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                      • 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 康德对理性的认识维度和实践维度

                        康德对理性的认识维度和实践维度

                        时间:2018-11-23 09:50作者:孙甜甜
                        本文导读:这是一篇关于康德对理性的认识维度和实践维度的文章,康德的认识论不仅结束了独断论和经验论长久以来的争论,同时也将人的主体地位推至认识世界的制高点。其先验哲学思想启发了后世哲学家如胡赛尔创立的现象学中对先验要素的探究。

                          摘    要:棋牌大全下载安装 康德哲学主要分为认识论,道德论和目的论三部分,本文简要论述了其认识论和道德论哲学,且就认识论和道德论彼此间的联系、各自的意义和局限作了简要论述。

                          关键词:棋牌大全下载安装 理论理性; 实践理性; 康德;

                          一、理性的认识维度

                          (一)作为知识的先天综合判断

                          KANGDEZHEXUEZHILIYUDUIXIUMOWENTIDEJIEDA,KANGDERENWEIZHISHIDEQUEDINGXINGSHIBURONGZHIYIDE,ZHISHIZHEIZHONGQUEDINGXINGLAIZIHECHU?

                          ZHISHIZUOWEIYIZHONGPANDUANJUYOUSANZHONGBUTONGDEXINGSHI。XIANTIANFENXIPANDUAN—JICONGGAINIANBENSHENTUIYANCHUQIGUIDINGXING,QIJUYOUQUEDINGXING,RANERQUEWUNEIRONG;LINGYIZHONGSHIHOUTIANZONGHEPANDUAN,ZONGHEPANDUANKEYIQUEBAONEIRONGDEFENGFUXING,DANWUFAFUYUZHISHIRENHEPUBIANBIRANXING。KANGDERENWEIZHIYOUDISANZHONGXINGSHI,JIXIANTIANZONGHEPANDUAN,CAINENGCHENGWEIJIJUYOUPUBIANBIRANXINGYOUJUYOUFENGFUNEIRONGDEZHISHI。ZHISHIYINCIJUYOUSHUANGZHONGDEGOUCHENGYAOSU,XIANTIANDEXINGSHIYAOSUHEHOUTIANDEJINGYANYAOSU。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   JINGYANKETIZISHENBUNENGJIWOMENDAILAIRENHEQUEDINGXING,ZHISHIDEQUEDINGXINGBIRANZAIRENSHIZHUTIZHINEI,JIZHUTIDEXIANTIANRENSHIXINGSHI。KANGDEJIANGZHUTIDEZHUGUANRENSHIXINGSHIHUAFENWEIGANXINGDEXIANTIANRENSHIXINGSHIJISHIKONGHEZHIXINGDEXIANTIANRENSHIXINGSHIJIFANCHOU。GANXINGZHIGUANFENWEINEIGANGUANHEWAIGANGUAN,NEIGANGUANDEXIANTIANXINGSHISHISHIJIAN,WAIGANGUANDEXIANTIANXINGSHISHIKONGJIAN。YINCISHIKONGJIUZUOWEIWOMENDEGANXINGCAILIAODEXINGCHENGJICHU,ZUOWEIGANXINGDEXIANTIANXINGSHI。RANERZHISHIZUOWEIYIGETONGYIZHENGTIBUSHI“GANXINGDEZADUO”DEMANGMULIANHE,ERSHIZHIXINGHUODONGDEJIEGUO,SHIBIAOXIANGDEZIJUELIANJIE。JINGYANDUIXIANGZISHENBUJUYOUTONGYIXING,ZHISHIDEKEGUANDETONGYIXINGGENYUANYURENSHIZHUTINEIDEZHUGUANDEZONGHETONGYI,JIJINGYANDETONGYIXINGSHIZHIXINGZONGHETONGYIDEJIEGUO。ZHIXINGTONGGUO“SANZHONGZONGHE”JI“ZHIGUANLINGHUIDEZONGHE”“XIANGXIANGZHONGZAISHENGDEZONGHE”HE“GAINIANZHONGRENSHIDEZONGHE”XINGCHENGTONGYIDEGAINIAN。ZHIXINGDETONGYIHUODONGDEZUIGAOYUANZESHI(XIANYAN)TONGJUEDEXIANYANTONGYIJIZIWOYISHI,TONGJUEDEXIANYANTONGYISHISUOYOUJINGYANDUIXIANGTONGYIXINGDEZUIGAOLAIYUAN。ZIWOYISHIDEXIANYANTONGYIZUOWEIYIZHONGZHIXINGHUODONG,YIFANCHOUWEIZHONGJIE,PINGJIEXIANGXIANGLIJIEZHUSHIJIANGOUJIANDE“TUXING”WEIQIAOLIANG,SHIFANCHOUYUZHIGUANDUIXIANGXIANGJIEHE,GOUCHENGZHISHI。YINER,ZAICIYIYISHANG,KANGDESHUO“ZHIXINGWEIZIRANLIFA”[1]。

