棋牌大全下载安装

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                      • 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 牛顿对笛卡尔自然观的继承发展

                        牛顿对笛卡尔自然观的继承发展

                        时间:2018-11-29 10:26作者:刘丽君 何朝安
                        本文导读:这是一篇关于牛顿对笛卡尔自然观的继承发展的文章,近代科学的迅速发展主要开始于17世纪,在此时期,物理和数学还没有从自然哲学的体系里完全划分出来,重要的科学家往往也有着重要的哲学建树。

                          摘    要: 棋牌大全下载安装近代科学的迅速发展主要始于17世纪。人类理性探究的目光渐渐从实体、本质、观念等转移到力、运动、质量等问题上。笛卡尔和牛顿是这场自然观转变的代表人物。笛卡尔承继了开普勒、伽利略等前人科学家的思想,形成了独立的数量世界和普遍的数理方法,牛顿则批判地继承了笛卡尔思想,建立起了新的自然哲学。主要探讨笛卡尔自然观的思想内容及牛顿对其自然观的承继转变,从而进一步廓清近代科学发展的自然哲学背景以更好地理解近代科学世界观。

                          关键词: 棋牌大全下载安装笛卡尔; 牛顿; 自然观; 广延; 机械论;

                          JINDAIKEXUEDEXUNSUFAZHANZHUYAOKAISHIYU17SHIJI,ZAICISHIQI,WULIHESHUXUEHAIMEIYOUCONGZIRANZHEXUEDETIXILIWANQUANHUAFENCHULAI,ZHONGYAODEKEXUEJIAWANGWANGYEYOUZHEZHONGYAODEZHEXUEJIANSHU。RUGUOSHUOZHONGSHIJIDEKEXUEJICHUSHIRENZAIYUZHOUZHONGZHANJUZHEQUEDINGERZHONGYAODEZHONGXINDIWEI,NEIMEJINDAIKEXUESIXIANGZEBIAOXIANCHULEMINGXIANDEFANPANSHENZHIJUELIE。ZHEIZHONGZIRANGUANDEZHUANBIAN,YEZAIZHEIGESHIDAIJIECHUDEKEXUEJIASHENSHANGDEYITIXIAN。DIKAERSHICONGGUDIANSHIDAIZHUANXIANGJINDAIDEYIGEZHONGYAOZHUANZHEDIAN,NIUDUNSHIJINDAIKEXUEDEJIDACHENGZHEBINGQIEWANCHENGLEJINDAIKEXUEGEMING。ZAIZHEIZHENGGEDEGUOCHENGZHONG,NIUDUNDUIDIKAERSIXIANGYOUQISHIZIRANGUANBINGBUSHIJIANDANDEJIESHOU,ERSHIPIPANXINGDIJICHENG,ZUIHOUJIANLIQILEXINDEZIRANZHEXUETIXI。BENWENZHUYAOTANTAODIKAERZIRANGUANDESIXIANGNEIRONGJINIUDUNDUIQIZIRANGUANDECHENGJIZHUANBIAN,CONGERJINYIBUKANDAOJINDAIKEXUEFAZHANDEZIRANZHEXUEBEIJINGYIJIGENGHAODILIJIEJINDAIKEXUESHIJIEGUAN。

                          1、 笛卡尔自然观:理性主义的机械论自然观

                          1.1、 物质的广延与空间的数量化

                          DIKAERPINGZHEZHIGUANDERENSHIGUANZHUDAOSHIWUDEGUANGYANHEYUNDONG,TAJIANGSHITIDENGTONGYUGUANGYAN,JISHITABINGMEIYOUFUYUGUANGYANMINGQUEDEDIERWEIDEXINGZHI。ZAIKENDINGLEGUANGYANCUNZAIHOU,DIKAERYOUTONGGUOLIANGGANG、TONGYIXINGHEWAIXINGJIESHILEGUANGYANDESHULIANGXINGTEDIAN。DIKAERJIANLILEPUBIANDESHUXUELIANGGANG,RENWEIWUZHIDEGUANGYANKEYIYONGSHULIANGXINGLAIMIAOSHU,YUNDONGBENZHISHANGYEBIRANSHILIANGDEBIANHUA,JIGUANGYANDEFENGE,ZHEIZHONGFENGELIANGYEWEIQIHOUDEYUNDONGXUESHUOTIGONGLEKENENGXING。

