棋牌大全下载安装

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                                  1. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 戚继光的心学渊源与心学思想探析

                                    戚继光的心学渊源与心学思想探析

                                    时间:2018-11-23 09:55作者:朱美娣
                                    本文导读:这是一篇关于戚继光的心学渊源与心学思想探析的文章,戚继光赴浙抗倭,始投于钱德洪门下,细究心学,并于戎马倥偬之际向王畿问学。在各方熏染下,他笃信“良知”说,论学以“治心”为要,在方法上,反对当时盛行的空虚之法,坚持以“诚意”为工夫,从而有较深心学造诣。

                                      摘    要:棋牌大全下载安装 戚继光赴浙抗倭,始投于钱德洪门下,细究心学,并于戎马倥偬之际向王畿问学。在各方熏染下,他笃信“良知”说,论学以“治心”为要,在方法上,反对当时盛行的空虚之法,坚持以“诚意”为工夫,从而有较深心学造诣。同时,创造性地将心学思想运用于治军上,提出“治心”“练气”之说,主张将士以忠义之心相感召,同心戮力,尽分安民。

                                      关键词: 戚继光; 阳明心学; 治心;

                                      Abstract: During Qi Jiguang's fight against Japanese pirates in Zhejiang, he first studied mind philosophy from Qian Dehong and also studied from Wang Ji in his spare time. Under the influence of different people, he turned to “conscience”, saying that “Heart Governance” is the main point of the study. In terms of methods, he opposed the emptiness that prevailed at that time, insisting on “sincerity”. At the same time, he also creatively applied Philosophy of Mind to the military, advocating that the soldiers would be inspired by the heart of loyalty. They would work together to make the best of the people.

                                      Keyword: Qi Jiguang; Yangming's philosophy of mind; heart governance;

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                                      一、戚继光的心学渊源

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   QIJIGUANGSHENGYUJIAJINGQINIAN(1528),SHINIANWEIWANGYANGMINGZUZHIQIANYINIAN,BUJIJIANYANGMING。RANTASHENGHUODEQIANQI——JIAJINGSHIQI,ZHENGSHIYANGMINGDIZIJIYANGXINXUEDEZHONGYAOSHIQI。QIJIGUANGBUJINSHENCHUCIXINXUESICHAOZHIZHONG,SHOUQIYINGXIANG,ERQIEYUYANGMINGGAODIWANGJI、QIANDEHONGYOUZHIJIEYUANYUAN。

                                      (一)为钱德洪门下士

                                      王畿、钱德洪虽入阳明之门稍晚,但亲炙最久,所得良多。阳明将他们作为新入门弟子的“教授师”,1在阳明心学的传播过程中发挥了重要作用。戚继光也是通过他们对阳明心学有了进一步的认识。王畿《刑部陕西司员外郎特诏进阶朝列大夫致仕绪山钱君行状》中言及戚继光与钱德洪之间的关系:
                                     

                                    戚继光的心学渊源与心学思想探析
                                     

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                                      (二)与王畿的交往

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                                      二、戚继光的心学思想

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                                      QIJIGUANGSHENGYUJIAJINGQINIAN,ERSHISUIZUOYOUWEIJIAJINGERSHIQINIAN;ERSHILIUQIWEIJIAJINGSANSHISANNIAN(1554);SANSHISUIWEIJIAJINGSANSHIQINIAN(1558)。JUQISUOYAN,ZERENSHENGJINGJIEDEGENBENXINGZHUANBIANZAIJIAJINGSANSHIQINIANYIHOU,QIYUANYINZAIYUXINXUEWEIXUEGONGFURISHEN,QIZHIBIANHUAMINGXIAN。QIANYISHUJI,TARUQIANSHIZHIMENZAIJIAJINGSANSHISINIAN,SHIJIANSHANGZHENGHAOWENHE。GAIERYANZHI,QIJIGUANGDEXINXUESIXIANGZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAIYIXIAJIGEDADEFANGMIAN。

