棋牌大全下载安装

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                        当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 工程师论文 > 车内空气质检中质量控制图的制作与运用

                        车内空气质检中质量控制图的制作与运用

                        时间:2018-12-20 10:34作者:晁华 张龙 胡曼 史斌
                        本文导读:这是一篇关于车内空气质检中质量控制图的制作与运用的文章,车内空气污染物及其对人体健康的影响受到广泛关注,其中车内空气中挥发性有机物的检测在管控车内空气质量中起着重要作用,在检测过程中,质量控制是确保数据可靠性和有效性的关键。

                          摘    要: 质量控制图是质量控制活动中一种重要的评价方法,是实验室提供稳定可靠的检测结果的有力手段。为了保证车内空气质量检测过程中数据的真实可靠性,以车内空气中甲苯的检测为例,对控制图在车内空气质量检测中的应用进行分析和探讨,结果发现质量控制图能够直观且及时有效地控制车内甲苯测定的分析质量,确保分析结果准确可靠,使检测过程处于稳定而又进行动态受控的状态。

                          关键词:棋牌大全下载安装 车内空气质量; 控制图; 质量控制;

                          1、 前言

                        棋牌大全下载安装   CHENEIKONGQIZHILIANGGUANXIDAORENMENDESHENXINJIANKANG,CHENEIKONGQIZHONGHUIFAXINGYOUJIWUHANLIANGDEJIANCEYOUWEIZHONGYAO。CHENEIKONGQIZHILIANGDEJIANCEYINSHOUDAOHUANJINGDEBODONG、CHENEIKONGQIZUFENDEFUZAXING、BUFENDAICEWUZHIHANLIANGDEWEILIANGSHUIPING、RENYUANQINGKUANGJIYIQISHEBEIDETIAOJIANDENGYINGXIANG,DAOZHICESHIJIEGUOZAIXIANXINGHEZHONGFUXINGJIAOCHA,YINCI,WEIHUODEZHUNQUE、YOUXIAO、WANZHENGQIEJUYOUDAIBIAOXINGDECESHISHUJU,CHUQIANGHUAYINGJIANPEIZHIWAI,SHIYANSHINEIBUZHILIANGKONGZHIJISHUYESHIGUANJIANCUOSHI。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   SHIYANSHINEIBUZHILIANGKONGZHIDEFANGFAZHUYAOYOURENYUANBIDUI、FANGFABIDUI、SHEBEIBIDUI、LIUYANGFUCE、KONGBAICESHI、ZHONGFUCESHI、HUISHOULVSHIYAN、BIAOZHUNQUXIANHECHAYIJIZHILIANGKONGZHITUDENG[1],QIZHONG,ZHILIANGKONGZHITUSHIZHILIANGKONGZHIHUODONGZHONGDEZHONGYAOPINGJIAFANGFA,QILIYONGSHUXUEJISUANDEFANGFADUISHUJUZHILIANGDEBIANHUAJINXINGZHIJIEMIAOHUI,NENGDUISHUJUDEYICHANGBIANHUAHEBIANHUAQUSHIJINXINGJISHIFENXI,PANDINGSHUJUSHIFOUZAIKEKONGFANWEINEI,CONGERCAIQUBIYAODECUOSHIJINXINGJIUZHENG,QUEBAOSHUJUCHUYUSHOUKONGZHUANGTAI[2]。HJ/T400—2007《CHENEIHUIFAXINGYOUJIWUHEQUANTONGLEIWUZHICAIYANGCEDINGFANGFA》FULUB.7.3.4ZHONGYEGUIDINGLERICHANGFENXIZHILIANGKONGZHICAIYONGZHIKONGTULAIWANCHENG,ZAIYIDINGDESHIJIANJIANGENEI,QULIANGFENPINGXINGKONGZHIYANGPIN,ZHISHAOZHONGFUFENXI20CI,ZHIZUOJUNZHIKONGZHITU。CAIYONGKONGZHITUDUIFENXIGONGZUOJINXINGGUANLIHEKONGZHI,KEYIBIMIANXITONGWUCHA,JIANSHAOOURANWUCHA,FAXIANJIANCEGUOCHENGZHONGCUNZAIDEYICHANGBODONGBINGJIAYIKONGZHI。YINKONGZHITUZAICHENEIKONGQIZHILIANGFANGMIANDEYINGYONGYANJIUJIAOSHAO,YINCIYIJIABENWEILI,DUIKONGZHITUZAICHENEIKONGQIZHILIANGJIANCEZHONGDEYINGYONGJINXINGJIESHAO。

