUANFAGUANYU“FALVGUIDINGSHUYUGUOJIASUOYOUDECAICHAN,SHUYUGUOJIASUOYOUJIQUANMINSUOYOU”DEGUIDING,ZEBEIXUEZHEPIPINGWEIXITONGYUFANFUDE“FEIHUAXINGFATIAO”[8]。ZAICI,ZAIWUQUANFASHANG,SUOYOUZHEYOUQUANDUIQISUOYOUWUJINXINGSHIYONGHESHOUYI,ERZIRANZIYUAN“QUANMIN”SUOYOUQUANDEQUANYIHECHENGBENWUFALIANGHUAYUGEREN,BINGQIEYEWUQUANFENPEIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDESHOUYI,ZAIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANSHOUDAOQINHAISHI,YEWUQUANQINGQIUSIFAJIUJI,YINERJIANG“QUANMIN”QUEDINGWEISUOYOUQUANRENYUWUQUANLILUNXIANGBEI。ZUIHOU,TONGCHANGRENWEI,GONGFAYIJINGSHEZHILERENMINTONGGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUXINGSHIQUANLI、BINGQIEKEYITONGGUOXUANJUQUAN、JIANDUQUAN、PIPINGQUAN、JIANJUQUANDENGQUANLIXINGSHICANYUGUOJIAZHILI,GUOJIAZUOWEIQUANMINSHIXIANZIWOLIYIDEGONGJUXING,JUEDINGLEGUOJIAZUOWEISUOYOUQUANZHUTIYUQUANMINZUOWEISUOYOUQUANZHUTIBINGWUTAIDACHAYI。SHISHISHANG,“JIUJIXIANYUQUANLI”“MEIYOUJIUJIJIUMEIYOUQUANLI”,YUYUWAIGUOJIAMINZHONGKEZHIJIEJIEZHUGERENDESUSONGCHENGXUXUNQIUQUANLIJIUJIXIANGBI,DUIZIRANZIYUANQUANMINSUOYOUQUANJINXINGSHEHUIZHUYIMINFAGAIZAODEJIEGUOQUEXUHUAHEXIAOJIELE“QUANMIN”ZAIZIRANZIYUANSUOYOUQUANFALVGUANXIZHONGDEFALVZHUTIDIWEI,CONGERSHIZIRANZIYUANDE“QUANMIN”SUOYOUZAIZIRANZIYUANFALVTIXINEIBEIXIAORONG。

                                  (二)缺乏“全民”主体参与和监督权力行使的配套制度

                                  DIYI,CONGFADETIXIJIESHIDEJIAODUKAN,WOGUOXIANFADIERTIAOGUIDINGDANGRANKESHIYONGYUZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHIXINGSHI,DANGUOJIAQUANLITIXIDENEIBUFENQUANYOUJIANGQUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIDAIBIAO“QUANMIN”XINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEFANGSHIXIANDINGWEI“TONGGUOLIFASHOUQUANGUOWUYUANDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIGUOJIASUOYOUQUAN”[9]。CHU1992NIANGUOWUYUANJIANGXINGJIANSANXIAGONGCHENGDEYIANTIQINGQUANGUORENDASHENYISHIQIJINWEIZHIQUANGUORENDAWEIYIYICIJIUZIRANZIYUANLIYONGSUOZUOCHUDEJUEDINGWAI[9],XIANYOUGEJIZHENGFUZAIKAIFALIYONGZIRANZIYUANZHIQIANXIANGRENDABAOGAOBINGQINGQIUQIPIZHUNDEGUONEIBAODAO。ERZAIDANGQIANWOGUOXIANFAHEGEJIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUICHANGWUWEIYUANHUIJIANDUFAKUANGJIAXIA,SUOGUIDINGDEDUIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANXINGSHIDEJIANDULIFAQUEFAKECAOZUOXING[10],WUFAXINGCHENGDUIZHENGFUDAIBIAOXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEXINGWEIXINGCHENGYOUXIAOYUESHU。

