棋牌大全下载安装

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                1. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 法律论文 > 我国动物防疫法律体系建设问题与修订思考

                  我国动物防疫法律体系建设问题与修订思考

                  时间:2019-03-11 15:34作者:翟海华 滕翔雁 李昂
                  本文导读:这是一篇关于我国动物防疫法律体系建设问题与修订思考的文章,本文通过总结发达国家动物防疫法律体系特点,比较分析了当前我国动物防疫法律体系存在的问题,提出《动物防疫法》修订的有关思考,期望通过不断完善各项法律制度,推动畜牧兽医事业的可持续发展。

                    摘    要:棋牌大全下载安装 我国现已基本构建起以《动物防疫法》为核心的动物防疫法律体系,为依法做好动物防疫工作,推动动物卫生事业发展发挥了重要作用。本文阐述了国外动物防疫法律体系具有体系健全、操作性强、主体责任明确、修订及时等特点,指出了我国动物防疫法律规范在执行过程中存在制度配套不完善,生产经营者主体责任不明确,法律体系衔接不紧密等问题。这提示应及时修订《动物防疫法》,完善相关法律制度及配套规章,明确生产经营者主体责任,加强与其他部门及法律体系的衔接,重视法律宣贯等。

                    关键词: 动物防疫法律体系; 动物防疫法; 立法建议; 法律宣贯;

                    Abstract: Centered on Animal Disease Prevention Law,the legal system of animal disease prevention in China has played an important role in implementing disease prevention and promoting the healthy development of animal health. In this paper,the characteristics of such systems in developed countries were discussed,including soundness,strong operability,clear responsibilities of main parties concerned and timely revision,etc. Meanwhile,some problems during the process of law enforcement in China were put forward,such as imperfect supporting legal system,unclear responsibilities of producers and operators,and incoherent connection of legal system,etc. Therefore,some suggestions were given,including revising Animal Disease Prevention Law in time,improving relevant legal systems and supporting rules,clarifying the responsibilities of producers and operators,strengthening the connection with other departments and legal systems,and paying attention to the publicity and implementation of laws.

                    Keyword:棋牌大全下载安装 legal system of animal disease prevention; Animal Disease Prevention Law; suggestions on legislation; publicity and implementation of laws;

                  棋牌大全下载安装   MEIGUO、DEGUODENGFADAGUOJIADONGWUFANGYILIFALISHIYOUJIU,JUYOUJIAOQIANGDEXITONGXING、KEXUEXING、KECAOZUOXING,XINGCHENGLEJIAOWEIWANBEIDEDONGWUFANGYIFALVTIXI。《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUODONGWUFANGYIFA》(YIXIACHENG《DONGWUFANGYIFA》)ZUOWEIWOGUODONGWUFANGYIFALVTIXI“DINGLIANGZHU”,WEICUJINWOGUOCHUMUYEFAZHAN,JIAQIANGDONGWUYIBINGFANGKONG,BAOZHANGSHOUYIDUIWUJIANSHE,WEIHUYANGZHIYEANQUAN、DONGWUYUANSHIPINANQUAN、GONGGONGWEISHENGANQUANFAHUILEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。DANSUIZHEGUONEIWAIDONGWUFANGYIXINGSHIDEBUDUANBIANHUA,QIZAISHISHIGUOCHENGZHONGYEBAOLUCHUXINWENTI。2018NIAN,GUOJIAZHENGSHIQIDONG《DONGWUFANGYIFA》XIUDINGGONGZUO。BENWENTONGGUOZONGJIEFADAGUOJIADONGWUFANGYIFALVTIXITEDIAN,BIJIAOFENXILEDANGQIANWOGUODONGWUFANGYIFALVTIXICUNZAIDEWENTI,TICHU《DONGWUFANGYIFA》XIUDINGDEYOUGUANSIKAO,QIWANGTONGGUOBUDUANWANSHANGEXIANGFALVZHIDU,TUIDONGCHUMUSHOUYISHIYEDEKECHIXUFAZHAN。