                                      首先,笃信“良知”,论学以“治心”为要。

                                      WANGYANGMINGNIANCHU“LIANGZHI”WEILUNXUEZONGZHI,YINGXIANGSHENYUAN。QIJIGUANGCHONGXINLIANGZHISHUO,TAQIANGDIAO:“ZHIYILIANGZHI,BIANKEJINGDAOSHENGXIANDIWEI,BIANKERIRIJIANYAOSHUN。”[7]259

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIQIJIGUANGKANLAI,“LIANGZHI”SHITIANMINGZHISHANXING。TAJIE《DAXUE》“MINGDE”YICIYUE:“FUMINGDE,WOZHISUODEHUTIANZHEYE。”[7]239CICHUDE“MINGDE”,YITONG“LIANGZHI”。RENDEZHEIZHONG“LIANGZHI”SHIBUYILAIHOUTIANWENJIANDE。TAZAI《WANGLIEFUMUBIAO》ZHONGSHUO:“FUQIDAO、CHENDAO,YIERYIYI。NVDEFUYURENLUN,TIANJIANGZHILIANGYE。YOUHESHIFUWENJIANXUEWENZAI?”[7]132JINZHEIZHONGLICHANG,JIUZHANGXIANCHUTASIXIANGZHONGBUTONGYUZHUXUEDEWANGXUEBIAOJI。

                                      DANSHI,RENDE“LIANGZHI”YOUYIYUWEIGEZHONGSHEHUIXIQISUOZHEBI,WANGYANGMINGQIANGDIAO“ZHILIANGZHI”ZHIGONG。QIJIGUANGYESHIFENZHONGSHIZHEIYIDIAN,TATIXINHE“ZHONGYITANG”YUE:“FANWOTONGCHAI,HEGUOENYUZIERBAIYUNIAN,SHOUSHENZHICHU,CISHENJIWEIGUOJIAZHISHEN。DANZHUANGNIANYILAI,WEIHUOCAI、SEYU、KOUTI、SHILISUODUO,RUSHIAILEEKU、TANSHENGWEISI,YOUSUOGUXI,ZELIANGZHISUIMIN。ZHONGYIQIEBUNENG,KUANGNENGYIYE?”[7]245YINER,WEIXUEXUYAOXIA“ZHILIANGZHI”ZHIGONG。TAZHICHU:“JINSHIRENQINGYIKANSHU,CIRIFAN,DAOYIHUI,ZHISHIQIAN‘SHENTILIXING’SIZIER。”[7]258

                                      “SHENTILIXING”SIZIKEWEIJIESHILEWANGYANGMING“ZHILIANGZHI”DEJINGSUI。QIJIGUANGBUJINLILUNSHANGRUCIRENSHI,YEZHENZHENGZUODAO“SHENTILIXING”。ZHEIYIDIAN,ZHIXUYAOKANKANTADE《ZHIZHITANGJI》ZHONGTAYURENJIAOWANG、XINGJUNDAZHANGDESHIWEN,JIUMINGBAIBINGFEIXUYAN。