                          2 、控制图简介

                          KONGZHITUSHIDUIGUOCHENGGUANJIANZHILIANGTEXINGZHIJINXINGCELIANG、FENXI、GAIJIN,CONGERJIANCEGUOCHENGSHIFOUCHUYUKONGZHIZHUANGTAIDEYIZHONGTONGJIGONGJU,QICAIYONGZUOTUDEFANGSHILAIBIAODASHOUKONGDEZHILIANGZHIBIAO,TONGGUOLIANXUJILUSHUJU,ZHIGUANDIDUIJIEGUOJINXINGPANDING,LIYONGTAKEYIQUFENZHILIANGBODONGSHIYOUOURANYUANYINHAISHIXITONGYUANYINYINQIDE。

                          控制图由中心线(CL)、上控制线(UCL)、下控制线(LCL)、上警告线(UWL)、下警告线(LWL)以及抽取样本统计量数值的描点序列组成。在统计过程中,如果核查数据点落在警告线之内或落在警告线与控制线之间,但前2个核查数据点落在警告线之内,则说明方法受控;当连续7个核查数据点单调上升或下降,或连续11个点中有10个点在中心线的同侧,则说明方法受控但统计失控;当核查数据点在上、下控制线之外,或核查数据点落在控制线和警告线之间,且前两个核查数据点中至少有1个也落在该范围内,则说明方法失控;当出现后两种情况时,应及时排查纠正[3]。
                         

                        车内空气质检中质量控制图的制作与运用
                         

                        棋牌大全下载安装   ANSHIYONGMUDEDEBUTONG,KONGZHITUZHUYAOFENWEIFENXIYONGKONGZHITUHEKONGZHIYONGKONGZHITULIANGLEI,ERANTONGJIJILIANGFENLEI,KONGZHITUFENWEIJILIANGKONGZHITUHEJISHUKONGZHITU,QIZHUYAOLEIXINGYOUPINGJUNZHIYUJICHAHUOBIAOZHUNCHAKONGZHITU、PINGJUNZHIYUYIDONGJICHAKONGZHITU、ZHONGWEISHUYUJICHAKONGZHITU、BULIANGLVKONGZHITUHEQUEDIANSHUKONGZHITUDENG[4],HUAXUESHIYANSHICEDINGGUOCHENGZHONGCHANGYONGDEWEIPINGJUNZHIYUBIAOZHUNCHAHUOJICHAKONGZHITU。QIZHONG,PINGJUNZHIKONGZHITUBIAOMINGXITONGKONGZHINENGLI,ZHUYAOYONGLAIPANDUANXITONGXIAOYINGDUICEDINGGUOCHENGDEYINGXIANGSHIFOUZENGDA,YONGYUKAOCHAZHUNQUEDU;ERBIAOZHUNCHAHUOJICHAKONGZHITUBIAOMINGSUIJIKONGZHINENGLI,ZHUYAOYONGLAIPANDUANSUIJIXIAOYINGDUIGUOCHENGDEYINGXIANGSHIFOUZENGDA,YONGYUKAOCHAJINGMIDU,ZHIYOUZAILIANGGEKONGZHITUZHONGDEBIANLIANGJUNZAIKONGZHIXIANNEICAIBIAOMINGGAIGUOCHENGSHISHOUKONGDE[5]。

