棋牌大全下载安装

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                • 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 法律论文 > 我国农村土地污染防治制度现状及其完善

                  我国农村土地污染防治制度现状及其完善

                  时间:2018-12-12 10:22作者:段朝阳
                  本文导读:这是一篇关于我国农村土地污染防治制度现状及其完善的文章,我国是农业大国,耕地资源直接决定着我国的粮食产量和质量,关乎国民的基本经济命脉,国家曾多次提出要坚决保障十八亿亩耕地红线不动摇。

                    摘    要: 目前,我国农村土地污染问题日趋严峻,在全面推进依法治国的大环境下,关于土地污染及防治问题方面的法律依旧缺位,土地污染防治的相关立法已是迫在眉睫。从土地污染形成的原因及类型、我国关于土地污染防治体系的法律现状、国外关于土地污染问题的立法研究等方面进行分析,对我国农村土地污染防治的法律制度研究具有重要意义。

                    关键词:棋牌大全下载安装 农村土地; 土地污染防治; 法律制度;

                    Abstract: 棋牌大全下载安装At present, the problem of rural land pollution is becoming more and more serious. Under the circumstances of promoting rule of law in China, land pollution and the prevention and control laws are still lacking, and the land pollution prevention legislation is imminent. This paper analyzes the causes and types of land pollution, the legal status of land pollution prevention and control system in China, and the legislative research on land pollution in foreign countries, which are of great significance to China's legal system of rural land pollution prevention and contrd.

                    Keyword:棋牌大全下载安装 rural land; land pollution prevention and control; legal sgstem;

                    WOGUOTUDIZIYUANCHENGXIAN“YIDASANXIAO”DETEZHENG,JITILIANGSUIDA,DANRENJUNTUDIMIANJIXIAO,YOUZHITUDIMIANJIXIAO,KEKAITUODEHOUBEIZIYUANSHULIANGXIAO。WOGUOSHINONGYEDAGUO,GENGDIZIYUANZHIJIEJUEDINGZHEWOGUODELIANGSHICHANLIANGHEZHILIANG,GUANHUGUOMINDEJIBENJINGJIMINGMAI,GUOJIACENGDUOCITICHUYAOJIANJUEBAOZHANGSHIBAYIMUGENGDIHONGXIANBUDONGYAO。ZIGAIGEKAIFANGYILAI,WOGUONONGCUNDIQUDESHENGHUOZHILIANGZHUBUTISHENG,NONGCUNTUDIYESUIZHISHOUDAOLEWEIXIE,SHENGHUOLAJI、WUSHUI、YUANSUCHAOBIAODEHUAFEI、LIEXINGNONGYAODENGYIXILIEFANGHAITUDIZIYUANDE“SHASHOU”ZHENGZAIZHUBUQIEGEGENGDIHONGXIAN。2013NIAN5YUEHUNANDE“GEDAMISHIJIAN”、2016NIAN5YUECHANGZHOU“DUDISHIJIAN”DENGDOUJINYIBUSHUOMINGLEWOGUONONGCUNTUDIWURANWENTIRIQUYANJUN,TUDIWURANWENTIGUANHUMINSHENGDAJI,YANJIUTUDIWURANFANGZHIJITUIJINXIANGGUANLIFAYISHIKEBURONGHUAN。

                    一 农村土地污染的现状及特征

                    (一)农村土地污染的现状

                    1.农村私人企业排放物污染。

                    SUIZHESHICHANGJINGJIDEFAZHAN,NONGCUNRENKOUDESHENGCHANFANGSHIZHUBUYOUDANCHUNDENONGGENGSHENGCHANZHUANBIANWEI“BANNONGBANGONG”MOSHI,SHENZHIYOUBUFENRENKOUWANQUANTUOLINONGYESHENGCHANXUANZEJINCHENGWUGONGHUOBENCUNBANCHANG,ZHEISHIDEXIANGZHENJINONGCUNDEMINYINGQIYESHULIANGJIJUSHANGSHENG。JUDIAOCHA,DAO2007NIAN,WOGUOXIANGZHENQIYECONGYERENYUANDA15 090WANREN,ZHANNONGCUNLAODONGLIZONGSHUDE29.13%,GAISHUJUCONGCEMIANBIAOMINGQIYESHULIANGDEPANGDA。YOUYUGUOJIAGULIXIANGZHENJINONGCUNQIYEDEFAZHAN,FANGKUANLESHENPIJIJIANGUANTIAOJIAN,FEIHEGEQIYEDESHULIANGYEZHUBUZENGJIA,GONGYE“SANFEI”(JIFEISHUI、FEIQI、FEIZHA)PAIFANGCHENGLEJIACHANGBIANFAN,DADACHAOCHUDIFANGHUANJINGDECHENGSHOUNENGLI。SHUJUXIANSHI,DANGQIANWOGUOSHOUGE、GONG、QIANDENGZHONGHUAXUEYUANSUWURANDEGENGDIMIANJIJIN3YIMU,YUEZHANGENGDIZONGMIANJIDE1/5,QIZHONGGONGYE“SANFEI”WURANGENGDIDA1.5YIMU。[1]