                                      其次,反对空虚,主张“治心”以“诚意”为工。

                                      QIJIGUANGSHENGHUODEJIA、WANSHIQI,ZHENGSHIYANGMINGXINXUEZHENGLUNFENYUN、LIUBIJIANSHENGZHISHI,JINZHEZHONGWANGMENJIUYOUWANGJI、QIANDEHONGLIANGGEPAIXI。WANGJI、QIANDEHONGSUIBINGCHENGWANGMENGAODI,DANERRENDEJIANJIEQUECUNZAIJIAODAFENQI。DATISHUOLAI,QIANDEHONGZHUZHANGZAISHISHANGMOLIAN,ERWANGJIZEZHUZHANGZHIXINBENXIN,QICHABIEXIANGDANGYUSHANZONG“JIANWU”“DUNWU”ZHICHAYI。QIJIGUANGDUIDANGSHIXINXUELIUBIYOUMINGQUEPIPAN:“XUEDAOZHEYIJIANJINWEIYU,YIDUNWUWEIXIAN。TIANXIAZHIRENJIEYUQIUDUNWU,CHICONGJIANJIN,ERBUSIWURENSHENGBINGZHONGRENZHICAIDUO,SHANGZHIZHICAISHAO,ZHIYAOYIBUBIANDAOSHENGXIANDIWEI,QUEJIANGXIAXUEGONGFUBUKENTAOLUN。”[7]25QIJIGUANGMINGQUEFANDUI“ZHIXINBENXIN”ZHISHUO,ZHUZHANGYI“CHENGYI”WEIGONGFU,ZAISHISHANGMOLIAN。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   QIJIGUANGZAI《DAXUEJINGJIE》ZHONGSHUO:“YIZHICIERHOUWEIZHIZHICHENG。ZHENZHISHANWEITIANMINGSUOFUZHIBENRAN,GUNENGHAOZHIRUHAOHAOSE;ZHENZHIEWEIWUYUSUOSHENGZHIXIEHUI,GUNENGEZHIRUEECHOU。CHASHIDAOTIANMINGYUANTOUQUCHU,GUYIKEDEERSHI,ERYIZHISUOFA,JIEMINGDEYI。”[7]24JIEHE“MINGDE”LAICHANFA“CHENGYI”,YUYANGMING“《DAXUE》ZHIYAO,CHENGYIERYIYI”GUANDIANXIANGTONG。[8]242YINCI,“ZHIXIN”DEGUANJIANJIUZAIYU“CHENGYI”,TAZHICHU:

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   TIANDIZHIJIU,RIYUEZHIMING,CHENGERYIYI。JUSHENERFUYUAN,YIYIERTINGWAN,JIANZHAQIAOWEI,FENTABUYIZHIQING,ERZUMOTAOWUGUIYU,ZHONGGUIYUHUAZHE,YICHENGERYIYI。[7]244

                                      XIANRAN,ZAIQIJIGUANGKANLAI,“CHENG”BUJINSHITIANDI、RIYUEYUNXINGDETEZHI,YESHIHUACHENGTIANXIADEGONGFU。QISHIYEJIUSHISHANGSHU“KEDEERSHI,ERYIZHISUOFA,JIEMINGDEYI”ZHIYI。

                                      YINCI,“ZHIXIN”DEGUANJIANZAIYUZAIRICHANGSHIWUZHONGMOLIAN,YI“CHENG”DUIDAIYIQIESHIWU。TAQIANGDIAO:

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   WUYISHIBUWEISHAN,WUYIYUBUWEISHAN,WUYISHIBUSISHAN,JIJIUZENENGDONGTIANDI,XINGGUISHEN。WEIEZHIREN,WUYISHI、YIYU、YISHIBUWEIE,JIJIUYINENGDONGTIANDI,XINGGUISHEN。DANSHANZHEJIANGZHIBAIXIANG,EZHEJIANGZHIBAIYANGER。WURENXUEDAOZHISHEN,KEBUYOUSIZHUJILEIHU?ZIYANZIZUZHE,BUZUYIYUCI。[7]252

                                      ZHEILITEBIEQIANGDIAO“SIZHUJILEI”DUI“ZHIXIN”DEZHONGYAOXING,YUQIANDEHONGDEZHUZHANGZHENGXIANGTONG。QIANDEHONGYAN:“GAIXINWUTI,XINZHISHANGBUKEYIYANGONGYE。YINGGANQIWUERHAOEXINGYAN,YUSHIHUYOUJINGCHAKEZHIZHIGONG。CHENGYIZHIGONGJI,ZETIZIJIERYINGZISHUN,CHUXUEYIZHICHENGDE,CHESHICHEZHONGWUERGONGYE。”[9]123YOUCIMINGXIANKEKANCHUQIJIGUANGDUIQIANDEHONGXUESHUODEJICHENG。

                                      HUANGZONGXIPINGWANGJI、QIANDEHONGYUE:“LONGXIXUANYASASHOU,FEISHIMENZONGZHISUOKEXIFU,XIANSHENGZEBALANFANGCHUAN,SUIWUDADEYIWUDASHIER。”[10]226YINGGAISHUO,QIJIGUANGDUI“CHENGYI”ZHIGONGDEJIANCHI,HENHAODIBIMIANLEYANGMINGHOUXUEZOUXIANGKONGXUZHILIUBI,ZHENGZHANGXIANLEQIJIGUANGXINXUEZAOYIZHICHUNZHENG。

