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                            1. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 法律论文 > “相互宝”的法律性质及其监管制度

                              “相互宝”的法律性质及其监管制度

                              时间:2018-12-18 10:18作者:张萌
                              本文导读:这是一篇关于“相互宝”的法律性质及其监管制度的文章,支付宝公告称,将相互保险产品“相互保”升级为“相互宝”新的“相互宝”定位为一款基于互联网的互助计划。其背后不再对接信美人寿相互保险社,变更为蚂蚁会员(北京)网络技术服务有限公司。

                                摘    要:棋牌大全下载安装 支付宝将“相互保”升级为“相互宝”后,引起业内广泛关注,升级后的“相互宝”定位为网络互助计划,具有公益性和普惠性,但由于其性质发生改变,不再是保险,没有保险公司进行兜底,并且目前对此类网络互助计划的法律属性不明确、监管政策缺失,存在一定的风险,所以从其法律属性及监管问题出发,明确“相互宝”的法律属性,并完善监管机制,加强“相互宝”的外部监督和内部监督,促进“相互宝”这类网络互助计划的合规发展。

                                关键词: 相互宝; 网络互助计划; 法律属性; 监管;

                                ZHIFUBAOGONGGAOCHENG,JIANGXIANGHUBAOXIANCHANPIN“XIANGHUBAO”SHENGJIWEI“XIANGHUBAO”XINDE“XIANGHUBAO”DINGWEIWEIYIKUANJIYUHULIANWANGDEHUZHUJIHUA。QIBEIHOUBUZAIDUIJIEXINMEIRENSHOUXIANGHUBAOXIANSHE,BIANGENGWEIMAYIHUIYUAN(BEIJING)WANGLUOJISHUFUWUYOUXIANGONGSI。CANYUMOSHIWEI:YONGHUZAIFUHEJIARUTIAOJIANBINGTONGGUOSHENHEHOUKEYICHENGWEIXIANGHUBAOCHENGYUAN,BINGTONGGUOJIARUJUTIDEBAOZHANGJIHUAHUODEHUZHUBAOZHANG、LVXINGFENTANYIWU。CIGONGGAOYICHUJIUYINQIGUANGFANREYI,DANZHIFUBAOYIMINGQUEZHICHU,“XIANGHUBAO”YU“XIANGHUBAO”BENZHIBUTONG,SHENGJIQIANDE“XIANGHUBAO”WEIXIANGHUBAOXIAN,SHIBAOXIANHEZHIFUBAODEHEZUO,YOUBAOXIANGONGSIXINMEIHUZHUCHENGBAO,XIANGGUANBAOZHANGYOUXINMEIHUZHUHEMAYIJINFUGONGTONGTIGONG,SHIYIGEBAOXIANCHANPIN,SHOUYINBAOJIANHUIDEJIANGUAN。ERSHENGJIHOUDE“XIANGHUBAO”WANGLUOHUZHUJIHUA,BEIHOUBUZAIYOUBAOXIANGONGSICHENGBAO,JUYOUSHEHUIGONGYIXING,QIJIANGUANZHUTIZANBUMINGQUE。

                                一、“相互宝”的法律属性

                                (一)“相互宝”与保险的区别

                              棋牌大全下载安装   SHENGJIHOUDE“XIANGHUBAO”YU“XIANGHUBAO”SUIZHIYOUYIZIZHICHA,DANXINGZHISHANGQUEXIANGCHASHENYUAN。“XIANGHUBAO”BUSHIBAOXIAN,SHIWANGLUOHUZHUJIHUA,XIANGHUBAOXIANDEBENZHISHIBAOXIAN。QUBIERUXIA:

                                1. 经营原理不同

                                BAOXIANSHIYOUZHONGGUOZHENGJIANHUIZHENGSHIPIZHUNSHELIDEZHENGGUIBAOXIANJIGOU,BAOXIANZUZHIYINGDANGJINGBAOJIANHUIPIZHUNSHELIBINGYIFADENGJIZHUCE,ERWANGLUOHUZHUJIHUABUSHI。

                              棋牌大全下载安装   “XIANGHUBAO”ZAICHANPINJIESHAOZHONGZHICHU,CHENGYUANFENTANHUZHUJINSHUYUZENGYUXINGWEI。BAOXIANCHANPINBIRUZHONGJIXIAN,TADEMOSHISHIXIANKUAN,BAOXIANGONGSIHUIGENJUJIBINGDEFASHENGLVLAIJINXINGDINGJIA,KEHUXUYAOXIANGENJUZIJIXIANGYAOTOUBAODECHANPINZHIFUBAOXIANFEIYONG,CAINENGXIANGSHOUBAOXIANDAIYU。ER“XIANGHUBAO”FUWUGENJUSHIJIFASHENGPEIFUANLIDEQINGKUANGJINXINGFEIYONGFENTAN。BUZHOUWEI:JIARUBINGCANYUFENTAN,HUANBINGQUEZHENHOUSHENQINGHUZHUJIN,DIAOCHASHENHE,ZUIHOUCAIHUIKOUCHUXIANGGUANFEIYONG。