                    农村工业生产中的有害残留物对耕地的污染日趋严峻,已成为土地污染物的主要来源之一。
                   

                  我国农村土地污染防治制度现状及其完善
                   

                    2.农业生产过程中的农药等作物需求物污染。

                    SUIZHENONGCHANPINZHONGLEIDEZENGDUO,NONGCHANPINXUYAODEYANGLIAOZHONGLEIYEBUDUANZENGDUO,SHUNSHIERSHENGDESHINONGYAOCHANPINYEZAIBUDUANGENGXINHUANDAI。NONGYESHENGCHANZHONGDEZUOWUXUQIUWUZHUYAOYOUNONGYAO、HUAFEIJISULIAOBOMO,SANZHEZAISHENGWUJIANGJIEGUOCHENGZHONGJUNNANYIXIAOCHU。GENJUGUOWUYUANGUOJIAFAGAIWEI2006NIANSHUJUXIANSHI,DANGQIANWOGUOMEIGONGQINGNONGTIANPINGJUNHUAFEISHIYONGLIANGWEI360GONGJINZUOYOU,SHIDEGUODE1.6BEI,SHIMEIGUODE3.3BEI,QIZHONGDANFEIDELIYONGLVWEI25%~30%、LINFEIDELIYONGLVWEI10%~20%, BIFADAGUOJIADI20~30GEBAIFENDIAN;PINGJUNMEIMUNONGTIANSHIYONGNONGYAOLIANGWEI10KEZUOYOU,SHIOUZHOUGUOJIADE3BEI,YOUXIAOCHENGFENJINZHAN30%ZUOYOU,YUESHIOUZHOUGUOJIADE50%。[2]2014NIANGUOJIAFAGAIWEIFABUDE《QUANGUOTURANGWURANZHUANGKUANGDIAOCHAGONGBAO》TONGYANGBIAOMING,ZAISHIJIDIAOCHADE630WANPINGFANGGONGLIDETUDIZHONG,QUANGUOTURANGZONGDECHAOBIAOLVSHI16.1%,WURANWUYIWUJIWURANWUWEIZHU,ZHANZONGCHAOBIAODIANSHUDE80%ZUOYOU。[3]

                  棋牌大全下载安装   YOUCIKEJIAN,NONGYESHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGDENONGYAODENGZUOWUXUQIUWUDEWURANYIJINGCHENGWEISUNHAITURANGZHILIANG、WURANHUANJINGDEYIGEGUANJIANXINGYINSU,NONGYAO、HUAFEIDEDILIYONGLVDAOZHISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGDESHIYONGLVJIJUZENGGAO,EXINGXUNHUANCHANSHENG,TURANGJIEGOUPINGHENGBEIDAPO,ZUIZHONGNANYIHUIFU。

                    3.农村生活垃圾、污水污染。

                  棋牌大全下载安装   SHENGHUOLAJI、WUSHUISHINONGCUNSHENGHUOZHONGBIRANCHANSHENGDE,YOUYUNONGCUNRENKOUXIANGDUIQUEFAHUANBAOYISHI,JIAZHIDUIWUWUCHULIBUDANG,ZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEDAOZHILENONGCUNTUDIDEWURAN。SHUJUXIANSHI,WOGUOWURANGUANGAIMIANJIYIYOU1978NIANDEYUE4000PINGFANGQIANMIZENGJIADAO2003NIANDE3WANPINGFANGQIANMI,YUEZHANQUANGUOZONGGUANGAIMIANJIDE10%,QUANGUOMEINIANYINZHONGJINSHUWURANDAOZHIDELIANGSHIJIANCHANLIANGWEI1000DUOWANDUN,LIANGSHISHOUZHONGJINSHUWURANLIANGMEINIANDAGAI1200DUOWANDUN,RUCISUNSHILIANGZUYIYANGHUOZHENGGEZHUJIANGSANJIAOZHOU4000DUOWANCHANGZHURENKOU。[4]YIHEBEISHENGBAODINGSHIQINGYUANQUBEIDIANXIANGDEBUFENXIANGCUNWEILI,ZAIXIANGCUNNEIBUJIBENMEIYOUSHENGHUOLAJICHULIZHAN,YIGE500HURENJIADECUNZIRIJUNSHENGHUOLAJICHANLIANGWEI1.25DUN,NIANLAJICHANLIANGYUEWEI14DUN。JINGBIZHESHIJIZOUFANGFAXIAN,ZHEIXIEXIANGCUNDELAJIDUIFANGDIYIBANWEIHEKENGHUOZHEHEDAO,LAJIJIANGJIEHOUCHANSHENGDEWUSHUIJIFEIQIWUHUIZHIJIEDUIHEDAOTUZHIJIDIXIASHUICHANSHENGWURAN,YANZHONGDEHUIBOJILAJIZHOUBIANFANGYUANYIGONGLIDEFANWEI,RUCIBIANKEHELIJIESHIZHEIYIXIANXIANG——XIONGANXINQUDEGUIHUAYIJIANZHONG,LIANTONGBAIYANGDIANDETANGHEHEDAOJIAKUANHOU,HEDAOLIANGBIANYAOJIANCHENGZHISHAOYIGONGLIDELVHUADAI。

                    ZONGZHI,SHENGHUOLAJI、WUSHUISHINONGCUNTUDIWURANBUKEHUSHIDEYIGEGUANJIANYINSU。

                    (二)农村土地污染的特征

                    1.系统性。

                    SHANGWENTIDAO,TONGGUODUINONGCUNLAJIWURANWUJIANGJIEHOUCHANSHENGDEYETAISHUIDENGQITALIUDONGXINGWUWUJINGGUOYIDINGSHIQIHUITONGGUOSHENTOUZUOYONGWURANDIXIASHUI。SHUI、DAQI、TURANGSHIRENLEILAIYISHENGCUNDEXITONG,CHUSHIWURANWUKENENGZHIDUIXITONGDEMOUYICHENGFENZAOCHENGWURAN,DANSUISHIJIANTUIYI,BIRANHUIWEIJIZHENGGEXITONG。GU,TUDIWURANBUSHIDANYIXINGDE,XITONGXINGMINGXIAN。

