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                          1. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 教育教学论文 > 初中语文教学中追问方法的运用

                            初中语文教学中追问方法的运用

                            时间:2018-12-16 10:42作者:姚琦男
                            本文导读:这是一篇关于初中语文教学中追问方法的运用的文章,有人认为追问是即兴的,随性的,是可遇不可求的,其实不然。教学过程充满不确定性,教师对问题的预设是必要的。教师要追问的问题应该层层递进,逐层深入,环环相扣,激起学生求知的欲望,更深层次地读透文章。

                              摘    要: 师生之间的问答是语文课堂上经常性的活动,教师常常通过“问”来激发学生的思维,提高学生的学习兴趣,实现与学生的互动,从而达到教学目的。课堂提问是学生在师生之间的问答中获得知识,不断成长。追问,即追根究底地问,它是一种更高的课堂提问方式,是提问基础上的深化,既保持了思考的延续性,又能对文本进行深度解读,将知识层层推进,引导学生的思维向更深、更广的方向发展。在初中语文教学中,追问教学是一种重要的教学策略,通过预设问题,把握恰当的难度和时机,层层递进,实现教学目标,培养学生良好的思维品质。

                              关键词: 课堂教学; 追问策略; 互动; 预设;

                            棋牌大全下载安装   《LIJI·XUEJI》ZHONGTIDAO“SHANWEN”HE“SHANDAIWEN”,JIAOSHIYINGSHANYUDUIDAIXUESHENGDEHUIDA。《LUNYU》SHIKONGZIYUDIZIZAIWENDAZHIJIANCHANSHENGDEJIEJING,ZAIBUDUANDEZHUIWENZHONG,KONGZIHEDIZIYANYUJIANCHANSHENGDIANGUANGHUOSHI,PENGZHUANGCHUZHIHUIDEHUOHUA,TONGKUAILINLI。KONGZIMINGTUZIGONGLIKOUQIAOCI,CHANGCHANGLINGKONGZI“CHANGCHUQIBIAN”。ZAI《LUNYU·ZILU》LI,ZIGONGWENYUE:“HERUSIKEWEIZHISHIYI?”ZIYUE:“XINGYIYOUCHI,SHIYUSIFANG,BURUJUNMING,KEWEISHIYI。”ZIGONGYUE:“GANWENQICI?”YUE:“ZONGZUCHENGXIAOYAN,XIANGDANGCHENGDIYAN。”ZIGONGZAIWEN“GANWENQICI?”ZIYUE:“YANBIXIN,XINGBIGUO,KENGKENGRANXIAORENZAI!YIYIKEYIWEICIYI。”ZIGONGYOUWEN:“JINZHICONGZHENGZHEHERU?”ZIYUE:“YI!DOUSHAOZHIREN,HEZUSUANYE?”ZAIYISHANGDUIHUAZHONG,WOMENKANDAOKONGZIDUI“SHI”ZHIXINGWEIBIAOZHUNDEKANFA,ZAIZIGONGDEYICICIZHUIWENZHONG,KONGZIJIANG“SHI”DESANGECENGCICHANSHUDEJIWEITOUCHE,ZHEIDUANZHUIWENSHANYAOZHECHUNQIUXIANZUZHIHUIDEGUANGMANG。ZAIXIANSHIJIAOXUEZHONG,RUHECAINENGZUODAOYOUQIANRUSHEN、YOUCIJIBIDEYOUXIAOZHUIWENNI?

                              一、追问要预设好问题

                              有人认为追问是即兴的,随性的,是可遇不可求的,其实不然。教学过程充满不确定性,教师对问题的预设是必要的。教师要追问的问题应该层层递进,逐层深入,环环相扣,激起学生求知的欲望,更深层次地读透文章。课堂追问是预设与即兴的统一体。即兴,是教师依据学生的回答适时增加、减少、调整要问的问题,它需要教师的随机应变,需要教师的教育机智;追问需要教师深厚的专业功底,它与教师的个人思想、学识、人生境界、课前准备程度、课堂的应变能力相关。预设问题要求教师读透文本,深入理解文本,还要了解学生学情,把握他们的心理特征。问题犹如风筝,线是攥在教师手里的,不管学生如何回答,教师要掌握好教学方向,不能偏离教学目标。教师在预设问题时,可以先设置主问题,主问题是贯穿全文的“牵一发而动全身”的问题,可以将一个主问题衍生成几个稍微简单的小问题进行追问,这样可以化难为易,学生不至于产生挫败感。再以主问题设计其他小问题,小问题回答对了,学生会有成就感,这时教师再往下追问比较合适。追问应设置在凸显主题的关键处、解析文章的重难点处、细节处和学生容易出错的地方。如在教冰心的文章《谈生命》前,先设计文章要达到的教学目标的主问题:生命像什么?生命的本质是什么?作者宣示一种怎样的人生观?这些贯穿全文的主问题不适合用来追问,学生也无法立刻回答这样的主问题。所以在这凸显主题的关键处,分解设置一串小问题来追问,把主问题融入小问题中,主问题和小问题互相融合,保持思考的延续性。因此,设计适合追问的小问题是:一江春水、一棵小树分别经历了哪几个生命历程和生命状态?在这些过程中,春水和小树表现出他们怎样的心理品质和情绪状态?由此可以看到生命的本质是什么?用这些小问题进行追问,学生能从文本中找到四个“有时候”、四个“也许”、“破壳出来”“成长”“中年”“归化”,来回答春水和小树经历的生命历程和生命状态;学生能从文章内容和语句的品味中回答出春水和小树的心理品质和情绪状态;最后得出“快乐和痛苦是生命之歌的基本旋律”的生命本质,在主题凸显处预设的小问题让教师追问起来胸有成竹,同时本文的主问题——对于主题的挖掘也就迎刃而解了。
                             

                            初中语文教学中追问方法的运用
                             

                              二、追问要调控好难度

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                              三、追问要把握好方式

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                              四、追问要把握好契机

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                              YOUTAIRENDECONGMINGYUANYUTAMENDESHENGHUOLINIAN———“JINTIANNITIWENLEMA?”“JINTIANNIZHUIWENLEMA?”ZHEISHIYUWENJIAOSHIZAIKEHOUFANSISHIYINGKAOLVDEYIGENEIRONG。ZHUIWEN,KEYIZHUIGENSUYUAN、SHENHUALIJIE、YOUXIAOZHIYI、QIANYIZHISHI。KETANGSHANGZUODAOYOUXIAOZHUIWEN,JIANGHENHAODISHIXIANYUWENKETANGJINGCAIDESHISHENGHUDONG,KAIQIXUESHENGDEZHIHUI,SHIXUESHENGGENGSHENRUDILIJIEWENBEN。

                              参考文献

                              [1] 杨伯峻.论语译注[M].北京:中华书局出版社,2011.
                              [2] 魏怀仓.打造初中语文高效课堂的实践与思考[J].新课程研究(下旬刊),2012,(01).

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