                          (二)纯粹理性的幻相

                          作为知识的先天综合判断,其仅适用于经验领域。对于理性想越过经验界限,获得关于先验对象的知识的企图,康德给予了批判,具体体现为对纯粹理性三大理念的批判:
                         

                        康德对理性的认识维度和实践维度
                         

                          1. 理性心理学的谬误推理

                          LIXINGXINLIXUEBENZHISHANGSHIYIZHONGJINGYANXINLIXUE,LIXINGXINLIXUEJIAYOU“WOSI”TUILUN“WO”DESHITIXING,QIESHITIXINGDE“WO”DESHUXINGJI“SIWEI”,RANER“WOSI”ZHISUOYIJIAZHUWODESUOYOUSIWEIZHISHANG,BUSHIBENZHIZAIXIAN,ZHISHILUOJIZAIXIAN,SHIZHISHIZHIXINGDEYIZHONGRENSHIXINGSHI,JITONGJUEHUOZHEZIWOYISHIDEXIANYANTONGYI。KANGDESHUO“TONGJUEDEXIANYANTONGYISHIYIQIERENLEIRENSHIDEZUIGAOYUANZE”,RANERTONGJUEDEXIANYANTONGYIZUOWEIYIZHONGZHIXINGHUODONG,ZONGSHIYAOJIEZHUYUFANCHOUDEYUNYONG,YINCIJINGYANDUIXIANGDETONGYIXINGBIANSHIFANCHOUDUIYIQIEZADUOSHEDINGDETONGYIXING,RANERFANCHOUSHIJINSHIYONGYUGOUZAOJINGYANDUIXIANGDE。TONGJUEDEXIANYANTONGYI(ZIWOYISHI)ZUOWEILUOJIZAIXIANDE“ZHUCI”,JINGUANJUYOUZHUGUANNEIDEKEGUANXING,ERQIBENSHENBUSHIGANXINGZHIGUANDEDUIXIANG。FANCHOUBUNENGYUNYONGYUQIZHISHANG。LIXINGPAIZHEXUEJIAJIANGLUOJIZAIXIANDE“ZIWOYISHI”RENWEISHIJUEDUIDEZHUTI,JIANGXIANXIANGDERENSHI,JIANGYIQIEJINGYANDUIXIANGDETONGYIXINGGUIYUJUEDUIZHUTI,ERBUZHIQIZHISHIYIZHONGRENSHIXINGSHIDETONGYI。QIBINGQIEJIANGZHUFANCHOUJIAZHIYU“JUEDUIZHUTI”,CONGERJIANG“JUEDUIZHUTI”YOUXIANHUAWEIJINGYANDUIXIANG,ERCONGZHEIGEJINGYANZIWOGENBENTUIBUCHUYIGE“XIANYANZIWO”DESHUXING。RENSHIDEZHUTIHEYICHENGWEIRENSHIDEDUIXIANG?KANGDEJIANG“JUEDUIZIWO”QUELIWEISHIJIANLINGYUDEDAODEZHUTI,ERZAIRENSHILINGYU,“ZIWO”ZUOWEI“WUZITI”SHIBUKERENSHIDE。