                    2.不可逆性。

                  棋牌大全下载安装   TUDIWURANJUYOUBUKENIXING,LEISIHUAFEI、NONGYAO、WUSHUIDENGWURANWUQIYUANSUJINRUTURANGHOUHENNANBEITURANGZHONGDEWEISHENGWUJIANGJIE,ZHANGCIYIWANGDEJILEIHOUHUIDUITURANGZAOCHENGSHENCENGCIDEWURAN,DAOZHITURANGJIEKUAI、TURANGFUYINGYANGHUADENGHOUGUO。NONGGENGQINANBEIFANGYINQIHOUWENTIBUYI,BEIFANGDUOWEI“YINIANYIGENG”HUO“LIANGNIANSANGENG”,NANFANGRUSICHUANDIQUDUOWEI“YINIANLIANGGENGHUOSANGENG”,NONGGENGQIHUISHIYONGHUAFEIHENONGYAO,JIYOUYUNANBEIFANGCHAYI,MEINIANGENGZHONGZHISHAOHUIZAOCHENGYICITUDIWURAN。YINZUOWUDUIHUAFEI、NONGYAODENGLIYONGLVBUGAO,WEIBEILIYONGDECHENGFENBIANBEITURANGXISHOU,ZAOCHENGTURANGZHILIANGXIAJIANG,ZHIQIANDEWURANWUYINSHIJIANGUODUANWEINENGJIANGJIEWANQUAN,ZUIZHONGXINGCHENGEXINGXUNHUAN。YOUDIAOCHAXIANSHI,MOUXIETURANGZHONGJINSHUWURANDEHUIFUQISHENZHIZHANGDA200~1000NIAN。[5]

                    3.隐蔽性与滞后性。

                    TUDIWURANDEYINBIXINGHEZHIHOUXINGTIXIANZAITURANGYIJINGWURANHOUBUJINGJIANCEHENNANCHAJUE,WANGWANGYAODENGDAONONGZUOWUFASHENGYANZHONGBINGBIANHUOZHENONGCHANPINJINGSHIYONGHOUDAOZHIYANZHONGDESHIPINANQUANWENTIHOUCAIKEMINGQUE。KEYICONGLIANGGEFANGMIANFENXIQIYUANYIN:

                    (1)NONGMINZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGYOUYUZHANGQIQUEFAXIANGGUANJINGYAN,BUGUANZHUTURANGDETUZHI,ZHIGUANZHUZUOWUDESHENGZHANGQINGKUANG,JINNENGTONGGUOZHIWUCHENGZHANGGUOCHENGDEWULIBIAOXIANGLAIJUEDINGNONGYAOJIFEILIAODESHIYONG,ZHANGCIYIWANG,JIYISHITUDISHOUDAOWURAN。TONGYANG,YINWEIQUEFAXIANGGUANTUDIGUANLIZHISHIHETURANGJIANCEGONGJU,WUFAJISHIPANDINGTURANGWURANWENTI。

                    (2)GUOTUJIANCHABUMENJIHUANBAOBUMENDEJIANGUANTIXIBUWANSHAN,JISHIFAXIANLETUDIWURANWENTI,YOUYUCEZHONGDIANFANGZAILEDUIDANGSHIRENZHUIZEFANGMIAN,HUSHILEDUITUDIJISHIZHILIDEWENTI。

                    二 我国农村土地污染防治制度及法律现状

                    (一)土壤污染防治制度现状

                    1.农村土壤污染防治管理机制。

                    NONGCUNTUDIWURANDEFANGZHIYIBANBUHUIJINGSIFATUJINGJIEJUE,ZHUYAOTONGGUOXINGZHENGXINGWEILAIGUIZHIHECHULI。ANZHAOWOGUO《HUANJINGBAOHUFA》JIYOUGUANHUANJINGWURANFANGMIANDEDANXINGFADEGUIDING,SHEJITURANGWURANJIFANGZHIGONGZUODEZHENGFUBUMENYOUNONGYEBUMEN、HUANBAOBUMEN、GUOTUZIYUANBUMENJISHUILIBUMENDENG。HUANBAOBUMENDEGONGZUOCHULEBEISHOUQUANZHIDINGYOUGUANFANGZHIWURANDEFAGUI、ZHIFAYIWAI,HAIXUDUIJUYOUXINGZHENGZHINENGDEXIAJIHUANBAOBUMENJINXINGZUZHIXIEDIAO、JIANDU。JUTIDEFANGZHIGUANLIJIZHIJIANTU1:

                    图1 农村土壤污染防治疗程机制
                  图1 农村土壤污染防治疗程机制

                    GAIFANGZHIGUANLIJIZHIDEBIDUANZAIYUHUANBAOBUMENZHENDUITUDIJIANKANGWENTIBUMINGAN,ZHUDONGSHENCHATUDIWURANQINGKUANGDEPINLVJIAODI,ZHUYAOTONGGUOBAIXINGJUBAODENGFANGSHIMINGQUEWURANWENTI,QIEJIANCEBUMENPANDINGWURANDESHENHEQIJIAOZHANG。GUOWUYUANNONGYEGUANLIBUMEN(ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUONONGYEBUDENG)ZHUGUANQUANGUODENONGYESHENGCHANYUFAZHAN,NONGYEFAZHANXUYAOBAOZHANGTUDIZIYUANBUBEIWURAN,YINGRANPANDINGQIDUINONGCUNTUDIWURANFANGZHIFUYOUZHIJIEZEREN。NONGYEFAZHANLIBUKAISHUIZIYUANDEGUANGAI,SHANGWENYETIJINONGCUNTURANGWURANYUWUSHUIZIYUANGUANGAIYOUYIDINGDEGUANLIAN,TONGYANG,GENJU《SHUIFA》DEXIANGGUANGUIDING,SHUILIBUMENDUINONGCUNTUDIWURANFANGZHIFUYOUJIANJIEZEREN。

                    2.对现有土壤污染防治管理机制的评析。

                  棋牌大全下载安装   TONGGUODUIWOGUOXIANYOUTURANGWURANFANGZHIGUANLIJIZHIDEFENXI,JUTICUNZAIRUXIAWENTI:

                    (1)GEFUYOUGUANLIZHINENGDEBUMENZHENDUIDIFANGWURANWENTIDEJIEJUESHANGXIANGHUTUIWEIXIANXIANGSHIYOUFASHENG。《HUANJINGBAOHUFA》MINGQUEGUIDINGLEDUITURANGWURANFUYOUGUANLIZERENDEXINGZHENGJIGUAN,YOUYUFALVTIAOWENDEJUXIANXING,JIAZHIDUIQIJIESHIBUJISHI,DAOZHIDIFANGHUANBAOBUMENZHIJIANZHIZETUIWEIXIANXIANGSHICHANGFASHENG,RUCIYILAI,CUOGUOLETUDIWURANZHILIDEJUEJIASHIQI,TURANGWURANWENTIYIJINGCHUXIAN,HUIDADAYANZHANGBEIWURANTUDIDEZHILISHIJIAN,WURANZHEDEQUERENZHUIZEQIYESUIZHILAZHANG。

                  棋牌大全下载安装   (2)CHULITUJINGDANYI,SIFANANYIJIERU。JINGGUODUIHEBEISHENGBAODINGSHIQINGYUANQUBEIDIANXIANGDEQINGSHUIHEDAOWURANDEDIAOCHA,BUNANFAXIAN,DIFANGZHUGUANBUMENZAICHULIGAIWURANANJIANSHICUNZAICHULISHIJIANZHANG、XINGZHENGGANYUDUO、SIFAWEIJIERU、FAZEBUXIANGCHENGDENGWENTI。YOUYUXINGZHENGCHUFADUOWEICAICHANFANGMIANDECHUFA,DUIYUDANGSHIRENYINGXIANGBUDA,JIANYIZAIZHIDINGHEWANSHANXIANGGUANLIFAHOU,DUOCONGSIFATUJINGLAIJIEJUEHUANJINGWENTI,SIFALIJIANLIYUHUANJINGWURANHOUDEGAISHAN,RUDUIYUHUANJINGWURANYINGXIANGJIAODADEGONGYISUSONGDENG。

                    (二)土壤污染防治法律现状

                    1.《宪法》中关于土地污染防治的相关法律条款。

                    《XIANFA》TIAOWENZHONGBINGWEIMINGQUEGUIDINGYOUGUANTUDIWURANDETIAOKUAN,ZONGGUANZHENGGEXIANFAWENBEN,DISHITIAOGUIDING:“YIQIESHIYONGTUDIDEZUZHIHEGERENBIXUHELIDILIYONGTUDI”。GAITIAOWENZHONGDE“HELILIYONG”YICIJINGKUODAJIESHIKEYIYINSHENWEI“HELILIYONGQIEBAOHU”,CONGXIANFATIAOWENDENEIHANKEYIMINGQUE,《XIANFA》ZAIZHIDINGHEXIUGAIDESHIHOUMINGQUELETUDIDELIYONGTIAOJIAN,QIEYOUYUQIGENBENDAFADEDIWEI,TUDILIYONGJIBAOHUJIUXIANDEGENGWEIZHONGYAO。《XIANFA》DIERSHILIUTIAOGUIDING:“GUOJIABAOHUHEGAISHANSHENGTAIHUANJING,FANGZHIHUANJINGWURANHEQITAGONGHAI”。TUDIZIYUANYESHUYUSHENGTAIHUANJINGDEYIBUFEN,DUITUDIZIYUANDEBAOHUYOULIYUGUOJIAGENGHAODIBAOZHANGRENMINLAIYISHENGCUNDESHENGTAIHUANJING。

                  棋牌大全下载安装   BUNANFAXIAN,《XIANFA》DEXIANGGUANYUANZESUIMINGQUEGUIDINGLE“FANGWURAN”TIAOKUAN,DANWEIJIANGDUITUDIZIYUANDEBAOHUMINGQUETISHENGDAO《XIANFA》CENGMIAN。

                    2.环境保护单行法中有关土地污染防治的法律条款。

                    SHEJITUDIWURANFANGZHIDEDANXINGFAZHUYAOYOU《NONGYEFA》《NONGCHANPINZHILIANGANQUANFA》《TUDIGUANLIFA》《GUTIFEIQIWUWURANHUANJINGFANGZHIFA》DENG。XIAMIAN,BIZHEFENBIEJIULIECHUDEDANXINGFAZHONGYOUGUANNONGCUNTUDIWURANDETIAOKUANZUOJUTIJIESHI。

                  棋牌大全下载安装   《NONGYEFA》DIWUSHIBATIAOGUIDING:“NONGMINHENONGYESHENGCHANJINGYINGZUZHIYINGDANGBAOYANGGENGDI、HELISHIYONGHUAFEI、NONGYAO、NONGYONGBOMO,ZENGJIASHIYONGYOUJIFEILIAO,CAIYONGXIANJINJISHU,BAOHUHETIGAODILI,FANGZHINONGYONGDIDEWURAN、POHUAIHEDILISHUAITUI”。《NONGCHANPINZHILIANGANQUANFA》DISHIJIUTIAOGUIDING:“NONGCHANPINSHENGCHANZHEYINGDANGHELISHIYONGHUAFEI、NONGYAO、SHOUYAO、NONGYONGBOMODENGHUAGONGCHANPIN,FANGZHIDUINONGCHANPINCHANDIZAOCHENGWURAN”。LIANGTIAOWENJUNCAIYONGLIEJUFAJUTISHUOMINGLENONGYESHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGHELISHIYONGGELEINONGYEFUZHUWU,DANWEIMINGQUEJUTIDEYONGFAYONGLIANG,JIGENGZHONGZHEWUFAZAIZHENGCHANGDENONGYESHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGCANZHAOJUTIDENONGFUWUDESHIYONGBIAOZHUN,JIYUWOGUONONGYEJICENGMINZHONGDUINONGGENGZHISHILEJIEQINGKUANG,WUFAPANDINGNONGYAO、HUAFEIDENGNONGYEFUZHUWUZAIHEZHONGYONGLIANGNEIBUHUIDUITURANGZAOCHENGWURAN,LIANGTIAOWENYEZHISHIXUANSHIXINGTIAOKUAN,DOUWEIDUITURANGWURANHOUDEZERENZHUIJIUWENTIZUOGUIDING。