                                      第三,复其本性,心治即为圣人。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   ZHUXUEYUWANGXUEBENZHISHANGDOUSHIXISHENGZHIXUE,CHENGSHENGSHIWEIXUEDEZUIZHONGMUBIAO。RANERZAIDUISHENGRENBENZHIDEKANFASHANG,WANGYANGMINGYUZHUXIQUECUNZAIZHEJIAODAFENQI。ZHUXIRENWEISHENGRENSHIWUSUOBUZHI、WUSUOBUNENGDEREN。ERWANGYANGMINGZERENWEISHENGRENDETEZHIBUZAIBOXUEDUONENG,JINSHIQIXINCHUNHUTIANLIERYI。YINCI,WANGXUEZHUZHANG,ZHIYAOXINCHUNHUTIANLI,JIWEISHENGREN。QIJIGUANGYECHICIKANFA,TASHUO:

                                      “FANRENJIEKEWEISHENGXIAN。”SHENGXIANZHIDAO,BUWAIYUPIFUPIFUZHIXING,FEIQIANDONGZHIZHILI。DANFANRENOUNENGMIANQIANG,HUOKEYIYISHIWEISHENGXIAN,ERBUNENGSHISHIWEISHENGXIAN。HUOKEYIYISHIWEISHENGXIAN,ERBUNENGSHISHIWEISHENGXIAN。YOUJIEBUZIFANZHAOQIANGZILIMIAN,BIANWEISHENGXIANGAOSUNANXUE,ZIQIDUOYI,KESHENGTANZAI![7]252

                                      ZHEILIYOULIANGDIANZHIDEZHUYI,QIYI,SHENGXIANZHIXINGTONGHUPIFUPIFUZHIXING;QIER,ZHIYAOFANQIBENXING,JIKEWEISHENGXIAN。ZHEIZHENGSHIYANGMINGXINXUEZUIZHENLONGFAKUIZHICHU,YINWEIZAIXINXUELI,BUBEISHISUGUANNIANWURANDETONGXINZHIZHENQIAQIASHIXINXUERENSHISUOJILIZHUIQIUDE。QIJIGUANGZHENGSHIJICHENGLEZHEIZHONGXINDESHENGRENGUANNIAN,JIANCHIFANRENJIEKEWEISHENGXIAN。

                                      DANRENXINWANGWANGWEIHOUTIANSHENGSE、GONGMING、LILUZHILEIYUWANGSUOZHEBI,BINGBUJIUSHISHENGXIAN,RENGXUJIAYICHENGSHENGZHIGONG。QIJIGUANGTICHU:“RENXINGZHISUOYOUZHE,WUFUZHI;RENQINGZHISUOYUZHE,WUFANZHI。ZHONGRENKUNYUSHENGSEHUOLI,ERWUDUBUWEIKUNYAN,BIANCHUZHONGRENYITOUDI,JIUSHILUXINGSHENXIAN,JIANSHIHUOFO,BIANSHIZHONGRENZHONGSHENGREN,YOUHEXUJIANGYIDUANERQIUTAQIZAI?”[7]249CIYUJIANDANZHIJIE,BAWANGYANGMING“ERSHENGEGEZITIANZHEN,BUYONGQIURENGENGWENREN”ZHIYISHUODEGENGJIATOUCHEMINGBAI。[8]790