                                  DIER,“QUANMIN”ZHUTIQUEFAYUESHUDAIBIAOXINGSHIZHEXINGWEIDEYOUXIAOSHOUDUAN。YITIANHAIZAODIWEILI,TIANHAIZAODISHIZHIJIEGAIBIANHAIYUZIYUANZIRANYONGTUDEWUQUANXINGSHI,XIZHIJIEJUEDINGTEDINGHAIYUDEZUIZHONGMINGYUNDEZUIZHONGYAODESUOYOUQUANQUANLIXINGSHI。ERZAICIXIANGQUANLIDEXINGSHIGUOCHENGZHONG,“QUANMIN”ZUOWEIHAIYUGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDESUOYOUREN,SHISHISHANGBINGMEIYOUFAHUIZUOWEI:YANHAIDIQUZHENGFUWEIFATIANHAIZAODI,BUJINYONGJIUXINGDIGAIBIANLEZIRANZIYUANDEZIRANYONGTU,ERQIEDAOZHILEYANHAIDAOYUJIASUXIAOSHI、YANHAIYUYEZIYUANSHUAITUI、HAIANJINGGUANPOHUAIDENGZHUDUOEXINGHOUGUO,JIDANGDIYANHAIJUMINCHUANTONGDEHAIYANGZIYUANSHIYONGQUANZAOCHENGLEJIDADECHONGJIHEQINHAI。

                                  (三)国有自然资源代表行使主体及其权限规定不明

                                棋牌大全下载安装   WOGUO“XIANYOULIFADUIXIANJIYISHANGDIFANGZHENGFUDEZHIQUANGUIDINGYUTONGYIFATIAOZHONG,WEIZUOQUFEN;DUIXIANG、ZHENZHENGFUDEZHIQUANGUIDINGYUXIANJIYISHANGDIFANGZHENGFUYEJIHULEITONG。SHISHISHANG,YIJUXIANXINGLIFADEGUIDING,DIFANGZHENGFUYUZHONGYANGZHENGFUZAIZHIQUANSHANGCHUBUXIANGYOUZHONGYANGZHENGFUTEYOUDEGUOFANG、WAIJIAODENGQUANLIWAI,QITAQUANLIDEGUIDINGJIHUYIZHI,ZHIZEJIONGGOU,ZHINENGJIAOCHA、ZHONGDIEDENGQUEXIANYOUWEIMINGXIAN。”[11]ZAISHIJIANZHONG,ZUOWEIFADINGDAIBIAOXINGSHIZHUTIDEGUOWUYUANTONGGUOFENJIDAIBIAOXINGSHIDEFANGSHI,JIANGXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEZHIQUANFENPEIJIGEJIZHENGFU,YOUCI,ZAIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANXINGSHIWENTISHANGXINGCHENGLE“DANYIDAIBIAO,FENJIXINGSHI”DEMOSHI[10]。GUQIEBULUN“FAWUMINGWENSHOUQUANJIJINZHI”DEGONGFAGUIZESHIFOUKESHIYONGYUZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANXINGSHIWENTI,ZUOWEIZHONGYANGZHENGFUYUZIRANZIYUANSUOZAIDIDESHENG、SHI、XIANSANJIZHENGFUZAIDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEGUOCHENGZHONG,GEZIDEDAIBIAOXINGSHIQUANXIANYIJIKEYIDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIDEZIRANZIYUANDEFANWEIMEIYOUMINGQUEDEGUIDING,YOUCIDAOZHIZHONGYANGHEDIFANGZHENGFUZHIJIANZAIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANFALVGUANXISHANGDEHUNLUAN,ZIRANZIYUANSUOZAIDIDEDIFANGZHENGFUSHIJISHANGYONGYOUYUANYUANCHAOGUOFALVGUIDINGDEZIYOUCAILIANGQUAN。

                                  四、理论突破与立法完善:重构我国自然资源国家所有权主体制度的设想

                                  (一)按照公共所有权的本来面目设计自然资源国家所有权主体制度

                                  DIYI,GONGGONGSUOYOUQUANSHIYIZHONGNENGGOUSHIGUANLIGUIZEDEYIFAZHANDEYOUZUZHIDESUOYOUQUANANPAI,JILIJIZHICUNZAIYUGONGTONGSUOYOUQUANRENGONGTONGJIESHOUDEZHIDUANPAIZHIZHONG,ZHICAIJIZHIQUEBAOXIANGGUANZHIDUBEISHUNCONG。RUGUOGAIQUNTIDEMEIYIGECHENGYUANDOUBEIGONGTONGJIESHOUDEGUIZESUOYUESHU,ZEGONGGONGSUOYOUQUANZHEIYICHANQUANMOSHIBINGBUHUIDAOZHIGONGDIBEIJUDEJIEGUO;YIDANGONGGONGSUOYOUQUANZHIDUZHIZHONGDEQUANWEIXITONGBEIHUIHUAI,GUANYUZIYUANLIYONGDEGUANLIHUOZHEZIWOGUANLIBUZAIBEISHISHI,ZEGONGGONGSUOYOUQUAN(res communis)BUFUCUNZAI,BINGTUIHUAWEIZIYOUHUOQUDEWUZHUCAICHAN(res nullius);HADINGJIAOSHOU“GONGDIBEIJU”DEYINYU,SHIJISHANGSHIKAIFANGZIYOUHUOQUZHIDUDEBEIJU,ERFEIGONGGONGSUOYOUQUANZHIDUDEBEIJU。JUCI,ZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIZHIDUJIANGOUDEHEXINHEZHONGDIANSHI:RUHEJIANLIYUESHUHEJILIQUNTICHENGYUANDEJILIJIZHIHEZHICAIJIZHI。