                  棋牌大全下载安装   《TUDIGUANLIFA》DISANSHIQITIAOMINGQUEGUIDINGLEFANGZHIGONGYEFEISHUIHECHENGSHIWUSHUIGUANGAIWURANTURANG。

                    《GUTIFEIQIWUWURANHUANJINGFANGZHIFA》DISHILIUTIAOGUIDING:“CHANSHENGGUTIFEIWUDEDANWEIHEGEREN,YINGDANGCAIQUCUOSHI,FANGZHIHUOZHEJIANSHAOGUTIFEIWUDUIHUANJINGDEWURAN”,DISHIQITIAOGUIDING:“SHOUJI、ZHUCUN、YUNSHU、LIYONG、CHUZHIGUTIFEIWUDEDANWEIHEGEREN,BIXUCAIQUFANGYANGSAN、FANGLIUSHI、FANGSHENLOUHUOZHEQITAFANGZHIWURANHUANJINGDECUOSHI;BUDESHANZIQINGDAO、DUIFANG、DIUQI、YISAGUTIFEIWU”。CAIYONGLIEJUFAXIANDINGLEGUTIFEIQIWURANWUDECHULIDEXIANGGUANYUANZE,JICHULIGUOCHENGZHONGFANGZHIGUFEIWUDEWURAN。《GUTIFEIQIWUWURANHUANJINGFANGZHIFA》XIUDINGHOU,SHOUCIJIANGNONGCUNGUTIFEIQIWUWURANDENARUFALVDIAOKONGFANWEI,DUIXIANGGUANDENONGYEWURANHENONGCUNWURANWENTIZUOLEGUIZHI,CHENGWEICONGWURANWUHEWURANYUANKONGZHINONGCUNTUDIWURANDEZHONGYAOFALV,[6]DANGENJUSIFASHIJIANLAIKAN,GAIFALVZAIFANGZHINONGCUNTUDIWURANDESHIJIANLIZHONGSHIYONGPINLVJIAODI,GENJU《ZHONGGUOCAIPANWENSHUWANG》YOUGUANGUTIFEIQIWUWURANZERENJIUFENDE24GEANJIANZHONG,CHAOGUO70%DEANJIANYI《QINQUANZERENFA》DILIUSHIWUTIAOZUOWEIPANJUEYIJU。[7]

                    ZONGSHANG,YOUGUANNONGCUNTUDIWURANFANGZHIDEDANXINGFAJUNMINGQUELEYAOZAISHENGCHANHUODONGZHONGYAOGUIBITURANGWURAN,YOUYUJUNWEIMINGQUETICHUWEIFAHOUDEZERENCHENGDANWENTI,YINCIXIAOLISHANGCUNZAIYIDINGXIACI。

                    3.国务院行政法规及部门规章关于土地污染防治的规定。

                  棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIXIANXINGTUDIWURANFANGZHIJIANGUANTIXIZHONGTIDAO“HUANBAOWENTIDEJIEJUEZHUYAOYIKAOHUANBAOBUMEN”,JIGUOWUYUANXINGZHENGFAGUIJIBUMENGUIZHANGDUIYUTUDIWURANFANGZHIWENTIXIANDEYOUWEIZHONGYAO。BIZHERENGJIUCAIYONGLIEJUFENXIFADUIGUOWUYUANXINGZHENGFAGUIJIBUMENGUIZHANGGUANYUTUDIWURANFANGZHIDEGUIDINGZUOJUTIFENXI。

                    2005NIAN12YUEGUOWUYUANFABUDE《GUANYULUOSHIKEXUEFAZHANGUAN JIAQIANGHUANJINGBAOHUDEJUEDING》TICHU“YIFANGZHITURANGWURANWEIZHONGDIAN,JIAQIANGNONGCUNHUANJINGBAOHU”;2006NIAN2YUEGUOWUYUANGONGBUDE《ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGGUOWUYUANGUANYUTUIJINSHEHUIZHUYIXINNONGCUNJIANSHEDERUOGANYIJIAN》ZHONGZHIMINGLE“YAOJIAQIANGGENGDIZHILIANGJIANSHE,TONGGUOYOUZHILIANGSHISHENGCHANGONGCHENGHEXINYILUNWOTUJIANSHEGONGCHENG,DALITUIGUANG‘ZENG、TI、GAI、FANG’JISHU,KEXUESHIYONGHUAFEI,GAILIANGTURANGLIHUAXINGZHUANG,QUANMIANTISHENGDILI”;2007NIAN11YUE,HUANBAOZONGJUTONGGUOTUZIYUANBUMEN、NONGYEBUDENGLIANHEFABULE《GUANYUJIAQIANGNONGCUNHUANJINGBAOHUGONGZUODEYIJIAN》,ZHELIZHICHU“QUANMIANKONGZHINONGYEMIANWURAN,JIJIFANGZHINONGCUNTUDIWURANJIKONGZHINONGCUNSHENGHUOWURANHECHUQINYANGZHIYEWURAN”。[8]GUANYUTUDIWURANFANGZHIWENTI,GUOWUYUANXIANGGUANBUMENJIHUZAIMEINIANDOUCHUTAIXIANGGUANWENJIANLAIGUIZHIHEHUYU,CHUYISHANGTIDAODEGUIFANXINGWENJIANWAI,GUOWUYUANHAICHUTAILE《NONGYAOGUANLITIAOLI》《FEIQIWEIXIANHUAXUEPINWURANHUANJINGFANGZHIBANFA》DENG。