                          DIKAERDEGUANGYANZAIHONGGUANSHANGSHIWUXIANYANSHENDE,ZAIWEIGUANSHANGSHIWUXIANKEFENDE。DIKAERJIANGWUZHIDENGTONGYUKONGJIAN,RENWEIKONGJIANZHONGYIDINGBAOHANWUZHI,MEIYOUWUZHIDEKONGJIANSHIHUANGMIUDE,ZHEIZHONGBAOHANZHEWUZHIDEKONGJIANYEBEICHENGWEI“DIKAERYITAI”。ZHENGSHIYOUYUDIKAERJIANGWUZHIHEJINGSHENQUFENKAILAIBINGQIEJIANGWUZHIDENGTONGYUGUANGYAN,CONGERBIAOXIANLETADUIXUKONGDEFOUDING。XUKONGBEIDIKAERKANZUOSHIYIGECUNZAIZHEDEWU,ZHISHAOZAIWULISHANGZHEISHIWANQUANBUKENENGDE,WUTISUOZHANJUDEKONGJIANYUWUTIZISHENMEIYOURENHEBUTONG,YINCIKONGJIANZHISHIWUDINGXIANDE。BUGUO,YIFANGMIANDIKAERQIANGDIAOLIANGDEPUBIANXINGHESHUXUETEZHENG;LINGYIFANGMIANTAYOUNANYIBAITUOLIANGDEJUTIDEWULIYIYI,QIXINGERSHANGXUEYUZIRANZHEXUEZHIJIANCUNZAIYIDINGDEMAODUN,TACHENGGONGDIJIANGWUZHIDEYUNDONGSHUXUEHUA,ZHISHITAYEXIANRULEGUANYUKONGJIANWUDINGXIANGUANGYANDESIBIANKUNJING。

                          1.2、 基于理性立场的上帝观

                          相比于前人哲学家,笛卡尔进一步发展了空间的数量化特征,不过,他也想到了物质和空间背后的创造者,于是他继续追问了上帝的存在形式。笛卡尔从他怀疑的方法出发,这种对于上帝存在的怀疑也是一种用理智检验上帝是否存在的方法,在“理性反思”的基础上,笛卡尔逻辑推论的结果认为上帝是理性最高的表现形式。与以前的大多数上帝不同,笛卡尔的上帝并非通过受造物来体现,亦即不在万物中表现自己。上帝与世界之间不存在类比,“形象”和“上帝在世界之中的遗迹”并不存在。唯一的例外是我们的灵魂,它是一种一切本质在于思想的实体、纯粹心灵和存在,这个心灵被赋予了理智,能够把握上帝的观念,亦即无限的观念,也被赋予了意志,亦即无限的自由。笛卡尔没有承认无限空间是存在的,但他没有否定无限的存在,在他的观念里,无限的存在只能是上帝的存在。同时,科学的方法是人们想要掌握自然、理解宇宙的唯一方法,从而给了人的精神活动以优先地位。
                         