                          2. 理性宇宙论的二律背反

                          ERLVBEIFANDELIANGGEMINGTIDOUSHICUOWUDE,QICUOWUXINGDEGENYUANZAIYULIANGGEMINGTIDOUYOUYIGECUOWUDEJIASHEZUOWEIQIANTI。LIXINGYUZHOULUNJIASHE“SHIJIEZUOWEIYIGEZHENGTISHIKEYIRENSHIDE”。LIXINGZHUYIZHEHEJINGYANZHUYIZHECONGDUILIDESHIJIAOCHANSHULEDUISHIJIEDERENSHI,JIANGBUKEYONGYUZIZAIZHIWUDEFANCHOUZHURUYOUXIANWUXIAN,ZIYOUBIRAN,YINGUODENGTAOZHIZIZAIZHIWU,HUNXIAOLEZIZAIZHIWUHEXIANXIANG。XUZHIXIANXIANGSHIJIEDE“ZHENGTI”BENSHENYESHIYIGEXIANYAN“LINIAN”,TASHIWOMENRENSHIDEJIXIAN,SHIBUKEYUYUEDE。HEIGEERSHITUTUPOZHEIGEJIXIAN,JIANGXIANXIANGZIWOBENZHITONGYIQIETONGYIWEIJUEDUIJINGSHEN,ERZHEIZHONGJUEDUIJINGSHEN,JINGUANGUANZHIYIKEGUAN,SHIZHONGSHIRENSHINEIDEJUEDUIJINGSHEN,YINERYEJINSHIYIZHONGWEIXINZHUYI。WOMENSHIZHONGZHINENGYIBUTONGDESHIJIAOGUANCHASHIJIE,SHIJIEYEYINCICHENGXIANCHUBUTONGMIANMAO,ERSHIJIEDEZHENGTI,MEIYOURENLEIGUANCHAYINJIDEZIZAISHIJIE,ZHINENGSHILIXINGDEYIGELINIAN。

                          3. 经院哲学的理想

                          JINGYUANZHEXUEDELIXIANGJIUSHIXIANGBUYIKAOQINGGAN,DANCHUNJIEZHULIXINGZHENGMINGSHANGDIDECUNZAI。YUZHOULUNNEIDUISHIJIEYUANYINDEZHUIWEN,YIJINGTIXIANLEJINGYUANZHEXUEDEHENJI。YUZHOULUNDUISHANGDICUNZAIDEZHENGMINGYIOURANDEYOUXIANDESHIJIEWEIJICHUTUICHUSHANGDIDECUNZAI。XIANRANYIGEWUXIANDESHANGDIDECUNZAISHIBUNENGYIYIGEYOUXIANDEJINGYANSHIJIEWEIJICHUDE。SHEJILUNYIZIRANZHINEIDESHIJIAO,TONGGUOLEIBI,JIANGSHIJIEDEZHIXUGUIYUWANMEIDEWUXIANDESHANGDI。RANERQIYUXIANJIASHELE“SHIJIEYOUYIGEYUANYIN”,CAIJIANGSHIJIEDEZHIXUGUIYINYUTA,JISHANGDI。RUGUOSHIJIEMEIYOUYUANYIN,NEIGEBUCUNZAIDEYUANYINYEJIUBUKENENGSHIGESHEJIZHE。WULUNYUZHOULUNHAISHISHEJILUNZHONGJIUDOUGUIYUBENTILUN,YUZHOULUNHESHEJILUNCONG“SHIJIECUNZAIJIESHI”CHUFATUICHUSHANGDI,ZHEIYANGYIGESHANGDIBIYINGSHIZIYINDE,QIEBIRANCUNZAI,ERZHEIZHONGBIRANXINGBUZAIYINGUOLIANTIAOZHONG,QIZHISHIBAOHANYUQIGAINIANZHIZHONG。ZHEIYANG,JIUYOUHUIDAOBENTILUN,ERBENTILUNDEWENTIZAIYU,QISHENGCHENGSHANGDISHIWANMEIDE,CHENGCUNZAIJIWANMEI,TAMENCONGSHANGDIDEGUANNIANZHONGFENXICHULECUNZAIDE“SHUXING”。RANERCUNZAIQUEBUSHIYIGEWEIXIANG,BUSHIYIZHONGSHUXING。SHUOACUNZAI,BINGBUNENGJITADEGAINIANZENGJIARENHEDONGXI,ZHIBIAOMINGGAINIANYOUXIANGYINGLIZHENG。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   YOUCIKANGDEZAIRENSHILUNLINGYUNEIDUIKERENSHIDEJINGYANXIANXIANGHEBUKERENSHIDEWUZITIZUOLEYANGEQUFEN。LIXINGBUKENENGZAIXIANYANLINGYUDANCHUNPINGJIEZISHENHUODERENHEQUEDINGDEZHISHI。LIXINGDELINIANZAIRENSHILINGYUZHINENGZUOYIZHONG“DIAOJIEXING”DEYUNYONG。