                    1 、国外动物防疫法律体系特点

                    1.1、 体系健全,覆盖面广

                    FADAGUOJIATEBIESHIYANGZHIYEFADAGUOJIASHIFENZHUZHONGDONGWUFANGYIFALVTIXIJIANSHE,QIFALVTIXIFUGAIMIANGUANG,PEITAOGUIZHANGQIBEI,HANGAI“CONGNONGCHANGDAOCANZHUO”QUANGUOCHENG,BAOKUODONGWUSIYANG、SHENGCHAN、TUZAI、JIAGONGJILIUTONGDENGGEGEHUANJIE。RUDEGUOZHIDINGDONGWUWEISHENGJISHOUYIGONGGONGWEISHENGFANGMIANDEFALVYOU16BU,FAGUIYOU87BU,SHEJIYIBINGKONGZHI、DONGWUYUANXINGSHIPINANQUAN、SHOUYAOGUANLIDENG7DAFANGMIAN;YINGGUOSHEJIDONGWUWEISHENGHEFULIDEFALVYOU150DUOJIAN;MEIGUODONGWUWEISHENGFALV、XINGZHENGGUIZHANGDOUSHOULUYU《MEIGUOLIANBANGFADIAN》,BAOKUODONGWUWEISHENGFALVYOU15BU、XINGZHENGGUIZHANGYOU134BU,SHEJIDONGWUWEISHENGHESHIPINANQUANGONGZUODEGEGEHUANJIE。

                    1.2 、制度具体明确,操作性强

                  棋牌大全下载安装   ZHENDUIMEIXIANGGONGZUODOUYOUZHUANMENGUIFANXINGWENJIANHUOZAIFALVZHONGDANDUSHEZHIZHANGJIE,GONGZUONEIRONG、GONGZUOCHENGXUXIANGXIWANZHENG,MINGQUEGAOZHIXIANGYINGDEZERENZHUTIYINGGAI“ZUOSHENME”“ZENMEZUO”。YISHIGENJUSHANGWEIFASHEJIZHIDINGPEITAOGUIZHANG。RUDEGUO,YI《DONGWUYIBINGFA》WEIJICHUZHIDINGDONGWUYIBINGFANGKONGFANGMIANDEPEITAOGUIZHANG,YI《DONGWUBAOHUFA》WEIJICHUZHIDINGDONGWUBAOHU、DONGWUFULIFANGMIANDEPEITAOGUIZHANG;ERSHIGENJUDONGWUFANGYIGONGZUOZHONGDIAN,YOUZHENDUIXINGDEJIAQIANGLIFA。RUMEIGUORENYINSHIYIHONGROUWEIZHU,SUOYIMEIGUOGUANYUHONGROUDONGWUDESHENGCHAN、CHANDIJIANYI、TUZAIJIANYIDENGFANGMIANZHIDINGDEXINGZHENGFAGUIDUOQIEXIANGXI,MEIGUO《LIANBANGROULEIJIANYIFA》CONGXIAODUYEDEPEIZHIDAOKEYIBINGCHUDEZHONGLEIDOUGUIDINGXIANGXI,QIEBIANYUCAOZUO;SANSHIZAIFAGUIZHONGYINYONGBIAOZHUN,ZENGJIAKECAOZUOXING。RUMEIGUOZAIDONGWUWEISHENGXINGZHENGGUIZHANGZHONGYINYONGBIAOZHUNNEIRONG,YOUDEZHIJIEJIANGBIAOZHUNZUOWEIGUIZHANGDEZHENGWEN,ZHIJIEFUYUJISHUBIAOZHUNXIANGYINGDEFALVXIAOLI。