                          KONGZHIYANGPINDELEIXINGBAOKUO4LEIJIYOUZHENGBIAOZHUNWUZHI/BIAOZHUNYANGPIN,BIAOZHUNRONGYE、SHINEIYANGPINHUOSHINEIBIAOZHUNWUZHI/BIAOZHUNYANGPIN,KONGBAIYANGPIN,DAICE(CHANGGUI)YANGPIN[3]。ZAIRICHANGGONGZUOZHONG,TONGCHANGJIANYICAIYONG2ZHONGBUTONGNONGDUDEZHIKONGYANGPIN,NONGDUYIGAOYIDI,XINGCHENGYIGEKONGZHIFANWEI,QIZHONGYIGEZHIKONGYANGPINZAICANKAOFANWEINEI,LINGYIGEZHIKONGYANGPINDENONGDUZAIBIAOZHUNPANDINGZHISHUIPINGCHU。WEIJIANHUAGUOCHENG,BENWENJINCAIYONGDANYINONGDUDEJIABENSHINEIBIAOZHUNYANGPINWEIKONGZHIYANGPIN,CAIYONGPINGJUNZHIHEJICHAKONGZHITUWEILIJINXINGFENXI。

                          3 、试验方法

                          3.1、 主要设备

                          ZHUYAOSHEBEIRUXIA。

                          a.POJINAIERMOGONGSISHENGCHANDERETUOFU-QIXIANGSEPU/ZHIPULIANYONGYI,XINGHAOWEIATD650/Clarus680/SQ8。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   b.POJINAIERMOGONGSISHENGCHANDEMAOXIGUANQIXIANGSEPUZHU(Elite624),ZHUZHANGWEI60 m,NEIJINGWEI0.32 mm,MOHOUWEI1.8μm。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   c.POJINAIERMOGONGSISHENGCHANDEBUXIUGANGTenax-TAXIFUGUAN。

                          3.2 、试剂

                          JIABENBIAOZHUNYANGPIN(HUANBAOBUBIAOZHUNYANGPINYANJIUSUO),YIJUWOGUOZUIXINZHIDINGDE“GB/T 15000BIAOZHUNYANGPINGONGZUODAOZE”XILIEBIAOZHUNXUANQU,QUEBAOSHIYANJIEGUODEKEXUEXINGHEHELIXING。

                          3.3 、色谱条件

                        棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIQILIUSUWEI1.2 mL/min;CHENGXUSHENGWEN:CHUWEN50℃BAOCHI10 min,YI5℃/minDESULVSHENGWENZHI250℃,HENGWEN5 min。

                          3.4、 检测方法

                          CEDINGFANGFACAIYONGHJ/T 400—2007《CHENEIHUIFAXINGYOUJIWUHEQUANTONGLEIWUZHICAIYANGCEDINGFANGFA》ZHONGFULUBGUIDINGDEFANGFA。

                          4、 控制图的制作

                          4.1、 控制图制作流程

                        棋牌大全下载安装   GENJUKONGZHITUSHIYONGMUDEDEBUTONG,FENWEIFENXIYONGKONGZHITUHEKONGZHIYONGKONGZHITULIANGLEI。FENXIYONGKONGZHITUYONGYUZHILIANGHEGUOCHENGFENXI,YANJIUGONGXUHUOSHEBEIZHUANGTAI,HUOQUEDINGMOUYI“WEIZHIDE”GONGXUSHIFOUCHUYUKONGZHIZHUANGTAI;KONGZHIYONGKONGZHITUYONGYUSHIJIDESHENGCHANZHILIANGKONGZHI,KEJISHIFAXIANYICHANGZHUANGKUANG,HUOQUEDINGMOUYI“YIZHIDE”GONGXUSHIFOUCHUYUKONGZHIZHUANGTAI。DANGGUOCHENGDADAOQUEDINGDEWENTAIHOU,JIANGFENXIYONGKONGZHITUDEKONGZHIXIANYANZHANG,JIDEDAOKONGZHIYONGKONGZHITU。BENSHIYANSHIZHIZUOKONGZHITUDELIUCHENGRUTU1SUOSHI。