                    三 我国农村土地污染防治的立法及制度完善

                    (一)建立健全土地污染防治的法律体系

                    1.推进我国土地污染防治的专项立法。

                    WOGUOHAIWEICHUTAIYOUGUANTUDIWURANFANGZHIFANGMIANDEZHUANXIANGLIFA,DUIYUXIANJINJIEDUANDETUDIWURANWENTI,XIANYOUGUANYUNONGCUNTUDIFANGMIANDELIFAYIJINGYUANYUANBUNENGGUIZHICILEIWENTI。XIN《HUANJINGBAOHUFA》SUIYIYU2015NIAN1YUESHENGXIAO,YOUYUQIGUIDINGDENEIRONGJIAOWEILONGTONG,WEINENGDUITUDIWURANDEGUIZHIZUOXIANGJINDECHANSHU,YUZHIXIANGDUIDE《DAQIWURANFANGZHIFA》《SHUIWURANFANGZHIFA》JUNSHIZAI《HUANJINGBAOHUFA》DEJICHUSHANGZUOLEJINYIBUDEBUCHONG。TONGYANG,LEISI《NONGYEFA》《NONGCHANPINZHILIANGANQUANFA》《TUDIGUANLIFA》《GUTIFEIQIWUWURANHUANJINGFANGZHIFA》DENGDANXINGFAZHONGJUNYOUSHUOMINGYAOZAISHENGCHANSHENGHUOGUOCHENGZHONGKEZHITURANGWURANWENTIDEFASHENG,DANYOUYUMEIYOUTURANGWURANDEZHUANXIANGLIFADECHUTAI,BUNENGHENHAODEGUIFANTURANGWURANWENTI,RENGXUJIAKUAITUIJIN《TURANGWURANWURANFANGZHIFA》DECHUTAI。

                    2.修改完善土地污染防治的相关法律准则。

                    YOUFALVGUIZHINONGCUNTUDIWURANGURANZHONGYAO,DANZAIWEILAITUIXING《TURANGWURANFANGZHIFA》DETONGSHIYAOJINYIBUXIUGAIHEWANSHANTUDIWURANFANGZHIDEXIANGGUANFALVZHUNZE,ZHIYOUTUDIWURANJIEDINGDEBIAOZHUNTONGYI,CAINENGCUJINWURANFANGZHIGONGPINGGONGZHENGDEJINXING,YENENGBAOZHENGJISHIYOUXIAODECONGFALVJIZHIDUCENGMIANGUIZHITURANGWURANWENTI。1995NIANYINFADE《TURANGHUANJINGZHILIANGBIAOZHUN》GUIDINGYOUGEJIZHENGFUHUANJINGXINGZHENGZHUGUANBUMENFUZESHIXINGJIANDU,GAIBIAOZHUNYIJINGSHIXINGJIN20NIAN,ZHISHIDANYIDEDUITURANGDEDENGJIZUOLEFENLEI,BINGWEIDUITURANGWURANDEBIAOZHUNJINXINGMINGQUEHEXIZHIDEFENLEI,QIYIBUNENGWANQUANDESHIYINGXIANJINTUDIWURANWENTIDEXIANZHUANG。[9]

                    SHIXINGJIJIANDUBIAOZHUNBUMINGQUE,SHIBIHUIZAOCHENGTUDIWURANWENTIFENJIHUADUIDAI,YINCIBIANWUFAZHENGQUEDEWEIHUANJINGZHIFATIGONGYIJU,DUIYUHUANJINGWURANZHEDEZHUIZEWENTIFANGMIANYEHUIFASHENGQUBIEDUIDAI。ZONGHEERYAN,XIUDING《TURANGHUANJINGZHILIANGBIAOZHUN》JIWANSHANTURANGWURANFANGZHIDEXIANGGUANFALVZHUNZEXIANDEYOUWEIZHONGYAO,ZHEIYESHIWANSHANTUDIWURANFANGZHIFALVTIXIDEGUANJIANYIBU。

                    3.进一步严格土地污染的追责制度。

                    YOUYUTUDIWURANJUYOUBUKENIXING,QIETUXIAN“WURANRONGYI,ZHILINAN”DETEZHENG,ZHILICHENGBENYUANYUANDAYUWURANCHENGBEN。DANGSHIRENYINYIJISILIDUITUDIZAOCHENGLEWURAN,DANQUEYOUYUJIANGUANTIXIHEFALVZHIDUDEBUWANSHANDAOZHIGONGQUANLIZHUIZEBUDANGHUOBUSHISHI,ZHISHIGUOJIAHEJITIQUANYISHOUDAOSUNHAI。WOGUO《QINQUANZERENFA》ZHONGGUANYUTUDIWURANFANGMIANDEGUIZHITIXIANZAIDILIUSHIWUTIAO,JI“YINHUANJINGWURANZAOCHENGSUNHAIDE,WURANZHEYINGDANGCHENGDANQINQUANZEREN。”GAIGUIDINGDUIYUDANGSHIRENWURANHUANJINGDEQINQUANZERENZHUIJIUCAIQUDEWUGUOCUOZERENYUANZE,DANQUEFADUIYUTUDIWURANDEZERENRENDINGDEJUTIZHUIZETIAOKUAN。

                    YOUCI,ZAIWANSHANTUDIWURANFANGZHILIFADEGUOCHENGZHONG,YAOMINGQUEYIXINGZHENGFAKUANWEIZHU,TONGSHIGENJUWURANWUDELAIYUANHELEIXINGGUIDINGXIANQIZHENGGAI、ZELINGTINGCHANTINGYEDENGXINGZHENGCHUFACUOSHI。ZAI《TUDIWURANFANGZHIFA》ZHIDINGGUOCHENGZHONG,XUANZHAODANGSHIRENDUIYUTUDIWURANDEYANZHONGCHENGDUJIZAOCHENGDESHEHUIXIAOGUOGUIDINGMINSHIZERENHEGOUCHENGFANZUI,YIFAZHUIJIUXINGSHIZERENDEXIANGGUANTIAOKUAN。LING,ZAIZERENZHUIJIUFANGMIANKEYISHIDANGJIEJIANYIXIAGUOWAIDECHENGGONGJINGYAN,RU“MEIGUODE《CHAOJIJIJINFA》ZHONGZAIMINGQUEZHUTIZERENFANGMIANCAIYONGDESHIKESUJIJIWANGDEWUXIANLIANDAIZERENYUANZE”。[10]CIYUANZEQIAOMIAODEZHENDUIMOUZHONGJUTIQINGKUANGGUIBILESUSONGSHIXIAOJIXINJIUFASHIYONGCHANSHENGDEWENTI,CIYUANZEZAIYINGDUITUDIWURANDEBUKENIXINGDEZHUIZEZHIDUFANGMIANKENENGJUYOUJIAOHAODEFALVXIAOGUO。