                                棋牌大全下载安装   DIER,GONGGONGSUOYOUQUANDETUANTIXINGJUEDINGLEQIZHUTIZHIDUDEFUZAXINGHEGOUZAOXING。ZHANGQIYILAI,ZAISUOYOUQUANWENTIDEYANJIUFANGFASHANGCUNZAIZHEYIGEGUANNIANXINGDEWUQU,JIRENMENXIGUANBASUOYOUQUANKANCHENGSHIYIGENINGJUDEDIAN,ERBUSHIYIGEKEDIAOZHENGDEGOUZAOXINGCUNZAI;DUIYUDUOGEZHUTIDESUOYOUQUAN,RENMENWANGWANGRENGRANBATADANGCHENGSHIYIGENINGJUDEDIAN,YUSHI,“GONGTONGSUOYOUQUAN”YU“DANYISUOYOUQUAN”BEIHUNXIAODEJIEGUOSHISUOYOUQUANDEGOUZAOXINGBEIHUSHI;ERHUSHISUOYOUQUANDEGOUZAOXINGDEHOUGUOSHI,RENMENDUISUOYOUQUANJIQIZHUTIZHIJIANDEDUIYINGGUANXIDEBIANHUA,JIDUIZHEIZHONGSUOYOUQUANZAIQIZISHENDUOGEZHUTIZHIJIANDEBIANJIEROUXINGYUQIZAISHICHANGGUANXIZHONGDEBIANJIEGANGXINGDEMAODUNGANDAOMIHUOBUJIE[12]。ZAIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANWENTISHANG,GUOJIAHEQUANMINZHIJIANSHIJISHANGSHIYIZHONGYIGUOYOUZIRANZIYUANWEIZAITIHELIANJIENIUDAIDEGONGGONGXINTUOGUANXI,WULUNSHIYINGMEIFAXIDEGONGGONGXINTUOZHIDUHAISHIDALUFAXIDEGONGWUZHIDU,JUNSHIJIYUQUANMINWEIGUOYOUZIRANZIYUANZHONGJIYIYISHANGDESHOUYIRENDENGFANGMIANDEKAOLV,ERZHIJIEGOUZAOQUANMINZHUTIDEQUANLI。SHISHISHANG,WULUNSHIGUOYOUZIRANZIYUANDESHUANGGUIZHIDEDIAOZHENG,HAISHISHEHUIGONGZHONGZHENDUIGUOJIAZHUTISUOFUYUDEQUANLI,JUNNENGZHENGMINGZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIBINGFEISHIYIGEBUKEJINXINGNEIBUGOUZAODE“NINGJUDEDIAN”,XUYAODUIQIJINXINGNEIBUJIEGOUGAIZAO。

