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                            1. 热门标签:代写本科论文 写作发表 工程师论文 代写一篇论文多少钱
                              当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > “天人关系”在春秋时期人物品评中的体现

                              “天人关系”在春秋时期人物品评中的体现

                              时间:2016-06-14 17:27作者:学位论文网
                              本文导读:这是一篇关于“天人关系”在春秋时期人物品评中的体现的文章,摘 要: 春秋时期,思想界处于天人关系由天到人转变的过渡状态, 思想界天人二元思维模式交错并存。伴随着社会的剧烈变革, 春秋

                                ZHAI YAO: CHUNQIUSHIQI,SIXIANGJIECHUYUTIANRENGUANXIYOUTIANDAORENZHUANBIANDEGUODUZHUANGTAI, SIXIANGJIETIANRENERYUANSIWEIMOSHIJIAOCUOBINGCUN。BANSUIZHESHEHUIDEJULIEBIANGE, CHUNQIUSHIQIDERENWUPINPINGZHIFENGFEICHANGXINGSHENG, BINGCHUXIANLEZHONGGUOLISHISHANGDIYIGERENWUPINPINGDEGAOFENG。SIXIANGJIEDETIANRENERYUANSIWEIMOSHISHIDECHUNQIUSHIDAIDERENWUPINPINGYEJUYOUDIANXINGDETIANRENERYUANDETEZHENG。 QIJUTIBIAOXIANWEIXIANGSHUGUANRENYUSHIJIKAOCHAXIANGJIEHE、 PINPINGRENWUYURENWUMINGYUNYUCEXIANGJIEHEDENGDENG。

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                              棋牌大全下载安装   CHUNQIUSHIQI,SIXIANGJIECHUXIANJULIEBIANGE。ZHEIYIBIANGEKEYIGAIKUOWEI:TIANRENGUANXIYOUTIANXIANGRENZHUANBIAN;RENWENLIXINGZHUJIANJUEXING;RENDEZHUTIJINGSHENZHUJIANJIAQIANG;SIXIANGSHIFASHENGZHE“CONGZONGJIAODAOLISHI”DETUPO,HUOZHE“CONGZONGJIAODAOZHEXUE”DETUPODENGDENG。ZAIZHEIZHONGZHUANBIANDEGUODUSHIQI,SIXIANGJIECHENGXIANCHUTIANRENERYUANSIWEIMOSHIJIAOCUOBINGCUNDEZHUANGTAI。 BANSUIZHESIXIANGSHIDEJUBIAN,RENWUPINPINGZHIFENGFEICHANGXINGSHENG,CHUXIANLEZHONGGUOLISHISHANGDIYIGERENWUPINPINGDEGAOFENG。 FASHENGZAISHANGCENGSHEHUIJINGYINGWENHUAQUANNEIDERENWUPINPINGYUDANGSHIDESHEHUISIXIANGZHUANGTAIMIQIEXIANGGUAN。 SIXIANGJIEDETIANRENERYUANSIWEIMOSHISHIDECHUNQIUSHIDAIDERENWUPINPINGYEJUYOUTIANRENERYUANZHITEZHENG。

                                一、 千面神灵和春秋思想界的天人二元状态

                                CHUNQIUSHIQI, SIXIANGGUANNIANDEBIANHUASHIDEZUOWEIRENDEGUANNIANTOUSHEWUDEZONGJIAOSHENLINGZHIXINGXIANGYEZAIFASHENGZHEBIANHUA。 RENMENDUISHENDEZUOYONG、YIYIJIQITEDIANYOULEBUTONGDEJIESHI。RU《ZUOCHUAN·XIGONGSHINIAN》:“CHENWENZHI,SHENBUXINFEILEI,MINBUSIFEIZU。 JUNSIWUNAITIANHU! ”[1](P334)《ZUOCHUAN·XIGONGSANSHIYINIAN》:“WEICHENGGONGMENGKANGSHUYUE:‘XIANGDUOYUXIANG。’GONGMINGSIXIANG,NINGWUZIBUKE,YUE‘GUISHENFEIQIZULEI,BUXINQISI’。 ”[1](P478)《LUNYU·WEIZHENG》:“FEIQIGUIERJIZHI,CHANYE。”[2](P60)QIANZHONGSHUYESHUO:“ZUOSHIJIXIANRENJUNZIZHIYANGUISHEN,JISUOYICHUIJIEQUAN。