                                2. 监管模式不同

                                保险产品是由保险公司进行承保,保险公司由银保监会监管,受《保险法》的约束和保护,在其规范下,保险公司的成立及运作都有着严格的要求。保险公司的成立需要向监管部门缴纳巨额保证金,实行严格的保证金制度,并且需要对股东的偿付能力进行严格监管审查,如果公司出现重大问题,可以将保证金拿出来进行刚性兑付,来完成先前保险合同中约定的理赔责任,从而可以维护投保者的权益。但“相互宝”这类的网络互助计划,目前未纳入银保监会的监管,保险的监管程序已经处于比较成熟的水平,保障力度较高,而“相互宝”当前的监管区域基本处于空白。
                               

                              “相互宝”的法律性质及其监管制度
                               

                                3.“相互宝”应合理定性,突出公益性和普惠性

                                “XIANGHUBAO”ZHEILEICHANPINJUBEIHENHAOGONGYIXINGHEPUHUIXING,KEYIYOUYIGEJIAODIDEMENJIANJIFEIYONGLAISHIXIANDUIKEHUDEBAOHU,DANZHEILEIWANGLUOHUZHUJIHUAYUBAOXIANXIANGBISHUYUHULIANWANGXINXINGCHANWU,DUIQIFALVJIANGUANSHANGBUCHENGSHU,QUESHAOXIANGYINGDEFALVGUIFAN。ERYOUYOUYUQICHANPINTEDIANYULEIBAOXIANXIANGSI,YEJIYIXIEFEIFAFENZIJIEQIXIANGSIDIAN,GUAZHEWANGLUOHUZHUDEZHAOPAILAIHUNXIAOXIAOFEIZHE,QUCONGSHIFEIFABAOXIANHUODONG。YINCI,GUOJIAXUYAODUIWANGLUOHUZHUJIHUADEFAZHANJINXINGGUIFAN,2016NIAN,BAOJIANHUIYIJINGFABULEXIANGGUANZHENGZHIGONGZUODETONGZHI,JIANGQIHEBAOXIANJINXINGYANGEHUAFEN,BIMIANHEBAOXIANHUNXIAO。CHUCIZHIWAI,WEILEJIANKANGLIANGHAODEFAZHAN“XIANGHUBAO”DEYOUSHI,JIANYIXIANGGUANFALVZAI“XIANGHUBAO”DENGZHEILEIWANGLUOHUZHUJIHUADEDINGXINGSHANGTUCHUGONGYIXINGHEPUHUIXING,JIANGZHEILEIWANGLUOHUZHUPINGTAIDINGWEIWEIFEIYINGLIZUZHI,CONGERCHONGFENZHANXIANQIYOUSHI,SHIQILIANGHAOFAZHAN。

                                二、“相互宝”的监管

                                (一)当前的监管进程

                                ZAIBAOJIANHUIDEZHENGZHIGONGZUOXIA,CONGGAINIANSHANGJIANGBAOXIANCHANPINHEWANGLUOHUZHUJIHUACHANPINQUFENKAI,YECAIQULEYIXILIEDEJIANGUANCUOSHI,QICEZHONGDIANZAIYU:MINGQUEBAOXIANYUWANGLUOHUZHUJIHUADEDINGYI,HUZHUJIHUAPINGTAIBUNENGSHIYONGBAOXIANXIANGGUANSHUYU,BIMIANWANGLUOHUZHUPINGTAIHUNXIAOXIAOFEIZHEDUIYUBAOXIANHE“XIANGHUBAO”DENGHUZHUJIHUADELIJIE;MUQIANWOGUOWEIMINGQUE“XIANGHUBAO”DENGHUZHUJIHUADEJUTIJIANGUANBUMEN,YEWEICHUTAIZHUANMENDEJIANGUANTIAOLI,HUZHUPINGTAIDECHENGLIWEIZUNXUNBAOZHENGJINZHIDU,SUOYIBUCUNZAIGANGXINGDUIFU,YINGBIMIANHUZHUJIHUAPINGTAIDUIQIYUNZUOJIGUANLIDEBAOZHANGXINGZUOCHUXUJIAXUANCHUAN;WANGLUOHUZHUPINGTAIBIXUMINGQUEFENTANFEIYONGSHUYUZENGYU,BIMIANHUZHUPINGTAIYIDACABIANQIUDEFANGSHI,CHIXUYIWANGBAOXIANCHANPINDEMOSHILAISHOUQUGUDINGDEBAOXIANFEIYONG,YICIWEIZIJINCHILAIDUIXIAOFEIZHEJINXINGBAOZHANG。

                              棋牌大全下载安装   DANDANGQIANDEJIANGUANCUNZAIJUXIANXING,YINWEIMEIYOUMINGQUEJIANGUANBUMEN,SUOYIBAOJIANHUIYEWEICHUJIGENBEN,GENGDUODESHIRANGXIAOFEIZHERENSHI“XIANGHUBAO”SHIFEIBAOXIAN,CUNZAIZHUDUOFENGXIAN,SUIZHEZHEILEIPINGTAIHECHANPINBUDUANFAZHAN,JIEXIALAIDEJIANGUANYINGZHELIYURUHEHUAJIEZHEIXIEFENGXIAN。