                          4.2 、控制图的绘制

                          CAIYONGBIAOZHUNRONGYEPEIZHI100μg/mlDEJIACHUNJIABENRONGYE,ANZHAOSHANGSHUSHIYANTIAOJIAN,CHOUQU1.0μlJIACHUNJIABENRONGYEZHURURETUOFUGUANZHONGJINXINGXIFUCHULI,DEDAOZHIKONGYANGPIN,CAIYONGRETUOFUQIXIANGSEPUZHIPULIANYONGYIDUIQIJINXINGFENXI,MEIYUECESHI1CI,MEICILIANXUCEDE2GESHUJUZUOWEI1GEZIZU,TIANRUKONGZHITUXIANGYINGDEBIAOGEZHONG。ZHONGFUGAIGUOCHENG,TICHUYI

                          CHANGZIZUHOU,GONGHUODE20GEZIZU,RUBIAO1SUOSHI,ZIZUPINGJUNZHIHEJICHAYEYIBINGZAIBIAO1ZHONGJICHU。

                          图1 控制图制作流程图
                        图1 控制图制作流程图

                          表1 甲苯质控样测定值及统计值
                        表1 甲苯质控样测定值及统计值

                          SUOYOUCELIANGZHIDEZONGPINGJUNZHIX?、BIAOZHUNCHAsHEPINGJUNJICHARˉDEJISUANRUXIA。

                          a.ZHONGXINXIANCL=Rˉ=3.18μg/ml;

                          b.BIAOZHUNCHAs=JICHADEJUNZHI/d2=3.18/1.128=2.82μg/ml;

                        棋牌大全下载安装   c.UWLR=DWL×s=2.833×2.82=7.99μg/ml;

                          d.UCLR=D2×s=3.686×2.82=10.39μg/ml(YINWEIJICHAZONGSHIZHENGZHI,SUOYIZHIYOUSHANGKONGZHIXIAN);

                          e.XISHUd2、DWL、D2DEZHIYOUBIAO2[3]ZHONGZHONGFUCISHUn=2XINGCHADE,YOUSHANGSHUKEDEJICHAKONGZHITURUTU2SUOSHI。YOUYUTU1ZHONGDEJIEGUOJUNCHUYUJICHAKONGZHITUDEKONGZHIXIANNEI,SUIRANTU2ZHONGDI2GEDIANCHUYUJINGGAOXIANZHIWAI,DANSHIQIQIAN、HOUKONGZHIDIANDEZHIJUNLUOZAIJINGGAOXIANZHINEI,GUJICHAKONGZHITUXIANSHIGUOCHENGCHUYUSHOUKONGZHUANGTAI。

                          表2 计量控制图计算控制线系数表
                        表2 计量控制图计算控制线系数表

                          图2 检测结果的极差控制图
                        图2 检测结果的极差控制图

                        棋牌大全下载安装   PINGJUNZHIKONGZHITUHUIZHIRUTU3SUOSHI。

                          a.ZHONGXINXIAN;

                        棋牌大全下载安装   YOUTU3KEYIKANCHU,JIANCEJIEGUOSHIWENDINGKEKAODE。ZONGHEJICHAHEPINGJUNZHIKONGZHITUKEYIKANCHU,BENSHIYANSHINEIJIABENDEJIANCECHUYULIANGHAODESHOUKONGZHUANGTAI,SHUOMINGJIANCEZHILIANGSHIJIBENWENDINGDE,YINCI,KEYIYANZHANGKONGZHIXIAN,DEDAOKONGZHIYONGKONGZHITU。ZAIRICHANGFENXIGUOCHENGZHONG,MEIPICIYANGPINZHONGCHARULIANGGEZHIKONGYANGPINYUDAICEYANGPINYIQIFENXI,RANHOUJIANGLIANGGEKONGZHIYANGPINJIEGUODEPINGJUNZHIDIANZAIKONGZHITUSHANG,FENXIJIANCEZHILIANGDEBIANHUAQINGKUANG,JIANKONGJIANCEGUOCHENGSHIFOUCHUYUWENDINGSHOUKONGZHUANGTAI。