                    1.3 、职能清晰,主体责任明确

                    动物防疫工作的组织管理方面,发达国家有较为明确的分工,法律法规明确规定动物疫病监测、通报、净化消灭等工作中政府、主管部门、生产经营者的主体责任,有利于各司其职、互相配合,注重全过程管理,确保各项制度落实到位。如美国《动物保护法》明确了动物疫病净化消灭工作中,政府负责确定净化消灭病种、监管净化消灭计划实施并为消灭计划实施提供经费保障等,生产经营者负责支付产地检疫费用,承担消毒、隔离、治疗、销毁、无害化处理等工作。再如日本《家畜传染病预防法》中,任何一项工作通常首先明确指出其责任主体,有利于建立各个环节的责任倒查机制。
                   

                  我国动物防疫法律体系建设问题与修订思考
                   

                    1.4 、修订及时,适应工作形势

                  棋牌大全下载安装   GUOWAIDONGWUFANGYIFALVTIXIJISHIXINGQIANG,RUBUSHIYINGFAZHANXUQIU,JIDUIQITIAOKUANJINXINGXIUZHENG(DING)。RUMEIGUO《LIANBANGFADIAN》MEINIANDOUHUIXIUDING1CI,DUIGEXIANGTIAOKUANYINXINGSHIBIANHUAERZUOCHUXIANGYINGDIAOZHENG;RIBEN《JIACHUCHUANRANBINGYUFANGFA》ZI1951NIANSHOUCIBANBUYILAI,ZHIJINYIXIUDING13CI,QIPEITAO《SHISHIXIZE》ZI1951NIANBANBUYILAI,ZHIJINXIUDINGLE158CI,TONGCHANGSHIMEINIANSHANG、XIABANNIANGEXIUDINGYICI。

                    2 、我国动物防疫法律体系建设存在问题

                    2.1 、部分法律制度配套不完善

                    XIANGJIAOYUGUOWAIFADAGUOJIA,WOGUODONGWUFANGYIFALVTIXIZAIXITONGXING、KECAOZUOXINGSHANGYOUQIANQUE。BUFENFALVZHIDUJINTICHULEYUANZEXINGGUIDING,WUPEITAODESHISHIXIZEHUOGUIFANBIAOZHUN。MUQIAN,BUFEN《DONGWUFANGYIFA》ZHONGTIJIDEPEITAOFAGUI、GUIZHANG、GUIFANXINGWENJIANDENGWEIZHIDING,RUGUANFANGSHOUYIGUANLIBANFA、DONGWUYUNZAIGONGJUDENGDEFANGYIYAOQIU、YESHENGDONGWUJIANYI、RUYONGDONGWUJIANKANGBIAOZHUNDENG,ZHEIZHONGLIFAXIANZHUANGHUISHIDEXUDUOGONGZUODEKAIZHANWUZHIXINGYIJU,GEDIGONGZUOWUTONGYIBIAOZHUN。

                    2.2、 部分法律制度缺失或法律依据不充分

                  棋牌大全下载安装   YISHIJINGHUA、XIAOMIEFANGMIAN,DONGWUYIBINGJINGHUAXIAOMIEGONGZUOZAIXIANYOUFALVCENGMIANQUEFAXIANGGUANGUIDING,XUYAOZAIFALVZHONGJISHIBUCHONG。ERSHIWUHAIHUACHULIFANGMIAN,XIAN《DONGWUFANGYIFA》ZHONGJINGUIDINGLEXIANGGUANCHANGSUOYINGDANGPEIBEIWUHAIHUACHULISHESHISHEBEI,YIJIFASHENGZHONGDADONGWUYIQINGSHIGENJUXUYAOCAIQUWUHAIHUACHULI,BINGWEIDUIWUHAIHUACHULIZHUTIZEREN、CHUZHIFANGSHI、BUCHANGJIZHIDENGJINXINGJUTIGUIDING,MEIYOULIUXIAPEITAOGUIZHANGJIEKOU,XUYAOXIUDINGZENGJIA。CIWAI,DONGWUZHENLIAOSHIGUDECHULI、CANCHUSHENGYUWUDEGUANLIDENGZAI《DONGWUFANGYIFA》ZHONGYEMEIYOUXIANGGUANGUIDING,XIANGGUANANJIANCHULISHIQUESHAOFALVYIJU。

