棋牌大全下载安装

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                            1. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 孔子“仁学”思想的主要内容探析

                              孔子“仁学”思想的主要内容探析

                              时间:2018-12-11 10:10作者:郭淑新 王长恒
                              本文导读:这是一篇关于孔子“仁学”思想的主要内容探析的文章,“仁”字,属会意字。东汉许慎《说文》:“仁,亲也,从人从二。古文仁从千心。”“仁者爱人”(《孟子·离娄下》)故“从二”;“泛爱众而亲仁”(《论语·学而》)故“从千心”。“仁”在《论语》中有109见,其含义宽泛且多

                                摘    要: “仁”字在《论语》中的含义宽泛且多变。孔子通过对“仁”以及与“仁”相关问题的深入思考,形成了自己的“仁学”思想。这一思想有其自身的结构与特质,它诉诸实践智慧,主张“人”因“仁”的烛引,方能使其逐渐成为真正意义上的“人”;“仁”也会因“人”对“仁”的持续践行,从而成为内在于“人”的“仁”。孔子的“仁学”开启了一种新的生活方式,这种生活方式不是凭借政治或军事力量煅铸的,而是通过对生活世界、对人的现实生存状态的深刻考量与透彻感悟,从而生发出一种新的生活态度而实现的。这种生活态度的要旨就在于:既要“转识为智”,亦应“转智为仁”,进而达至“知者不惑,仁者不忧”的理想境界。

                                关键词:棋牌大全下载安装 孔子; 仁学; 实践智慧; 转识为智; 转智为仁;

                                Abstract: The meaning of “ren” in the Analects is broad and varied.Confucius formed his thought of “benevolence” through in-depth thinking on “ren” and its related issues.This thought has its structure and characteristics.It resorts to practical wisdom and advocates that “people” can gradually achieve its true sense because of the guidance of “benevolence”.“Benevolence” will also become the “benevolence” within “people” because of people's continuous practice.Confucius' s thought of “benevolence” has opened up a new way of life,not formed by political or military power,but achieved by people's new attitude towards life through deep consideration and thorough understanding of the living world and the reality of human existence.The gist of this attitude of life is that it is necessary for people to “transform knowledge into wisdom” and to “transform wisdom into benevolence”,and then achieve the ideal that “a wise man is not confused and a benevolent man is not worried”.

                                Keyword: Confucius; thought of benevolence; practical wisdom; transform knowledge into wisdom; transform wisdom into benevolence;

                              棋牌大全下载安装   “REN”ZI,SHUHUIYIZI。DONGHANXUSHEN《SHUOWEN》:“REN,QINYE,CONGRENCONGER。GUWENRENCONGQIANXIN。”“RENZHEAIREN”(《MENGZI·LILOUXIA》)GU“CONGER”;“FANAIZHONGERQINREN”(《LUNYU·XUEER》)GU“CONGQIANXIN”。“REN”ZAI《LUNYU》ZHONGYOU109JIAN,QIHANYIKUANFANQIEDUOBIAN。“KONGZIDAFANCHIWEN‘REN’SHISUOYAN‘AIREN’(《LUNYU·YANYUAN》),WUYISHICONGQINGGANSHANGGUIDINGLERENZHINEIHAN;YOUZIJIANG‘XIAOTI’KANZUO‘WEIRENZHIBEN’(《LUNYU·XUEER》),YEJIANGRENLUNQINQINGSHIWEIPEIYANGRENAIDEJICHU;KONGZISUOYAN‘GANGYIMUNEJINREN’(《LUNYU·ZILU》)、‘QIAOYANLINGSE,XIANYIREN’(《LUNYU·XUEER》),ZESHICONGRENZHIXINGQINGSHANGJIEDINGCHENGWEIRENZHEDETIAOJIAN。”[1]DUICI,LIZEHOUYECENGZHICHU:KONGZITEBIEZHONGSHIRENXINGQINGGANDEPEIYU,ZHONGSHIDONGWUXING(YU)YUSHEHUIXING(LI)DEJIAORONGTONGYI。ZHEISHIJISHANGSHIYIQINGZUOWEIRENXINGHERENSHENGDEJICHUHEBENYUAN。[2]13KONGZIBUJINJIANG“QING”ZUOWEIRENXINGHERENSHENGDEJICHUHEBENYUAN,GENGSHIJIANGFUZI、XIONGDI、FUFU、JUNCHEN、PENGYOUZHEIWULUNGUANXISHIWEIRENZHICHANGQING,BINGYIFUZIYOUEN、XIONGDIYOUXU、FUFUYOUBIE、JUNCHENYOUYI、PENGYOUYOUXINQUSHENSHI、GUIFANGEZHONGQINGGAN。KONGZILUN“REN”,ZHUZHONGDESHIRENDEZHENQING(LVXING)LIULU,“WEIRENZHENENGHAOREN,NENGEREN”(《LUNYU·LIREN》)。QINGJISHIRENXINGDEJICHU,QINGYUXINGYOUHUNRANYITI,LIANGZHEDOUJIANJU“RENAI”QINGSU。“RENAI”GUANTONGGUJINWANSHIZHIRENXIN,SHIRENLEISHENGCUNZHIYAODAO。“RENXUE”,KAIQILEYIZHONGXINDESHENGHUOFANGSHI,BINGYOUCISHENGFACHUYIZHONGXINDESHENGHUOTAIDU:JIYAO“ZHUANSHIWEIZHI”,YIYING“ZHUANZHIWEIREN”,JINERDAZHI“ZHIZHEBUHUO,RENZHEBUYOU”DELIXIANGJINGJIE。