                        牛顿对笛卡尔自然观的继承发展
                         

                        棋牌大全下载安装   DIKAERZHEXUESHIJIANLIZAITADEERYUANLUNJICHUZHISHANGDE,YIJUTADEZHEXUELILUN,SHIJIEZHIYOULIANGGESHITIZUCHENG,JIXINGTISHIJIEHEJINGSHENSHIJIE,SHISHANGDICHUANGZAOLEZHEILIANGGESHITI。DIKAERJIEZHUYUSHANGDIDEWUXIANLILIANGFOUDINGLESHIJIEDENEIZAI:SHIWUSHIBICIWAIZAIDE,HUOZHESHUOZIRANSHIYOUYIXIEWAIZAIBUFENGOUCHENGDE,ZIRANYUSHICHENGWEIRENMIANDUIDECHUNCUIKETI……ZAIDIKAERNEILI,SHANGDIZHISHIZUIHOUDEBAOZHENG,ZAILIXINGDEJINCHENGZHONG,TAYIRENDENEIZAIXINGQUDAILESHANGDIDENEIZAIXING。JINGSHENRUHERENSHIFEIJINGSHENDEZIRAN、RENLEIRUHEYUZIRANXIANGCHUDEWENTIJIERCHENGLERENMENKAISHISIKAODEWENTI。DIKAERZHUKEERFENDEGUANNIANCHENGLETAJIXIELUNZIRANGUANDEQIANTI,XIFANGZHEXUEDEZHONGXINYEJIANJIANCONGBENTILUNZHUANXIANGLERENSHILUN。

                          1.3、 笛卡尔的泛机械论自然观

                        棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIDIKAERKANLAI,SHIJIANHEKONGJIANSHIYIGEKEDULIANGDEZHIGUANDEMOXING,GUANGYANDEWUXIANFENGEJILEWEIZHIBIANHUAHUOZHESHUOSHIYUNDONGKEKAODELILUNYIJU。SUIRANJIANJIYU“YUZHOUZAIYUNDONGLIANG”SHANGSHISHOUHENGDEZHEIYANGYIZHONGXINGERSHANGXUEDEJIASHEZHISHANG,DANTABAZHEIYIXINGERSHANGXUEJIASHEYONGYUMIAOSHUJUTIYUNDONGDEGUOCHENGSHIQUEDEDAOLEZHENGQUEDEJIEDA,ERQIEDIKAERDEYUNDONGYEZHISHIWEIZHIDEBIANDONG,“SUOWEIYUNDONG,JIUSHIYIBUFENWUZHIHUOZHEWUTI,CONGYUQIJINXIANGLINJINDE、BEISHIWEIJINGZHIDENEIXIEWUTIFUJINYIDAOQITAWUTIFUJINDEYISI。”ZHEIZHONGYUNDONGSHIYOUSHITIDEFENGEYIJILIANGDEBIANHUAJUEDINGDE,SHIYIZHONGJIXIEYUNDONGDESHULIANGMIAOSHU。WEILEJINYIBUJIESHIWULISHIJIEDEXINGCHENGYIJIQUANBUDEWUTIYUNDONG,DIKAERTICHULETADEYITAIXUANWOLILUN,ZHEIYILILUNXIQULEYALISHIDUODEGUANYUDEYITAIGAINIANYIJIGUDAIZIRANZHEXUEZHONGTIANTIXUANWOYUNDONGSIXIANG,YUNYONGJIXIELUNDEGUANDIANJIESHILEYUZHOUDEYANHUAWENTI。DIKAERXINGCHENGLEYIGESHIJIEDEJIXIETUJING,WUZHIZUOWEIKEGUANSHITI,ANZHAOYIDINGDELIXUEDINGLVZUOZHEJIXIEYUNDONG。WUZHISHIJIESHIYIJIAWUSHENGMINGDEJIQI,SUOYOUDEZIRANXIANXIANGDOUKEYIANZHAOJIXIEYUANLIJINXINGJIESHI。ZHIYUSHENGMINGYOUJITI,DIKAERRENWEI,ZHIWUHEDONGWUDOUSHIJIANDANDEJIQI。RENSHIYOUJINGSHENJISUDEJIQI,JINGSHENTONGGUODANAOZHONGYANGDE“SONGGUOXIAN”YUSHENTIXIANGLIAN。DIKAERZIRANGUANSHIYIZHONGZHIGUANDEFANJIXIELUNZIRANGUAN。ZIRANJIEBUZAISHIYIGEYOUJITI,ERSHIYIJIAJIQI:YIJIAANQIZIMIANBENLAIYIYIDEJIQI,YIGEBEIZAITAZHIWAIDELIZHISHEJIHAOFANGZAIYIQI,BINGBEIQUDONGZHECHAOYIGEMINGQUEDEMUBIAOQUDEWUTIGEBUFENPAILIE。