                                      三、戚继光心学思想在军事中的表现

                                      QIJIGUANGBUJINZHANGONGZHUOZHE,SUOXIANGPIMI,ERQIEZHEYOU《LIANBINGSHIJI》《JIXIAOXINSHU》DENGZHUANZHE,TANLUNZHIBINGFANGFAJICELVE,XIANGLAIWEIRENKANZHONG。5DANZHEIXIEBINGSHUYU《SUNZIBINGFA》《LIUTAO》DENGGUDAIZHEMINGBINGSHUYOUHENDAQUBIE。ZHEIGEQUBIEJIUSHI,ZUOWEIYIGEJUNSHIJIA,QIJIGUANGZUIKANZHONGDEBINGFEIQIANRENJIANGDEPAIBINGBUZHEN、JINGLIANWUYIDENG,ERSHIZHUZHONG“ZHIXIN”“LIANQI”。YINWEIZAIQIJIGUANGKANLAI,PAIBINGBUZHENDENGSHIDOUSHIZHIBINGZHICUZHE,ER“ZHIXIN”“LIANQI”CAISHIZHIBINGZHIJINGZHE。ZHEIZHENGSHIQIJIGUANGDEDUDEZHIMI。TATICHU:“XINWEIZHUJIANG,QIWEISHIZU,ZHIXINZEDELIANGJIANG,ZHIQIZEDEMENGZU,LIXIANGXUYE。”[7]263ZHEIZHONGSIXIANG,ZHENGSHIDELIYUYANGMINGXINXUE,ZIJIUQIDAZHE,LVELUNSHUDUAN。

                                      SHOUXIAN,ZHUJIANGYI“ZHIXIN”WEIYAO。YIBANERYAN,JIANGSHUAIDAIBING,DUOZHUIQIUJINGBINGMENGJIANG,JIANCHUANLIPAO,ERQIJIGUANGZEBAZHIXINFANGZAISHOUWEI。TASUOWEIDE“ZHIXIN”,ZHUYAOSHIZHIZHUJIANGZHIXIN。TASUOSHUODEZHUJIANG,BINGFEIDAJIANGZHIWEI,ERSHIZHIBIJIANG、DUIZHANG、SHAOZHANGDENGYOUDAIBINGZUOZHANZHIZEZHE。[11]230TASHUO:“JIANGZHIYUBING,DAIRENSHENZHIYOUXINHU?XINFUYUXIONG,ERYUNXULINGZHILI,CHOUZUOWANBIAN,DAIJIANGFUYUFA,ERBENXULINGZHIYUN,ZHIHUISANJUNZHEYE。XINBIYUWU,JIANGBIYUXIN,YIERJIYI。”[11]205

                                      ZAIQIJIGUANGKANLAI,JUNZHONGZHUJIANGYUSHIBINGSHIYITIDE,JIURURENDEXINYUSHENZHIGUANXI。RENXINSHISHENDEZHUZAI,ZHUJIANGJIUSHIJUNDUIDEZHUZAI,YIQIEJUNSHIHUODONG,DOUQUJUEYUZHUJIANG,YINCI,ZHUJIANGJIUSHIJUNDUIDELINGMING,QIYANDONGJINGMO、SUOQIUSUOYUJIUZHIGUANZHONGYAO。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   QIJIGUANGZHUZHANGWEIJIANGYAOXIANZHI“XINKOU”,SUOWEI“XINKOU”,ZHUYAOZHI“JIJINBO,GUANGTIANZHAI,CHIGONGMING,BAOSHOULING,YUSHIQIANYI”DENGZHONGZHONGWUYU、GONGMINGYU。[7]245ZHEIXIEYUWANGQIANZANGZAINEIXINSHENCHU,WANGWANGHUIZUOYOUZHUJIANGDEAIZENG、JUECEDENG,CONGERDAOZHIBAIJI,HUOXISHENGWUGUZHEZHIXINGMING。TAZHEIZHONGDUI“XINKOU”DEZHONGSHI,ZHENGYUWANGYANGMING“POSHANZHONGZEIYI,POXINZHONGZEINAN”DEZHUZHANGYIMAIXIANGCHENG。[8]168NEIME,RUHEZHI“XINKOU”NI?