                          二、理性的实践维度

                          KANGDEDUISHIJIANLIXINGXIANTIANYUANZEDEQUEDINGYUANYUDUIXIUMOLUNLIHUAIYILUNDEZHIYI,KANGDELITUWEIDAODEXUNZHAOKEKAODEJICHU。TARENWEIDAODEXINGWEIDEJICHUYIDINGBUHUIRUGONGLIZHUYIHELUNLIXIAOGUOLUNZHESUOYANYIXINGFUHEKUAILEWEIDAOXIANG。ZAIRENSHILUNZHONG,DAODEDEJICHUBIRANBUHUIYILAIYUJINGYAN,QIBIRANGENZHIYUSHIJIANZHUTIZHINEI,JISHIJIANLIXINGZHIZHONG。SHIJIANLIXINGNEIZHEIZHONGXIANTIANXINGSHIBIANSHIZUOWEIZHIYANMINGLINGDEDAODELV。DAODELVPAICHULEYIQIEJINGYANYINSU,QISHIYONGDUIXIANGSHICHUNCUIDEDAODEYIZHI,SHIYIZHIZIWOLIFADEJIEGUO。KANGDEJIANGWUTIAOJIANDEDAODEJICHUJIANLIZAIZHUTIZHINEI,RENWEIZUOWEIWUZITIDEWOJIBENZHIDEWO,ZHINENGSHIYIGESHIJIANDEDAODEDEWO。

                          JINGYANDEWOCHUYUYINGUOLIANTIAOZHONG,FUCONGYINGUOLV。ERRENSHIDEZHUTIBUTONGYURENSHIDEDUIXIANG,RENSHIDEDUIXIANGZUOWEIYIZHONGXIANXIANGCHUYUYINGUOLIANTIAOZHONGQIEWEIRENSHIXINGSHISUOSUZAO,RANERRENSHIZHUTIZISHENZUOWEILIXINGDEWOLISHUWUZITILINGYUSHIBUKEBEIRENSHIDE,TAJINJINFUCONGZISHEN,FUCONGJUEDUIDEWUTIAOJIANDEDAODEYIWU,QIXINGSHIJIUSHIDAODELV。

                          DAODELVZUOWEIYITIAOZHIYANMINGLINGJIJUEDUIMINGLING,CAIQUYIXIAXINGSHI“ZHIGENJUZHEIYANGDEZHUNZEXINGDONG,ZHEITIAOZHUNZENIKEYITONGSHIYEYIYUQIWEIYITIAOPUBIANFAZE。”[2]TAQIANGDIAOLEXINGDONGZHUNZEDEPUBIANYOUXIAOXING,JIYIGEXINGDONGDEZHUNZEKEYIPUBIANSHIYONGYURENHEREN,RENGRANKEYIBAOCHISHIJIANCENGMIANDEBUMAODUNHEYIYUCENGMIANDEYIGUANXINGJIBUHUIXIAOMIEZISHEN。ZHEITIAOZHIYANMINGLINGDELINGYIGEYIYUNJI“NIYAOZHEIYANGXINGDONG,YONGYUANDOUBANIDERENGEZHONGDERENXINGYIJIMEIGETARENDERENGEZHONGDERENXINGTONGSHIYONGZUOMUDE,ERJUEBUSHISHOUDUAN。”[3]JIRENRENDOUSHIMUDEZISHEN,WOMENDERENHEXINGWEIDOUBUYINGBAZISHENJITARENDANGZUOSHIXIANMUDEDESHOUDUAN,DUIRENSHIMUDEDEQUELIYIRANYESHIJIYUPUBIANHUADEXINGDONGZHUNZE。