                          DIKAERDEJIXIELUNZIRANGUANXIANRANSHOUDAOTONGSHIDAIYIQUYUWANSHANDEZHIZHONGJISHUDEYINGXIANG,TADEZHEXUESIXIANGYUDANGSHIDEJIXIEJISHUCUNZAIZHIGUANDELEIBI,TAMEIYOUCONGLIXUE、YUNDONG、SHIKONGDENGKEXUEDEJIAODUJINYIBUYANJIUZIRAN,YINCIYEMEIYOUZAIWULIXUESHANGDEDAOJINYIBUDETUPO,DANTAKENDINGLESHUXUEFANGFADEJIAZHI,YEJIANLIQILEDUIKEXUEZHENLIDEXINNIAN,WEIHOULAINIUDUNLIXUEDECHENGGONGJIANLILEJICHU。CIWAI,JIXIELUNZIRANGUANYESHIRENMENDUIDAIZIRANDETAIDUFASHENGLEGAIBIAN,KEXUEFANGFABEIRENWEISHIRENMENLEJIEHEZHANGKONGZIRANDEWEIYIFANGFA,KEXUEDEMUDESHIYAOZHIPEIHEKONGZHIZIRAN,CONGERRENMENDUIYUZIRANDEZHENGFUHELVEDUOKAISHIJIAJU,HUSHILEZIRANLUNLI。

                          2、 牛顿对笛卡尔自然观的承继转变

                          JINDAIJIXIEZIRANGUANHEKEXUEMOSHISHIYOUDIKAER-NIUDUNJIANLIFAZHANQILAIDE。ZAIZIRANDESHULIANGHUAHEYUNDONGDEJIXIEHUAGUOCHENGZHONG,DIKAERSHOUXIANZAIZHEXUESHANGJIANLIQILAILEDULIDESHULIANGSHIJIE,WEIJIXIELUNZIRANGUANTIGONGLEZHEXUEJICHU,ZHIHOUNIUDUNSHOUDAOZHEIZHONGJIXIELUNZIRANGUANYINGXIANG,BINGQIEYUWULIXUELIANXIQILAI,ZAILIXUELINGYUQUDELEJUDACHENGJIU。NIUDUNSHIJINDAIWULIXUEDEDIANJIREN,DANTONGSHIYEJUYOUFEICHANGSHENHOUDESHENXUESIXIANG,TADEZIRANZHEXUEHESHENXUESIXIANGXIANGHUYINGXIANG,BINGQIESHENSHENTIXIANZAIQIZIRANGUANZHONG。

                          2.1、 牛顿的神学自然观

                        棋牌大全下载安装   ZAISHENXUESIXIANGFANGMIAN,NIUDUNDUIDIKAERDESHANGDIGUANBIAOXIANCHULEMINGXIANDEJUCHI。NIUDUNRENWEI,SHANGDISHIWUXIANQIEWANMANDECUNZAI,SHIYONGHENGDEHUOZHEDE,BINGQIESHIWUSUOBUNENGHEWUSUOBUZHIDE,ZAINIUDUNKANLAI,DIKAERFOUDINGXUKONGDECUNZAI,RENWEISHIJIEJINJINYINWEIJIXIEYUANYINJIUNENGCHENGWEIYIGEHEXIEYOUXUDETIXISHISHIFENHUANGMIUDE,DIKAERDESHANGDISHIBUZAICHANGDE。DUINIUDUNERYAN,SHANGDIBINGFEIZAIZHEIGECIDECHUANTONGYIYISHANGSHI“YONGHENGDE”,ERSHI“CHIHENGDE”,YEJIUSHISHUO,TABUSHICHAOYUEYUSHIJIANZHISHANGDE,ERSHIZAISHIKONGZHIZHONG“YANSHEN”。TABUSHISHIJIANHUOKONGJIANBENSHEN,DANTASHICHIXUDEBINGQIEZONGSHIZAIKONGJIANZHONGZAICHANG。NIUDUNRENWEI,SHANGDISHIYONGYUANCUNZAIQIECHUCHUCUNZAIDE,SUOYI,SHIJIANHEKONGJIANYEYINGDANGSHIWUXIANDE,ZHEIYANGYILAI,JIUXINGCHENGLEYIZHONGJUEDUISHIKONG,ERZHENGSHIZHEILIANGZHONGJUEDUISHIWUDECUNZAICAISHINIUDUNDEYIJIANLIQITADESANTIAOJIBENYUNDONGDINGLV,NIUDUNDESHENXUEZIRANGUANSHITABAITUOLEDIKAERXIAZHAIDEWEILILUN。SHISHISHANG,NIUDUNDUIYUSHENXUEDEYANJIU,ZHUYAOMUDESHIWEITADEZIRANZHEXUETIGONGBIANHU,NIUDUNCENGZAIQIHOUBANSHENGHAOFEIHENDUOJINGLIZAIZIRANGUILVDESHENXUEJIESHISHANG,ZHEIQISHIYESHITADUIZIRANHEYUZHOUDEZHONGJIYUANYINDETANSUO,TADESHENXUEHEZIRANZHEXUEYEXIANGHUYINGXIANG,ZUIHOUXINGCHENGLETAJUYOUSHENXUETESEDEZIRANGUAN。