                                CONGHUTU、NINGWUZIZHIYAN,ZEGUISHENBUXINFEILEI;ERYIGONGSUNQIAOZHIYAN,ZEGUISHENZHIXIN,YOUDEWULEI。CONGYANZIZHIYAN,ZEJUNHUNZHENGSHI,QIZUZHIGUISHENZHIERBUXIANG;YINEISHIGUO、SHIYINZHIYAN,ZEGUOJUNDUOLIANGDE,GUISHENQIEJIANGLINERQINGUAN,JUNJIZHI,GUISHENYIXIANGZHI,QIEYANGCITUDIYIYINSUQIWANG。 FUBI‘JIANG’,ERGUANQIE,SHIBUDEWEI‘CONGMING’YE;YANGCIFUERSHICUYANG,SHIBUDEWEI‘ZHENGZHI’YE;YIDEERBUYIREN,CHENGWEI‘YI’KEYE,CHAOWEIERSANQIDEYIKEYE。 ”[3](P304)KEJIANZHEIYISHIQI,GUISHENZAIRENMENDEBUTONGJIESHIZHONGQIANZIBAITAI,LICHANGBUYI,SHENZHIHAOWUYUANZE。 RENMENDUISHENDEZUOYONGDEDUOZHONGJIESHIBIAOXIANLESIXIANGBIANGEYUNNIANGJIEDUANDEZALUANQINGXING。 ZHONGGUODESHENYIKAISHIJIUYUYISHIXINGTAIJIEHEJINMI, ZHEIYITEDIANYIWEIZHEQIQUANWEIXINGBIRANSHOUZHENGZHIYISHIXINGTAIDEYINGXIANG。 QIANMIANSHENLINGDECHUXIANZHENGSHISHENLINGQUANWEISUIZHEZHOURENZHENGZHIDESHUAITUIERZOUXIANGSHIZHUIDEBIAOXIAN。BUDANZAIRENMENDEJIESHIZHONG, GUISHENDUIYURENSHIMIANKONGDUOBIAN,TAIDUBUYI,ERQIERENMENSHIGUISHENDETAIDUYEFASHENGLEBIANHUA。 RENDUIGUISHENDETAIDUYESHI“ERSANQIDE”,BIAOLIBUYI。