                          DAODELVZUOWEIXIANTIANDESHIJIANYUANZE,SHIDULIYUJINGYANDE,WULUNMIANDUISHENMEJINGYANTIAOJIAN,DOUYOUJUCIERXINGDONGDEYIWU。DAODELVSHENZHIYINGGAISHIHENGLIANGSHANEDEWEIYIBIAOZHUN。RANERZUOWEIZHIYANMINGLINGDEDAODELVBINGFEIFENXIMINGTI,WUFACONGLIXINGYIZHIDEGAINIANZHONGTUIYANCHU,TAZHINENGSHIYITIAOZONGHEDESHIJIANDEXIANTIANMINGTI。

                          BUTONGYURENSHILUNDEXIANTIANYUANZE,DAODEYIZHIJISHIJIANLIXINGDEXIANTIANYUANZEDECUNZAIBINGBUNENGBIRANBAOZHENGDAODEXINGWEIDESHISHICUNZAI。YINCIZAIYIWUYUANZEDEJICHUSHANG,WEIQUEBAOYIWUYUANZECUNZAIDEHELIXING,KANGDETICHULELIXINGDESANDA“SHIJIANGONGSHE”。

                          YOUCIKANGDEWANCHENGLELIXINGJI“REN”DESHUANGZHONGHUAFEN,ZUOWEIXIANXIANGDEBIRANDEWOHEZUOWEIWUZITIDEZIYOUDEWO。RANERDUIYUDAODEDEWOQUEBUNENGYOURENHEGAINIANHERENSHI,ZHINENGSHIYIGECHUNCUIDESHIJIANDEDAODEDEWO。KANGDEYEYINCIZAIXIANXIANGHEBENTI、RENSHIHESHIJIANZHIJIANHUADINGLEYITIAOBUKEYUYUEDEHONGGOU。

                          三、康德认识论和实践论的意义与局限

                          KANGDEDERENSHILUNBUJINJIESHULEDUDUANLUNHEJINGYANLUNZHANGJIUYILAIDEZHENGLUN,TONGSHIYEJIANGRENDEZHUTIDIWEITUIZHIRENSHISHIJIEDEZHIGAODIAN。QIXIANYANZHEXUESIXIANGQIFALEHOUSHIZHEXUEJIARUHUSAIERCHUANGLIDEXIANXIANGXUEZHONGDUIXIANYANYAOSUDETANJIU。KAIQILEXIFANGZHUTIXINGZHEXUEHEXIANYANZHEXUEDEDAMEN。

                          ERQIYEJUYOUZHUDUOJUXIAN,LIRUDUIQIRENSHIYUANZEDESHIYONGFANWEIDEHUAFENWENTIDEZHENGLUN。TADUIXIANXIANGHEWUZITIZUOLEMINGQUEDEHUAFEN,ERDUIYUJIANGWUZITIZUOWEIGANGUANCAILIAODELAIYUANQUEWEIZUOMINGQUELUNZHENG,YOUCIYEYINFALEHEIGEERDEPIPAN。

                          KANGDEZAISHIJIANLUNZHONGJIANGSHIJIANYURENSHIDUANRANGEJUE,QUEBAOLEDAODEXINGWEIDECHUNJIEXINGHECHONGGAOXING,JUCHILEDANGSHIFANLANYUSHIDEGONGLIZHUYILUNLIXUE。RANERYEZHENGSHIYOUYUQIDAODEXINGWEIDEJICHUJINJINJIANLIZAIDAODEZHUTIDEYIZHIZILVHELIXINGDUISHANGDIDEJIASHEZHISHANG,BINGBUXUNQIURENHEJINGYANDEJIESHIHEBAOZHANG,YEDAOZHILEQIDAODELILUNJIAODIDEKECAOZUOXINGHEYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGDERUANRUOXING。

                          参考文献

                          [1] 康德着,邓晓芒译.纯粹理性批判[M].北京:人民出版社,2004:303.
                          [2]康德着,杨云飞译.道德形而上学奠基[M].北京:人民出版社,2013:52.
                          [3] 康德着,杨云飞译.道德形而上学奠基[M].北京:人民出版社,2013:64.

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