                          2.2、 牛顿的机械论自然观

                        棋牌大全下载安装   GUANYUZIRANDESHULIANGHUA,CONGDIKAERSHIQIFAZHANDAONIUDUNZHEILISHI,JIBENSHANGYIJINGQUELILEDULIDEZIRANGUANDESHULIANGHUATUJING。NIUDUNZAIZIRANDESHULIANGHUASHANGSUOZUODEGONGZUOQISHISHIWEILEZIRANZHEXUEDESHUXUEHUA,NIUDUNDEZIRANGUANHEZONGJIAOGUANKEYISHUOSHIWEILEJITADEWULIXUETIGONGHELIDELILUNKONGJIAN。ZAINIUDUNKANLAI,SHANGDIJIUSHIYIGEJIHEXUEJIA,TABUJINYONGSHUXUEDEYUYANSHEJICHULEYUZHOU,HAIBASHUXUEDEFANGFAYUNHANZAILEYUZHOUWANWUZHONG。NIUDUNGENGGUANXINDEWENTISHIZIRANDEBENZHISHUXINGJISHULIANGXING。DIKAERZHANZAIFANGFALUNDEJIAODUSHANGQIANGDIAODEPUBIANSHUXUESHIJIYUGUANGYANDE“JIHELIANG”,TASUOWEIDEDULIANGHEZHIXUSHICONGJIHEXUEDECENGMIANLAIKANDE。NIUDUNDUI“LIANG”ZHEIYIGAINIANDEFAZHANCONGJIHEDEFANCHOUBIANCHENGLESUANSHUMIAOSHU,TABUZHIZHEYUQIANGDIAOLIANGDEJIHEYIYI。NIUDUNBUTONGYUDIKAERDUIYULIANGDEJIHESIBIAN,ERSHIGENGJIAZHUZHONGSHUXUEHUADEFAZHAN,ZHEIZHONGFAZHANYEZHENGSHISHOUDAOLEDIKAERJIANGDULIANGHEZHIXUDESHUXUEHUA。ZAINIUDUNDEJIXIELUN、JUTIWULIYUANLI、GUANXINGDINGLVDENGWENTIZHONG,WOMENDOUKEYIKANCHUDIKAERDEZIRANGUANSHENSHENYINGXIANGLENIUDUNDEWULIXUE。

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                          3、 结语

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                          参考文献

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                          [2] 杨大春.含混的自然概念——梅洛-庞蒂对笛卡尔自然观的批判反思[J].自然辩证法研究,2004,(11).
                          [3] 蒙虎.十七世纪西方数学的自然哲学背景[D].西安:西北大学,2003:47.
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                          [7] 胡寿鹤.略伦牛顿的时空观[J].内蒙古社会科学,1986,(3).

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