                                “RENZHISHIGUISHENYE,CHANGHUAIERXINYAN。SUIJIKOUSONGSHUOQI‘CONGMINGZHENGZHI’,ERWEICHANGBUYINYIQIWEIBIRAN,RUCHANGJUEQIJIJINQUYANFUSHISHIYE。 GULUOMARENZAOWEILIANGJUNXIANGDOU,‘SHANGDIYOUQIQIANGYOULIZHE’,TIANSHENXIDESHENGZHIREN。 JIWEIQIBUFURUOERFANZHUQIANG。 ”“YUZHISISHENFENGJIE,ERSHENBUYOU,FANGDAIJINMIEYUERXIANGJINZHISI,FEI‘TIANSHENXIDESHENGZHE’HU? FUMIEGUOYUYUZHE,JINXIANGONGYE,XIANGONGZHIXIONGYINBUDEERGUOGONGZHIBINGWULIANGDE,WANGZHONGYIJUWEI‘KEYI’ZHISAN;RANZEYUSHENZHIXINJINSI,SHIWEI‘JUNDUIQIANGDAZHE’SHI‘YI’ERYIYI,‘WEIDE’YUNHUZAI! ‘EXI’NANYI,‘YI’ZHIWEIYU。GAIXINSHIGUISHEN,ERYOUJUEGUISHENZHIBUKEXIN、BUZUSHI,WEIWUGUISHENZHIJIANQIANGZEQIAN、WEILISHIFU,ERYOUBUGANBUYANGYANQICONGMINGZHENGZHIERYI、PINGYIZAIDE,CIJINGFENGGUISHENZHEZHONGCHANGZHIBINGTANYE。 ”[3](P308)QIANMIANSHENLINGDECHUXIANHERENDUIGUISHENKANFADEDUOBIANSHIYINWEI,ZAILIBENGLEHUAI、RUOROUQIANGSHIDEZHANLUANSHIDAI,CANKUDOUZHENGZHONGDEBUKEKONGYINSUTAIDUO, GUISHENBINGBUNENGBANGZHURENMENQUDEDOUZHENGDESHENGLI。ZAIJUDADESHEHUIBIANGEMIANQIAN,GUISHENJIUHUICHONGFENXIANSHICHUQIXUHUANXINGLAI。 YINCI, CISHIDEGUISHENTUIJUERWEI,ZHISHIZUOWEIJIANZHENGZHEHUOJIANDUZHEDEYINSUERCUNZAI,WEIDOUZHENGZHONGDERENMENTIGONGSHENGLIDEGENJUHUOSHIBAIDELIYOU。 ZHENGYINWEIRUCI,DAOLECHUNQIUHOUQI,SHANGDIHESHENLINGDEQUANWEIZHUJIANSHIZHUI,ZHIKONGZIYIJING“BUYUGUAILILUANSHEN”,BINGYONG“WEINENGSHIREN,YANNENGSHIGUI” DETAIDUJIANGGUISHENWENTIGELIZAISIXIANGHUAYUZHIWAI。 GUISHENQUANWEISHIZHUIDEYUANYINSHISHANGZHOUSHIQIDETONGZHIZHEYIKAISHIJIUJIANGTIANDIGUISHENYUZISHENDEZHENGZHITONGZHIJIEHEQILAIDEYUANGU。DANGZHOUDEZHENGZHISHUAIWEIZHIHOU,ZAIYISHIXINGTAILINGYUWEIHUZHOURENTONGZHIDETIANDIGUISHENYEYISUNJUSUN。

                                DANGRANSHENLINGDEXINGXIANGHERENDUISHENLINGDETAIDUYESHIZHUJIANYANBIANDE, ZHEICONGSHANGZHOUQINGTONGQISHANGDEDONGWUWENYANGDEYANBIANZHONGYEKEYIKANCHULAI。 YINWEISHANGZHOUQINGTONGQIJIQISHANGMIANDEDONGWUHUAWENYUZONGJIAOSHENLINGGUANNIANYOUMIQIEGUANXI。ZHANGGUANGZHIRENWEI,SHANGZHOUQINGTONGQISHANGDEDONGWUWENYANGNAISHIZHULIWUXITONGTIANDIGONGZUODEGEZHONGDONGWUZAIQINGTONGYIQISHANGDEXINGXIANG。 SHANGZHOUQINGTONGQISHANGDEDONGWUXINGXIANGJIQIFENGGEDEBIANHUAFANYINGLEZONGJIAOSHENLINGGUANNIANYOUSHENGERSHUAIDEYANBIANGUOCHENG。

                              棋牌大全下载安装   SHANGZHOUSHIDAITIXIANZAIQINGTONGQISHANGDEMEISHUFENGGEKEYIFENWEISANGEBUTONGERLIANXUDE“SHI”,JIGAOBENHANSUOCHENGDEGUDIANSHI、ZHONGZHOUSHIYUHUAISHI,YIJIGUOMORUOSUOCHENGDEGUDIANQI、TUIHUAQIYUZHONGXINGQI。CONGGUDIANSHIDAOHUAISHI,ZHUANJIUZHUANGSHIMEISHUZHONGDEDONGWUERYAN,SIHUYOULIANGDIANZHONGYAODEBIANHUA:DIYI,ZAIZAOQI, TAOTIEJIQITADESHENYIDONGWUSIHUJUYOUHENDADESHENLIYUZHIPEIXINGDEYINGXIANG,ERDAOLEWANQI,ZHEIZHONGYOULISHENGDONGDEWENYANGBIANDEYINXIDAIBAN,SIHUBUFUJUYOUNEIZHONGSHENQIDELILIANG。