                                  (二)限定自然资源国家所有权代表行使主体的范围

                                棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIYUWAIGUOJIADELIFALIZHONG,HENSHAOYOUGUOJIACAIQUJIHUSUOYOUCENGJIDEZHENGFUJUNKEDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDELIFAJINLU:ZAIDALUFAXIDEDEGUO,DAIBIAOGUOJIASIFARENGEBINGXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEGONGFARENJINXIANYUDEYIZHILIANBANGGONGHEGUOGUOKUHEGEGELIANBANGZHOUGUOKU,LIANBANGHEGEGEZHOUDEDAIBIAOGUOKUXINGWEIDEJIGOUSHIMEIYOUFALVRENGEDEJIGUAN[13];ZAIYINGMEIFAXIGUOJIADEMEIGUO,GONGGONGXINTUOLEIZIRANZIYUANPUTONGFASHANGDESUOYOUQUANRENSHIMEIGUOLIANBANGHEGEZHOUDENGGONGFAREN[14];CONGSHEHUIZHUYIFAXIZHUANXIANGZIBENZHUYILIFADEDANGDAIELUOSILIFA,YEZHONGJIELESULIANSHIDAIFANFARENHUADEGUOJIAJIGUANJUNKEQUANMIANDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEJUMIAN,TONGGUOXIANGGUANLIFAJIANGSULIANMINFAZHIZHONGQUANMIN(GUOJIA)SUOYOUJIEGOUWEIQUANLIANMENG、GEJIAMENGGONGHEGUO、GEZIZHIGONGHEGUO、ZIZHIZHOUDENGZHUTISUOYOU,CONGERJIANGXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEZHUTIBIANWEIELUOSILIANBANGYIJILIANBANGZHUTI(BAOKUOGONGHEGUO、BIANJIANGQU、ZHOU、MOSIKESHI、BIDEBAOSHIDENG)[15]。JIANYUXIANGGUANGAIGEWENJIANYIMINGQUEZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANYOUZHONGYANGHEDIFANGFENJIDAIBIAOXINGSHIDEGAIGEFANGXIANG,GUYINGZAIJIEJIANYUWAILIFADEJICHUSHANG,JIANGDAIBIAOXINGSHIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEZHUTIXIANDINGWEIZHONGYANGHESHENGJIZHENGFULIANGGECENGJI。

                                  (三)按照分工和协调的原则重构自然资源国家所有权代表行使主体制度

                                棋牌大全下载安装   JIANYUDUIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIZHIDUZHONGGOUDEMUDESHISHIXIANGGUANZHIDUDESHEJICONG“ZHENGFU”HUIGUI“QUANMIN”,TONGGUOQIANGHUA“QUANMIN”ZHUTIDUIZIRANZIYUANKAIFALIYONGDECANYUHEKONGZHIDADAOZHONGJIE“QUANMINSUOYOU”TUIBIANWEI“ZHENGFUSUOYOU、DIFANGSUOYOUHEBUMENSUOYOU”DEJIEJU,GUKEJIEHEXIANGGUANGUOJIAJIGUANZAIWOGUOGUOJIAQUANLITIXIZHIZHONGDEZHUYAOGONGNENGHEDINGWEI,DUIXIANGGUANGUOJIAJIGUANDEDAIBIAOXINGSHIQUANZUORUXIAZHONGXINJIEDING。SHOUXIAN,JIANGQUANGUORENDADINGWEIWEIYILIFADENGCHOUXIANGFANGSHIXINGSHIDAIBIAOQUANHEJIANDUQUANDEZHUTI。“QUANMIN”ZHUTIKETONGGUOSANZHONGFANGSHICANYUHEKONGZHIZIRANZIYUANKAIFALIYONG:YISHITONGGUOQUANGUORENDAJIQICHANGWEIHUIXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANLIFAQUANHELIFASHOUQUANDEFANGSHIXINGSHICHOUXIANGYIYISHANGDEZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUAN;ERSHITONGGUOQUANGUORENDAJIQICHANGWEIHUIYIJIANDUZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANXINGSHIDEFANGSHIXINGSHIDUIZIRANZIYUANKAIFALIYONGDEKONGZHIQUAN;SANSHITONGGUOQUANGUORENDAJIQICHANGWEIHUIDUIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANXINGSHIGUOCHENGZHONGDEZHONGDASHIXIANGBAOYOUZUIZHONGDEJUEDINGQUAN。QICI,JIANGGUOWUYUANHESHENGJIZHENGFUDINGWEIWEIGENJULIFASHOUQUANJUTIDAIBIAOXINGSHIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEZHUTI。ZAIWOGUODEGUOJIAQUANLIDEZHENGTIJIAGOUZHONG,XINGZHENGJIGUANSHIGUOJIAQUANLIJIGUANDEZHIXINGJIGUAN[9],ERZHONGYANGZHENGFUYUDIFANGZHENGFUZHIJIANDEGUANXI,SHIJISHANGSHIZHONGYANGZHENGFUYUSHENGJIZHENGFUDEGUANXI,SHENGJIYIXIAGEJIZHENGFUYIBANDOUSHITONGGUOSHENGJIZHENGFUYUZHONGYANGZHENGFUFASHENGGUANXIDE[16],ZHONGYANGHEDIFANGDEGUANXISHIZHISHANGJIUSHIJIANLIZAILIYIGEJUZHISHANGDEQUANLIFENGEZHIDU[17]。ZUIHOU,SHENGJIYIXIAZHENGFUYINGBEIDINGWEIWEIZHIXINGDAIBIAOXINGSHIZHUTIYIZHIDE“FUZHUREN”,ZHINENGGENJUSHENGJIYISHANGZHENGFUDEZHILING,BINGYIZHILINGJIGUANDEMINGYICONGSHIJUTIDEDAIBIAOXINGSHIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEXINGWEI,XIANGGUANDEFALVHOUGUOZIYINGYOUZHILINGJIGUANCHENGDAN。JUTIDEZUOFAKEJIEJIANELUOSIMINFADEXIANGGUANZUOFA,JIDAIBIAOZHUTIZHIWAIDEGUOJIAJIGUANHERENYUANBIXUYIDAIBIAOZHUTIDEMINGYIXINGSHICAICHANSUOYOUQUANRENDEQUANLI1。TONGGUOMINFAZONGZEYUZIRANZIYUANDANXINGFAXIANGHUPEIHEDEFANGSHIGUIDINGZHONGYANGZHENGFUYIJISHENGJIZHENGFUDENGGUOJIADAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEQUANXIANDENG。MINFAZONGZEDEXIANGGUANFALVTIAOWENZHIZHONGSHEZHIZHUANJIETIAOKUAN,GUIDINGXIANGGUANGUOJIAJIGUANDAIBIAOXINGSHIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEJUTIZHIZEQUANXIANYOUQITADANXINGLIFAHUOZHEFALVWENJIANJUTIMINGQUE。