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   QIJIGUANGTICHU:“SHOUJIAOYILISHENXINGJI,HANQIWAIYOU,MINGQIZHONGYI,ZUYISAIYUTIANDIZHIJIAN,ERSHENGSE、HUOLIWEIRENHAIZHE,XIQUZHI。”[12]365-366QIJUTIZUOFASHIXIANDU《XIAOJING》《ZHONGJING》《LUNYU》《MENGZI》《WUJINGQISHU》;RANHOUDU《CHUNQIU》《ZUOCHUAN》《ZIZHITONGJIAN》;ZUIHOUDU《DAXUE》《ZHONGYONG》,BINGZAIXINGJUNZHONGZHUJIANMOLIAN。ZONGTISHUOLAI,JIUSHIYILIXUEZHIXINZHIFAZHIZHUJIANGZHIXIN,FUQITIANLI,MIEQIRENYU。TAMINGYAN,ZHEIYANGXUNXUJIANJINDEMUDEZAIYUSHIZHUJIANG“ZHIXINXINGZHIYUAN。YUANJIELIUQING,RUJIANYUANYU”。[12]367RUONENGRUCIJINJIE,JIUKEZUODAO“SHANJIANGXINZHE,YIYIWEIPIANBI,ZHONGXINWEIJIAZHOU,LIYIWEIGANLU,JIESHENKONGJU,FANGHUQIFANG”DEZUIZHONGMUBIAO。[7]263-264

                                      ANCIFANGFA,ZHUJIANGRUONENGCHUQUXINKOU,ZAIXINGJUNDAZHANGZHIJI,JIUKE“YUNU、YUE、YUYUCHUFADEZHONGJIE,GUBUWANGSHA,BULULVE,BUJIGONG,BUYANZUI,BUTIYULIHAI,BUNAOYUSISHENG,JIECHUZIRANYI”,[7]264YEJIUNENGZUODAO“JINFENYIWEIXIN,ANMINYIWEIZHI,SHUGONGMING、FUGUI、SHIFEI、HUIYU,BUZUYILEI”。[7]265

                                      QIJIGUANGBUJINZAILILUNSHANGZHEIYANGZHUZHANG,SHIJIYERUCIJIANLV。JIAJINGSISHINIANQUDEZHANGSHAZHIJIEHOU,HUTINGWENWOKOUQIANGLVEBAIXINGSHANGQIANRENZANGYUZHOUZHONG,QIJIGUANGJIFASHI:“BUYUANFUGUO,WEIQITIANJIUCINANNV,JISHOUBING。”[7]258CIRI,CHONGRUWOKOUCHAOXUEJIUCHUBAIXINGJISHOUBING,BUYIZHANHUODUOSHAOWEINIAN。GANGCHETUI,WAICHUWOKOUJICONGSIMIANBAFANGFANHUICHAOXUE。QIJIGUANGZHENGSHIBUTANGONG,BUQIUMING,CAINENGQUANSHENERTUI。

                                      QICI,LIANBINGYI“LIANQI”WEISHOU。SUYANBAIWANXIONGBING,ZAIBINGSHIRENSHUZHONGDUODEQINGKUANGXIA,RUHE“QIQIANGRUOWEIYIREN,HEWANRENWEIYIXIN”SHIZHIBINGMIANLINDEZHUYAOWENTI。[12]210QIJIGUANGRENWEIJIULIANBINGERYAN,LIANXIWUYI、ZHENFA,NAIWEIMOJI,FEIZHIBENZHILUN。QIBENZAIYU“LIANQI”。QIJIGUANGSHIZHIYUE:

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   YIJIANGDUIBINGYAN,GUIHULIANXIN。YIBINGDUIDIYAN,GUIHULIANQI。QIYOUQUANSHUIYE,BUNENGCHANGQINGCHANGYING,CHENGZHIZEQING,NAOZHIZEZHUO;QINGERXUZHI,ZHUOERCHENGZHI。LIANXINYE,YINGKEFUJI,QINGKEFUNAO,YIXUYIYING,YIQINGYIJI,SHUIBUKESHENGYONG,ERQUANYONGBUHEYI。[7]268

                                      ZHEILIQIJIGUANGBALIANQIYULIANXINTONGYIQILAI,SUOWEILIANQI,QISHIYEJIUSHILIANXIN。YINWEIQIDEGENYUANZAIXIN:

                                      QIFAYUWAI,GENZHIYUXIN。GUCHUZHUXINZHE,WEIZHENQI;GEYUWUERFAZHE,WEIKEQI。LIANXINZEQIZIZHUANG。MENGZIYUE:“WOSHANYANGWUHAORANZHIQI”,YANGXINYE。……SHIXINZHENEIQIYE,QIZHEWAIXINYE。GUCHUZHUXINZHEWEIZHENQI,ZECHUYUQIZHEWEIZHENYONGYI。[12]211