                                DIER,ZAISHANGDAIJIXIZHOUZAOQIDEQIWUHUAWENLI,RENSIHUJINYOUBEIDONGDEYULISHUXINGDEDIWEI, ERDAOLEDONGZHOUSHIDAIRENZEBIANCHENGLEDONGWUDEZHENGFUZHEHUOZHISHAOSHITIAOZHANZHE。 ZHEIXIEDOUCHENGSHIYIZHONGRENDUIYUZHEILEISHENYIDONGWUDEXINTAIDU, YIZHONGBUFUNENGCHENGWEIJINGWEIDEXINTAIDU。[4](P412-415)ZAISHANGZHOUDEZAOQI, SHENQIDEDONGWUJUYOUHENDADEZHIPEIXINGDESHENLI,DUIDONGWUERYAN,RENDEDIWEISHIBEIDONGYULISHUXINGDE。DAOLEZHOUDAIDEHOUQI,RENCONGDONGWUDESHENHUALILIANGZHIXIAJIETUOCHULAI,CHANGCHANGYITIAOZHANZHEDEZITAICHUXIAN,YOUSHISHENZHICHENGWEISHENGLIDEYIFANG。

                                另外,在商周之早期的神话中,动物的功能也主要发挥在人的世界与祖先及神的世界之沟通上,而到了周代后期,神话动物与神的世界被归入了一个范畴之内, 而人与动物为敌成为对于神的反抗的一种象征。 东周时代,在政治思想上,争雄的各国君主对宗周权威进行挑战, 其表现在神话上,被挑战的对象就是上帝、天,以及神与自然的世界。所以,东周时代的神话不但很清楚地要强调神界对人世上权威的支配力量的微弱, 而且常常把上帝描述成一个与人为敌的形象。[4](P431-432)宗教神灵的迷雾逐渐消退之后, 便是人对自身力量的真正发现。 人真正思考如何运用自己的力量建立社会秩序,把握人类的未来。一方面人们通过总结历史探求社会治理经验,这就形成了《左传》、《国语》、《战国策》等大量的历史散文。另一方面, 知识界的精英人物围绕社会秩序的建设问题展开思考和争鸣,从而形成了丰富的诸子散文。值得注意的是, 思想界在思考社会秩序和政治治乱的同时,也注重人的精神世界的建设问题。葛兆光《中国思想史》认为,战国时期百家争鸣围绕三种话题:宇宙时空、社会秩序、个人存在。[5](P143-179)各家在关注社会秩序的同时,也关注个人存在。在宗教神灵观念衰减之后, 人如何才能实现永恒和不朽, 人当如何生活在当下等都成为一些争论的焦点话题。 时代精英围绕这些问题进行了深刻的思考。 关于“人”的一系列学术思想也在这一时期纷纷建立起来。而知人、论人等学说体系的发达是思想界“哲学的突破”之后,人的思想视野内传,并最终回归人本身的反应。 道家和儒家都非常关注个人存在。 道家和儒家依据各自对宇宙时空和社会人生的理解, 确立自我价值, 开辟内在的精神境界。 对个人价值的重视是思想界天人关系的重心由天转向人的体现。 宗教神灵的衰落伴随着人的理性精神的觉醒。没有理性精神的觉醒,没有人的主体意识的成长, 就没有对个人价值的深刻反思和内在观照。天人关系由天转向人是经过了一个相当漫长的历史时期才完成的。 春秋时期正是思想观念的重心从神向人转变的过渡时期。 这一时期从各个方面都表现出了思想史过渡阶段的痕迹。 钱锺书在《管锥编》中说:

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