                                  (四)重构自然资源国家所有权的授权主体

                                棋牌大全下载安装   CHENGRENGUOJIADETESHUMINSHIZHUTIDIWEIHEZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDESIQUANQUANLISHUXING,JIUYINGDANGCHENGRENGUOJIATONGGUOLIFASHOUQUANDENGFANGSHISHOUQUANJIGUANFARENZHIWAIDEFALVZHUTIDAIBIAOXINGSHIQUANLIDEKENENGXING。WOGUOMINFAZONGZESUOGUIDINGDEMINSHIZHUTICHUJIGUANFARENZHEIZHONGTESHUFARENZHUTIWAI,HAIYOUFEIYINGLIFARENLEIXING,LVXINGZIRANZIYUANGUANLI、BAOHUDENGZHINENGDESHIYEDANWEIDETUANTIFAREN、JUANZHUFARENJUNKETONGGUOZUZHICUNZAIMUDEYUXIANSHEDINGDEFANGSHIGOUZAOCHENGDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANBAOHU、SHENGTAIHUANJINGXIUFUDENGQUANNENGDEDAIBIAOXINGSHIZHUTI。WEICI,KECANZHAODEGUOFASHANGDEGONGYINGZAOWUMOSHIGOUZAOGUOJIAJIGUANZHIWAIDEDAIBIAOXINGSHIZHUTI,GUOJIAGONGYUAN、ZIRANBAOHUQUDENGKEYIDANDUZUOWEIDENGJIDANYUANDEZIRANZIYUAN,GOUZAOCHENGLEISIDEGUOGONGYINGZAOWUDEDAIBIAOXINGSHIZHUTI;JIEJIANLUOSILIANBANGMINFACHENGRENDAIBIAOXINGSHIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIDEZHENGFUDENGGONGFAREN,KEYIYIJUXIANGGUANFALVGUIDING、ZHUANMENWEITUOQITAGONGFARENHUOZHEZIRANREN、SIFARENYIQIMINGYICONGSHIDAIBIAOXINGSHIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEXINGWEI2。JUTIKEKAOLV,ZAIMINFAZONGZEDENGXIANGGUANFALVZHIDUZHIZHONGMINGQUEGUOJIADENGGONGFAZHUTICANJIAMINSHIFALVGUANXIDEQUANXIAN、CHENGXU,YIJIYIZHAOFADINGCHENGXUKEYISHOUQUANHUOZHEWEITUOQITAFARENHEGONGMINCONGSHIDAIBIAOGUOJIACONGSHIXIANGGUANMINSHIHUODONGDEQUANXIANDENG。TIAOWENNEIRONGDEJUTISHEJIKEJIEJIAN《ELUOSILIANBANGMINFADIAN》DIYIBAIERSHIWUTIAOYIJI《YUENANMINFADIAN》DIJIUSHIBATIAO。

                                  参考文献

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                                  注释

                                  1《俄罗斯联邦民法典》第125条、第214条、第215条。参见黄岛秀译《俄罗斯联邦民法典(全译本)》,北京大学出版社2007年版,总序1。
                                  2参见《俄罗斯联邦民法典》第125条、第214条、第215条;《越南民法典》第97、98、197、198条。

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