                                      QIJIGUANGYONGMENGZIDE“HAORANZHIQI”LAIJIESHITASHUODEQI,HENNENGJIESHILIANQIZHINEIHAN。YINWEIMENGZISUOYAN“HAORANZHIQI”,SHIZHIGENYUYILIDEYIZHONGZHIDAZHIGANGZHIQI,SHIJIYISUOSHENG,ERFEIYIXISUOSHENG。ZHENGYUQIJIGUANG“ZHENQI”“KEQI”ZHIFENXIANGYING。YINWEI,“ZHENQI”YUANYURENSHANXINZHIBENRAN,ERBUSHIWEIWAIJIEYINSUSUOYOUFA,YINERFAERWEI“ZHENYONG”。QIJIGUANG“YONGBINGNENGYONGHAORANZHIQI,JISHIYILIZHIYONG,FOUZEXUEQIERYIYI”ZHIYUZHENGKEZUOWEICIYIDEZHUJIAO。[7]264

                                      NEIME,RUHELIANZHEIZHONG“ZHENQI”NI?QIJIGUANGYUE:“SHIBUWAISHENLVZHIDAOERYIYI。CHANGZHONGYIZHILI,MEISHENXIANZHI,YICHENGGANCHENG。”[12]212

                                      QIJIGUANGDEFANGFAJIUSHI“SHENLVZHIDAO”,JIZHUJIANGYISHENSHIFANZHIGANZHAO。ZHEILIYOULIANGGECENGMIAN,DIYI,ZHUJIANGYISHENSHIFAN;DIER,“YICHENGGANCHENG”。QIANZHEJIUYUQIANSHU“ZHIXIN”QIAOMIAOJIEHEQILAI,SHIZHIXINCHENGWEILIANQIDEJICHU;ZHIYUHOUZHE,QIANYILUNJI,“CHENG”ZHENGSHIXINXUEDEZHUYAOXIULIANFANGFA,ZHUJIANGZHONGYIZHIXINDINGNENGGANFABINGSHIDEZHONGYIZHIXIN。HEYIJIANDENI?MENGZIYANRENXINGBENSHAN,JIEYOUCEYIN、XIUE、CIRANG、SHIFEIZHIXIN,GUERKEHUXIANGGANZHAO。YANGMINGXINXUEDEJICHUZHENGSHIMENGZIDE“XINGSHANLUN”。QIJIGUANGDUICILILUNDEYINGYONGKEWEICHUSHENRUHUA。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   ZHEIYANGYILAI,“LIANBING”DEZHENYIJIUBUZAIJIAOCHANG,ERSHIYUNHANZAIZHUJIANGPINGJUYANDONGYUMOZHIJIAN。QIJIGUANGYAN:“JIAOCHANGCAOLIAN,BUGUOMINGJINGUHAOLING,XISHEDAJICISHOUYIZHINENG。CIDENGSHIBUSHIZAIRENJIAFANGMENNEI、YUANQIANGNEIZUODEZHE,GUSHEJIAOCHANGCAOLIANZHI。PINGSHIZAIGEXIEJIA,RUOKENXINXINZAIDANGBINGQINIAN,YIXINYISHAZEIWEIJI,XUYANGRUIQI,XIUZHIJUNZHUANG,JIANGMINGFALING,TONGZHIYIQING,JIEZHIYIXIN,SUIJINGCHULVYANYIWEIZHILIAN,NAIZHENLIANYE。”[12]214ZHUJIANGRUCILIANBING,BINGSHI“SUIYU,XINXIDEYUGUANGAN,JIZIZHIJIU,GANYUAI,ZEAIJUN、AIJIANGERSHENFEISUOAI;GANYUYI,ZEBURENHOUJUN、HOUJIANGERXIANQISUOSI;GANYUHUOFUZHIBIAN,ZEHUANNANBUZUKONGERQINSHANGZHIZHIJIAN;GANYUXIUDUANSISHENGZHISHU,ZESHUIHUOCUNWANGBUZUYIDUOQIXIN”。[12]215-216RUCIYILAI,JIKE“WANRENYIXIN,XINYIERQIQI,QIQIERWANRENWEIYISIFU。SHIWUYIYIXINZHIWANLIERDIWANLIZHIGEXIN,YIYISIFUERJUBIWANSHENGMING”,[12]216DANGRANJIUHUISUOXIANGPIMI,ZHANWUBUSHENG。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   KEJIAN,QIJIGUANGZHIJUNSIXIANGZUITECHUDEDIFANGJIUZAIYU“ZHIXIN”,JIMIEZISIZILIZHI“XINKOU”,YIZHONGYIZHIXINXIANGGANZHAO,BUYICAIHUO、GONGMINGWEINIAN,ERYIBAOGUO、ANMINWEIZHI。YANGMINGYAN“WEIXUEXUDEGETOUNAO,GONGFUFANGYOUZHELUO”,[8]30“ZHIXIN”,JIUSHIQIJIGUANGZHIJUNZHI“TOUNAO”。