                                (二)监管对策

                                1. 外部监管

                                MEIYOUBAOXIANJIGOUDEDOUDIHEGANGXINGDUIFU,DUIYU“XIANGHUBAO”WANGLUOHUZHUJIHUAYINGJIAQIANGWAIBUJIANGUAN,SHOUXIANJIUXUYAOMINGQUE“XIANGHUBAO”ZHEILEIHUZHUJIHUADEJIANGUANJIGOU,BAOJIANHUISHIBAOXIANYEDEJIANGUANZHE,DUIWANGLUOHUZHUJIHUACHANPINMEIYOUMINGQUEDEJIANGUANZEREN,SUOYIZHINENGZHENGZHITADEBIAOCENGWENTI,GENBENFENGXIANBINGMEIYOUGUIBI。SUOYIJIXUDUI“XIANGHUBAO”JINXINGDINGXING,RANHOUMINGQUEJIANGUANZHUTI。YINWEIFENTANFEIYONGHEMENJIANDIQIEFENTANFEIYONGSHUYUZENGYU,SUOYI“XIANGHUBAO”JUBEIFEICHANGXIANZHEDEGONGYIXINGHEPUHUIXING,ZAIDUIQIFENGXIANJINXINGGUIBISHI,JIANYIJIANGWANGLUOHUZHUPINGTAIDINGXINGWEIFEIYINGLIXINGZUZHI,JIEJIANQITAFEIYINGLIZUZHIDEJIANGUANCELVE。CONGCHENGLIDAOGUANLIYUNXINGDOUYOUZHUANMENJIGOUJINXINGJIANGUAN,BUJINSHELI、BIANGENG、ZHUXIAOXUYAOZHUANMENJIGOUJINXINGDENGJI,ERQIEZUOWEIFEIYINGLIZUZHI,QIDUIYUZIJINDEGUANLIYEXUYAOGENGJIATOUMINGHUA,GONGZHONGJUYOUXINXIZHIQINGQUANHEJIANDUQUAN,TEBIESHIFENTANJINEJIYONGTUDENGXINXI,ZUODAOGONGKAITOUMING,BINGZAIGUDINGQIXIANNEISHISHIJIANCHA。

                                2. 内部监督

                                NEIBUJIANDUKEYIJIAQIANGXINGYEZILV,JIANLIWANZHENGDENEIBUJIANDUTIXI,SHIDECANYUJIHUACHENGYUANDEQUANLIZAI“XIANGHUBAO”DEYUNXINGGUOCHENGDEYICHONGFENBAOZHANG。DUIYUNEIBURENYUANSHEZHIYINGGAIZUOHAORENCAIDUIWUPEIYANGJIANSHE,JIANQUANZISHENDEFENGKONGTIXI,DUISHENQINGJIUZHUDEANLIYANGESHENCHA,BINGJIANGFENTANZIJINDEJISUANHESHIYONGJISHIPILU,ZUODAOTOUMINGHUA,FANGKONGZAIANLIXUANZEHEZIJINSHIYONGFANGMIANDEFENGXIANDIAN。CHENGLIJIANDUWEIYUANHUIHECHENGYUANJIANDUJIZHI,CHENGYUANDUIYUWENTIKEYIJINXINGTOUSUHEFANKUI,NEIJIANDUWEIYUANHUIYINGDANGJUBEIXIANGYINGDETOUSUSHOULIQUDAO,DUIYUJIANDUZHONGFANKUIDEXIANGGUANWENTIGENJINBANLI,YEKEYIJIARUXIANGYINGDESHIXIAOXINGKAOHE,CUJINSHANGXIAJIANDUMOSHILUODI,TIGAOJIANDUXIAOGUO,ZENGJIAHUIYUANHEQITAGONGZHONGDUIYU“XIANGHUBAO”BAOZHANGXINGDEXINREN,YECONGERHUIXIYINGENGDUODEGONGZHONGCANYUDAOHUZHUJIHUAZHONG,TUIDONG“XIANGHUBAO”SHENZHIZHENGGEHUZHUJIHUAXINGYEDELIANGHAOFAZHAN。

                                参考文献

                                [1] 宋占军,齐晶.网络互助保险,路在何方?[J].金融博览(富),2018(12):67-69.
                                [2] 关佳.网络互助的风险及监管[N].民主与法制时报,2017-12-13(006).
                                [3] 黎业明,徐新雅.市场失灵视角下网络互助平台监管体制的构建[J].广州广播电视大学学报,2018,18(02):102-106+112.
                                [4] 陈令.网络互助平台风险及防控对策研究[D].北京邮电大学,2018.
                                [5] 黄跳.类保险的性质与法律适用[D].武汉大学,2018.

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