                    (二)制定和完善土地污染防治的配套制度

                    1.完善土壤污染的行政管理机制。

                    WOGUOTUDIWURANGUANLIBUMENZHUYAOSHIGUOTUZIYUANGUANLIBUMENHEHUANBAOBUMEN,LIANGBUMENZAIDUITUDIWURANFANGMIANJINXINGGUANLIDEGUOCHENGZHONGZHIJINCUNZAIQUANZEBUMING、HUXIANGTUIWEIDEQINGKUANG,DAOZHIZHUDUONONGCUNTUDIWURANWENTIGEZHI,GUYOUBIYAOZAISHI、XIANCHENGLIZHUANMENJIGUANLAIJIANDUHECHULINONGCUNTUDIWURANWENTI。YOUYUWOGUOYOUGUANNONGCUNTUDIWURANWENTIDEFALVHEGUIFANXINGWENJIANJUNYOUJICENGHUANBAOBUMENZHIXINGDE,GUANLIJIJIANDUZERENRUOQUANBULUOZAIXIANJIZHEIYIJICENGHUANJINGGUANLIJIGUANSHIBUHELIDE,ZAIXIANXIAXIANGZHENYINGDANGSHELIPAICHUJIGOU,YIHELIDEYOUHUAXIANJINZHENGFUBUMENDEXINGZHENGZHINENG。TONGSHI,YOUYUXIANGZHENYIJIXIANGDUIYUXIANJIZHENGFUJIGOUGENGJIALEJIEBENDIQUNONGCUNTUDIDEWURANQINGKUANGJIFENGTURENQING,KEYIZUIDAXIANDUDEFAHUIQIZAIBAOHUNONGCUNTUDIFANGMIANDEZHIZE。[11]

                    2.完善土壤保护预警制度。

                  棋牌大全下载安装   TURANGBAOHUYUJINGJUYOUZHENDUIXING,SHANGWENZHICHU,NONGCUNDIQUSHIYONGHUAFEILIANG、NONGCUNTUDIWUSHUIPAIFANGLIANGSHIZHUYAOYINGXIANGNONGCUNTUDIZHILIANGDEGUANJIANYINSU,QIYONGTURANGBAOHUYUJINGJIZHI,KEYICONGWURANYUANTOUGAIBIANHUOZHEZHONGZHIWURANXIANZHUANG,JINERWEIWURANZHILIZHENGQUSHIJIAN。JINXINGNONGCUNTUDIBAOHUYAOJIANCHIBUZOU“XIANWURANHOUZHILI”DELAOLU,TONGSHIYEYINGJIAQIANGBAOHUYUJING,JIYIYUFANGWEIZHU。XIN《HUANJINGBAOHUFA》DISHIBATIAOGUIDING,SHENGJIYISHANGRENMINZHENGFUYINGDANGZUZHIYOUGUANBUMENHUOZHEWEITUOZHUANMENJIGOU,DUIHUANJINGQINGKUANGJINXINGDIAOCHA、PINGJIA,JIANLIHUANJINGZIYUANCHENGZAINENGLIJIANCEYUJINGJIZHI。JIEHEHUANBAOFAXIANGGUANTIAOKUANGUIDING,ZAIJIJIANGZHIDINGCHUTAIDE《TUDIWURANFANGZHIFA》ZHONGYEYINGJINYIBUMINGQUETUDIWURANFANGZHIYUJINGTIAOKUAN,ZHURUHUANBAOBUMENDINGQIJIANCETUDIZHILIANG,PAICHANONGYEYONGDIZHOUBIANSHIFOUCUNZAIWURANYUAN,ZAIGENGZHONGQIZHENGQUEYINDAONONGMINSHIYONGHUAFEI,ZAIFENGSHOUJIGUANCELIANGSHICHANLIANGBINGCHOUJIANLIANGSHIZHILIANGDENG。CILEIYUJINGJIZHIHUICONGZHIDUCENGMIANJIAQIANGDUINONGCUNTUDIDEBAOHU。

                    3.推行公众参与制度监督土地污染问题。

                    TUIXINGGONGZHONGCANYUZHIDUDEGUANJIANZAIYUWANSHANZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAI。GONGZHONGSHIHUANJINGXINGZHENGJUECEZHONGDEXIANGDUIREN,XIANGYOUTINGZHENGQUANHECHENSHUSHENBIANDEQUANLI,WOGUOYAOJINYIBUJIAQIANGHUANJINGXINXIDEGONGKAIHUA、TOUMINGHUA,JISHIFABUYOUGUANTURANGDEHUANJINGXINXI,QUEBAOGONGZHONGJISHIHUOQU。[12]XINGCHENGGONGZHONGCANYUMOSHILAIJIANDUTUDIWURANWENTIKEYIQIESHIDIAODONGNONGCUNDIQUNONGMINDEJIJIXING,TONGSHILIYONGZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIDEBIANLI,XIANGGUANZHENGFUBUMENKEYIZENGSHEZHUANLANLAIGONGKAIRICHANGTUDIDEWURANJIZHILIQINGKUANG,RANGNONGCUNTUDIDESHIYONGZHEZHENZHENGMINGQUEJITITUDIDEZHILIANGWENTI,ZHUJIANBINGQIZHURUCUOWUSHIFEIDENGWURANTUDIDEXINGWEI。WANSHANJUBAOJIANDUXITONG,SHIXINGTUDIWURANNIMINGJUBAOZHIDU,TONGSHIYINGWANSHANYIJIANSHOUJIJIZHI,JIJIGULINONGMINWEITUDIWURANFANGZHIXIANYANXIANCE。TUIXINGTUDIWURANFANGZHI“GONGCANZHIDU”,KEYOUXIAOCONGTUDIWURANYUANTOUTUIXINGZHILICELVE,JIANGDIZHILICHENGBEN,YEKEJINYIBUZENGQIANGQUYUXINGDENONGMINHUANBAOYISHI。