                          图3 检测结果的平均值控制图
                        图3 检测结果的平均值控制图

                          5、 控制图的应用

                          5.1、 常规质量控制

                        棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIRICHANGJIANCEGONGZUOZHONG,FENXIMEIPICISHI,ZAICEDINGYANGPINQIANHEWANCHENGBENPICIYANGPINCEDINGHOUJINXINGZHIKONGYANGPINDEJIANCE,JIANGCEDINGHOUDEJIEGUODIANZAIKONGZHITU3DEYANZHANGXIANSHANG,RUGUOZHIKONGYANGPINDESHICEZHIZAIKONGZHIXIANZHINEI,SHUOMINGGAIGUOCHENGWEIKEKONGDE,GAIPICIYANGPINDEFENXIJIEGUOSHIKEXINDE,RUGUOZHIKONGYANGPINDESHICEZHIZAIKONGZHIXIANZHIWAI,SHUOMINGGUOCHENGSHIKONG,FENXIJIEGUOBUKEXIN,YINGJINXINGJIANCHABINGCAIQUXIANGYINGDECHULICUOSHI,RANHOUDUIGAIPICIYANGPINJINXINGZHONGXINCEDING。CIWAI,ZAICESHIFANGFA、SHEBEIDENGFANGMIANFASHENGGAIBIANSHI,DOUYINGZHONGXINHUIZHIZHIKONGTU,JIANCEFENXIZHILIANGDEBIANHUA,BAOZHENGJIANCEZHILIANG。

                          5.2 、标准溶液期间核查和有效期的判定

                        棋牌大全下载安装   BIAOZHUNYANGPINYINGZAIDIWEN4℃HEBIGUANGTIAOJIANXIABAOCUN。XINGOUMAIDEZHUANGYUANBUPINGZHONGDEBIAOZHUNRONGYEQIXIANYONGRIQIYIJUCHANGJIABIAOSHI,ZAIWEIKAIPINGDEQINGKUANGXIA1~2NIANNEIKEYONG,ERDUIYUYIJINGKAIFENGDEBIAOYANGJIPEIZHIHAODEDINONGDUBIAOZHUNRONGYE,QISHIYONGQIXIANBINGWEIYOUMINGQUEGUIDING,YINCIKEYICAIYONGZHIKONGDEFANGSHIDUIQIXINGZHUANGHEYOUXIAOQIJINXINGPANDING。MEIGE10TIANJIANGBIAOYEXISHICHENG100μg/ml,ZAITONGYISEPUTIAOJIANXIAJINXINGCESHI,JIANGCEDEDEJIEGUODIANZAIKONGZHITU3DEYANZHANGXIANSHANG,GUANCHAZHIKONGQINGKUANG。KAISHI,JIANCEDIANJUNYUNDELUOZAIZHONGXINXIANFUJIN,YIDUANSHIJIANHOU,JIANCEDIANKAISHIPIANLISHANGXIAKONGZHIXIAN,BIAOYENONGDUFASHENGPIANCHA,BIAOYESHIXIAO。