                    2.3、 生产经营主体责任不明确

                    SHENGCHANJINGYINGZHESHIDONGWUFANGYIGONGZUODEZHIJIECANYUZHE,YINGCHENGDANQIXIANGYINGZHUTIZEREN,ERWOGUODONGWUFANGYIFALVTIXIZHONG,DUIYANGZHI、TUZAI、YUNSHUDENGSHENGCHANJINGYINGZHEYINGGAICHENGDANDEFALVYIWU、FALVZERENBIAOSHUBUMINGQUE,QUESHAOYOULIDECHENGCHUCUOSHI,DAOZHIZHUTIZERENLUOSHIBUDAOWEI。

                    2.4、 与其他部门工作、法律衔接不明确

                  棋牌大全下载安装   DONGWUFANGYIGONGZUOSHEJIDUOGEGUANLIBUMEN,《DONGWUFANGYIFA》ZHONGDUIQITAZHENGFUXIANGGUANBUMENZHIZEDEGUIDINGGUOYULONGTONG,BULIYUFENGONGXIEZUO,GEFUQIZE。TONGSHI,DONGWUFANGYIFALVTIXIYUCHUMUYE、SHIPINWEISHENG、NONGCHANPINANQUANDENGFALVTIXIZHIJIANXIANJIEBUGOU,RUDUIDONGWUCHANPINYUNSHU、JINGYINGHUANJIEDEJIANGUANZHUTIFALVGUIDINGBUQINGXI,CUNZAIDUOTOUZHIFAHEZHIFAKONGBAIDENGWENTI。

                    3、《动物防疫法》修订有关思考

                    3.1 、修订完善相关法律制度

                    JIANYU《DONGWUFANGYIFA》ZHONGXIANGGUANZHIDUCUNZAIQUESHI、BUWANSHANYIJIBUSHIYINGDANGQIANGONGZUODENGSHIJIQINGKUANG,YAOTONGGUOJISHIXIUGAILAIXIUDINGWANSHANXIANGGUANFALVZHIDU,RUDUIQIANGZHIMIANYI、DONGWUYIQINGJIANCE、CHUQINBIAOSHI、DONGWUYIBINGKEZHUISUGUANLI、DONGWUJIDONGWUCHANPINDIAOYUNDENGZHIDUJINXINGXIUDINGWANSHAN,DUIZHIDUJINXINGDIAOZHENGYOUHUA;YAOBUCHONGDONGWUYIBINGXIAOMIE、JINGHUA、WUHAIHUACHULIDENGZHIDU,MINGQUEXIANGYINGDEZHUTIZERENHEGONGZUOJIZHI,WANSHANFALVSHOUQUAN。TONGSHI,HAIYAOTONGGUODUIGEZHANGJIETIAOKUANDEZHUTIAOSHULI,BUCHONGWANSHANBIYAODEFALVZEREN,ZHELIXINGCHENGYANMIYANGE、KEXUEHELIDEZERENTIXI。

                    3.2、 健全相关配套法律规章

                    JIANQUANDEFALVPEITAOGUIZHANGSHIFALVDEYOUXIAOSHISHIHEYIFAXINGZHENGTIGONGLEYOULIDEZHIDUBAOZHANG。ZAIDUI《DONGWUFANGYIFA》JINXINGXIUDINGDETONGSHI,YEYAOJISHIDUIQIPEITAOGUIZHANGJINXINGQUANMIANSHULI,YANJIUZHIDINGSHANGWEIPEITAODEGUIZHANG,XIUDINGWANSHANXIANYOUDEPEITAOGUIZHANG,JIAKUAIPEITAOGUIZHANGDELIFAJINCHENG,ZENGQIANGSHOUYIFALVFAGUIDEXITONGXINGHECAOZUOXING,TONGGUOBUDUANWANSHANJIANQUANWOGUODONGWUFANGYIFALVTIXI,YANGELUOSHIGEXIANGDONGWUFANGYIGUANLIZHIDU,SHIXIANDONGWUFANGYIGONGZUODEZHENGTITIGAO。