                    4.推广清洁农业生产制度。

                    QINGJIENONGYESHENGCHANZHIDUJIZAINONGCUNDIQUCAIYONGWUGONGHAISHENGCHAN,ZAIBAOZHANGNONGZUOWUCHANLIANGDEQINGKUANGXIATUIXINGLVSESHIFEI、LVSENONGGENG、LVSESHOUGEDENGNONGYEMOSHI。WOGUO《QINGJIESHENGCHANCUJINFA》ZAINONGYESHENGCHANGULIFANGMIANZHUYAOYOUBIAOZHANGZHIDU、ZIJINZHICHIHESHUISHOUJIANMIANZHENGCEDENG,DANZAINONGYEKEJIFADADEJINTIAN,YOUGUANQINGJIESHENGCHANCUJINXIANGGUANDEFAZEYIJINGYUANYUANBUNENGMANZUDANGQIANDEJINGJIXUQIU,NONGMINCONGFALVTUJINGDELAIDELVSENONGYEYOUHUITIAOJIANYUANYUANXIAOYUKEJISHENGCHANDAILAIDELIYI,SHOULIYIQUDONG,YUQINGJIESHENGCHANXIANGGUANFALVNANYIJIXUBAOCHILIANGHAODESHEHUIXIAOYI。LUOSHIQINGJIESHENGCHANZHIDU,XIUDINGXIANGGUANFALVTIAOWEN,GAOLIDUJIYUYOUHUITUIXINGLVSENONGYEJIHUA,ZHEISHICONGBENZHISHANGYUESHUNONGCUNTUDIWURANQINGKUANGDEEHUA。

                    四 结 语

                  棋牌大全下载安装   TONGGUODUINONGCUNTUDIWURANFANGZHIXIANGGUANFALVZHIDUDEYANJIU,BUJINKEYICONGGENBENSHANGRENSHIWOGUONONGCUNTUDIWURANDEXIANZHUANG,HAINENGLEJIEWOGUOYOUGUANTUDIWURANFANGMIANDELIFAQUESHI。GUOJIALIFAJIGUANHEGUOJIAXINGZHENGJIGUANSUICHUTAILEJIAODUOGUANYUNONGCUNTUDIWURANFANGMIANDEFALV、XINGZHENGFAGUIHEBUMENGUIZHANGDENG,DANZONGTIQUEFATIXIXING,QIEDUIHUANJINGZHILIJIHOUQIZHUIZEFANGMIANWEIJINXINGMINGQUEGUIDING,ZHEIHUICONGBENZHISHANGDAOZHIZHIFAZHEZAIZHIFAGUOCHENGZHONGWUFAKEYI,YETUCHULE《TUDIWURANFANGZHIFA》ZHEIYIDANXINGFACHUTAIDEBIYAOXING。WEILAI,ZAINONGCUNTUDIWURANFANGZHIFANGMIAN,YINGCEZHONGWURANZHUIZE,YI“YANFA”LAIJINGSHISHIRENBAOHUTUDIZHILIANGJISHIBAOHURENMENLAIYISHENGCUNDEJIBENYAOSU。

                    参考文献

                    [1] 我国1.5亿亩耕地受污染将立法加强监督[EB/OL].中国法律信息网.http:www.law-star.com/cac/125018945.htm,2007-06-08.
                    [2] 国家发改委网站.走中国特色的农业道路保障粮食安全和农产品质量安全[EB/OL].http://www.ndrc.gov.cn/GB/34961/61624/61625/4294933.html,2005-04-13.
                    [3] 国家发改委网站.全国土壤污染状况调查公报[EB/OL].http://njs.ndrc.gov.cn/gzdt/201404/t20140418_607887.html,2013-04-17.
                    [4] 王彦.防治农村土地污染亟待立法跟进[N].中国国土资源报,2011-03-13(03).
                    [5] 杨冬梅.推进法治社会建设夯实法治国家根基[N].黑龙江日报,2013-11-04(12).
                    [6] 罗吉.我国土壤污染防治立法研究[J].现代法学,2007(6):99-107.
                    [7] 中国裁判文书网.固体废物污染责任纠纷[DB/OL].http://wenshu.court.gov.cn/list/list/?sorttype=1&number=347B9V8W&guid=307df056-d70b-89ae5431-6b8dacd78584&conditions=searchWord+QWJS+++全文检索:固体废物污染责任纠纷,2017-04-12.
                    [8] 潘丹.农村土地污染防治法律制度研究[D].重庆大学硕士学位论文,2009:17-18.
                    [9] 朱立志,王蓉.农村土地污染防治补偿机制的法律思考[J].法制经纬,2007(1):43-46.
                    [10] 刘晓霞.我国土壤污染防治的立法构建[J].黑龙江省政法管理干部学院学报,2017,24(6):95-97.
                    [11] 时晓月.我国农村土壤污染防治的法律对策[D].黑龙江大学硕士学位论文,2014:19-20.
                    [12] [德]毛雷尔.行政法总论[M].高家伟,译.北京:法律出版社,2000:464-474.

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