                                      四、结语

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   QIJIGUANGFUZHEKANGWO,SHITOUYUQIANDEHONGMENXIA,XIJIUXINXUE,BINGYURONGMAKONGZONGZHIJIXIANGWANGJIWENXUE。ZAIGEFANGXUNRANXIA,TADUXIN“LIANGZHI”SHUO,LUNXUEYI“ZHIXIN”WEIYAO,ZAIFANGFASHANG,FANDUIDANGSHISHENGXINGDEKONGXUZHIFA,JIANCHIYI“CHENGYI”WEIGONGFU,CONGERYOUJIAOSHENXINXUEZAOYI。BINGCHUANGZAOXINGDIJIANGXINXUESIXIANGYUNYONGYUZHIJUNSHANG,TICHU“ZHIXIN”“LIANQI”ZHISHUO,ZHUZHANGJIANGSHIYIZHONGYIZHIXINXIANGGANZHAO,TONGXINLULI,JINFENANMIN。QIJIGUANGLIJINGDAXIAOSHUBAIZHAN,SHIZHONGLIYUBUBAIZHIDI,LIANGYOUYIYE。

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                                      [9] 徐爱,钱德洪,董沄.徐爱钱德洪董沄集[M].钱明,编校整理.南京:凤凰出版社,2007.
                                      [10] 黄宗羲.明儒学案[M].北京:中华书局,1985.
                                      [11] 戚继光.练兵实纪[M].邱心田,校释.北京:中华书局,2001.
                                    棋牌大全下载安装   [12] 戚继光.纪效新书[M].范中义,校释.北京:中华书局,2001.

                                      注释

                                      1王阳明晚年由于入门弟子众多,不能一一指授,遂仿照释迦牟尼的做法,令其造诣较高的弟子指导新入门者,当时称为“教授师”。
                                      2客兵,指明代从云贵一带调遣过来的少数民族武装力量,因远调而来,于地方为“客”,故称“客兵”,又称“狼兵”。
                                      3“止止堂”为戚继光书房名,后其文集取名《止止堂集》。现存的《止止堂集》,前有郭朝宾万历二年(1574)仲冬序,则结集时间当在万历二年左右。但戚继光文集取此名则较早,此时当初步成型,故而寄于王畿,以求有所进益。
                                      4王阳明《大学问》释“亲民”曰:“明明德者,立其天地万物一体之体也。亲民者,达其天地万物一体之用也。故明明德必在于亲民,而亲民乃所以明其明德也。”(王守仁撰,吴光、钱明等编校:《王阳明全集》卷二十六,上海:上海古籍出版社,1992年,第968页。)
                                    棋牌大全下载安装   5关于戚继光的军事思想,可参看朱亚非《练兵与练将--戚继光军事理论再探讨》(《齐鲁文化研究》2002年第1期)、朱晓红《理法的交融与和谐--戚继光治军思想刍议》(《军事历史研究》2006年第4期)、赵国华《戚继光军事思想探论》(《理论学刊》2008年第5期)等。

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