                    3.3、 明确各生产经营者主体责任

                    MINGQUEHEYASHISHENGCHANJINGYINGZHEDEZHUTIZEREN,TONGSHI,YASHIDIFANGZHENGFUDESHUDIZERENHEQITABUMENDEZHIZE。JINYIBUZAI《DONGWUFANGYIFA》JIQIPEITAOGUIZHANGZHONGMINGQUEDONGWU、DONGWUCHANPINSHENGCHANGEHUANJIESHENGCHANJINGYINGZHEDEFANGYIZHUTIZEREN,QIANGDIAOQIZAIMIANYI、JIANCE、JIANCE、WUHAIHUACHULI、YIBINGJINGHUAFANGMIANDEFALVZEREN,JIADAWEIFAXINGWEICHUFACHENGBEN,TIGAOCANYUDONGWUFANGYIGONGZUODEJIJIXING。

                    3.4 、推动相关法律体系衔接协调,强化部门间协作机制建设

                  棋牌大全下载安装   WANSHANYU《CHUMUFA》《SHIPINANQUANFA》《NONGCHANPINZHILIANGANQUANFA》DENGFALVFAGUIZAIDONGWUYIBINGFANGKONGFANGMIANDEXIANJIE,LISHUNGONGZUOJIZHI。GOUJIAN“GEFUQIZE、GEJINQINENG”DEZERENTIXI,ZAI《DONGWUFANGYIFA》ZHONGMINGQUEYOUGUANBUMENZERENHEFALVXIANJIE,RUZAIDONGWUYIBINGJIANCEZHIDUHEDONGWUYIQINGTONGBAOZHIDUDENGFALVZHIDUZHONG,MINGQUEKEJI、HAIGUAN、LINYEDENGBUMENDEZHIZE,JIAQIANGBUMENJIANDEPEIHEXIEDIAO,ZUOHAODONGWUFANGYIZONGHEGUANLI,GOUJIANXIEDIAOTONGYIDEDONGWUFANGYIGONGZUOJIZHI,MANZUXINXINGSHIXIADONGWUYIBINGFANGKONGXUQIU。

                    3.5、 积极开展法律宣贯工作

                  棋牌大全下载安装   YAOJIADAQUANMINPUFAGONGZUOLIDU,TIGAOQUANMINDONGWUFANGYIYISHIHEFAZHIGUANNIAN。ANZHAO“SHEIZHIFA、SHEIPUFA”DEGONGZUOYUANZE,LIYONGWANGLUO、DIANSHI、BAOKAN、XUANCHUANCEDENGQUANMEITIXINGSHI,JIJIKAIZHANDONGWUFANGYIFALVFAGUIZHENGCEXUEXIJIAOYU、XUANJIANGJIEDU、ANLITONGBAODENG,ZHELIJIAQIANGDUIGELEISHENGCHANJINGYINGZHEDEFAZHIXUANCHUANJIAOYU,BAOZHANGQUANLIANTIAOSHANGDECHUCHANPINZHILIANGANQUAN。

                    参考文献

                    [1] 王浩君.主要大陆法系国家法国、德国动物卫生法律:体系框架研究[D].内蒙古:内蒙古农业大学,2006.
                    [2] 翁崇鹏.我国兽医法律体系框架及兽医人员立法研究[D].扬州:扬州大学,2014.
                    [3] 张绍军,陈向武,李卫华.关于完善我国动物防疫法律体系的几点思考[J].中国动物检疫,2017,34(7):43-45.
                    [4] 李卫华,李鹏,李昂,等.日本动物防疫法律介绍及特点分析[J].中国动物检疫,2015,32(8):40-42.
                    [5] 贾广敏,班曼曼,金喜新,等.中美畜禽屠宰检疫体系对比[J].中国动物检疫,2018,35(2):20-23.

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