                          5.3、 测量不确定度的评定

                          BUQUEDINGDUDEPINGDINGFANGFAZHUYAOYOUJINGMIDUFA、KONGZHITUFA、XIANXINGNIHEFAYIJIJINGYANMOXINGFA[6]DENG4ZHONG。QIZHONGKONGZHITUFA(Top-DownFA)YIBANSHIYONGYUCHANGGUIHUAJIANCELINGYU,ZAICAIYONGKONGZHITUJINXINGBUQUEDINGFENXISHI,KEYITONGSHIBACELIANGSHUJUZUOWEIZHILIANGKONGZHIHUOQIJIANHECHASHUJUDESHURU[7]。ZAIQIJIANJINGMIDUCELIANGTIAOJIANXIA,SHIYANSHIANZHAOSHIJIANXULIEDUIKONGZHIYANGPINJINXINGCELIANG,RANHOUJIANLIDANZHITUHEYIDONGJICHATU,ZAIQUEBAOGUOCHENGSHOUKONGHEPIANYIDETIAOJIANXIA,QIJIANJINGMIDUBIAOZHUNCHAJIWEISHIYANSHIHUODEDEHECHENGBIAOZHUNBUQUEDINGDU,KUOZHANBUQUEDINGDUWEILIANGBEIDEQIJIANJINGMIDUBIAOZHUNCHA。

                          6 、结束语

                          CHENEIKONGQIWURANWUJIQIDUIRENTIJIANKANGDEYINGXIANGSHOUDAOGUANGFANGUANZHU,QIZHONGCHENEIKONGQIZHONGHUIFAXINGYOUJIWUDEJIANCEZAIGUANKONGCHENEIKONGQIZHILIANGZHONGQIZHEZHONGYAOZUOYONG,ZAIJIANCEGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHILIANGKONGZHISHIQUEBAOSHUJUKEKAOXINGHEYOUXIAOXINGDEGUANJIAN。ZHILIANGKONGZHIFANGFAJIAODUO,ZHIKONGTUZUOWEITANTAOJINGMIDUHEZHUNQUEDUYIZHONGFANGFA,JUYOUJIANDAN、ZHIGUAN、FANGBIAN、KUAIJIEDETEDIAN,QIJIANGTONGJISHUJUZUOTU,GENGJIAKEGUANDIFANYINGDANGQIANSHEBEISHIFOUCHUYUKEKONGZHUANGTAI,ZHUZHONGYONGSHUJUSHUOHUA,JISHIFAXIANYICHANGBIANHUAJIQUSHI,CONGERCAIQUJISHIYOUXIAODECUOSHIJIAYIJIUZHENG,BUDUANYOUHUAHEGAIJINFENXIGUOCHENG,TIGAOXIAOLV。ZAIRICHANGGONGZUOZHONG,CAIYONGZHIKONGTUKAIZHANZHILIANGKONGZHIGONGZUO,CAOZUOXINGQIANG、SHIYONGXINGDA,DUIFENXIGUOCHENGJINXINGKONGZHIHEGUANLISHIHUIDEDAOJIAOHAODEJIEGUO。

                          参考文献

                          [1]周利英,左鹏飞.浅析化学检测实验室的质量控制[J].理化检验(化学分册), 2015, 51(10):1448-1450.
                          [2]鲁刚华.关于实验室分析中质量控制图应用及影响因素的探讨[J].资源节约与环保, 2015(1):59-64.
                          [3] 中国合格评定国家认可委员会.化学分析实验室内部质量控制指南——控制图的应用CNAS-GL39:2016[s].2016.
                          [4] 国家质量技术监督局.常规控制图:GB/T 4091-2001.[S].2001.
                          [5] 张林田,黄少玉,张冬辉,陆奕娜.化学检测实验室内部质量控制方式探讨及结果评价[J].理化检验(化学分册), 2013, 49(1):94-97.
                          [6] 中国国家标准化管理委员会.检测实验室中常用不确定度评定方法与表示:GB/T 27411-2012[s].2012.
                        棋牌大全下载安装   [7]李怿,白正伟,王桂英.利用控制图进行测试系统质量控制和不确定度评定[J].理化检验(化学分册), 2017, 53(10):1195-1199.

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