                                一、转识为智:“知者不惑”

                                子曰:“知者不惑。”(《论语·子罕》)“知”在《论语》中有116见(其中读去声,可解为“智”的有26见)。“智”字从知从日,意即“知者”(“智者”)既要明晓天道之阴阳变化——“知日”,了解宇宙万物的运动变化规律,还必须注重知识积淀——“日知”,并将不断积累的知识(“识”)升华为智慧(“智”)——“转识为智”,以期成为“不惑”的“智者”。
                               

                              孔子“仁学”思想的主要内容探析
                               

                              棋牌大全下载安装   “SHI”FANTIZUO“SHI”,ZICONGYANCONGSHI,SHIYISHENG。“SHI”YUANYISHIZHIJUNDUIFANGZHENCAOYAN,YINSHENWEIQUBIE、BIANSHITUXINGHUOSHIWUXINGZHUANG。《SHUOWEN》:“SHI,ZHIYE。”SHIYIWEIZHISHI、JIANSHI、JIZHU、BIAOZHIDENG。“SHI”(ZHISHI)YU“ZHI”(ZHIHUI)SHIYOUQUBIEDE,ZHISHISHIRENTONGGUOXUEXI,DUIYOUXIANDERENSHIYUBAZHUO,ZHIHUISHIZAIXUEXIZHISHIDEJICHUSHANG,DUIWUXIANDESILVYUGANWU;ZHISHIMIANDUIWUXIANHUIXIANDEMORANCANGBAI,ERCHAOYUEYOUXIAN、ZHUIWENWUXIANZESHIZHIHUIDEBENXINGSHIRAN。ZHIZHEZHANGWODEZHISHIBUYIDINGSHENGGUOBOXUEZHE,DANZHIZHEDUIDAQIANSHIJIEDEGANWUHELIJIEYIDINGBIBOXUEZHEGENGWEITOUCHE。CHENGRAN,ZHISHIWEIRENLEIDESHENGCUNYUFAZHANDIANJI,MEIYOUZHISHIDEJILEI,TANHESIERLVZHI、GANERWUZHI?DANZHISHIYOUBIXUZHUANHUAWEIZHIHUI——ZHUANSHIWEIZHI,FANGNENGTIXIANQIJIAZHI,FANGNENGYOUZHENZHENGYIYISHANGDEXINZHIHUODONG。

                                《LIEZI·TANGWEN》PIANJIZAILEYOUGUAN“LIANGXIAOERBIANRI”DEGUSHI:

                                KONGZIDONGYOU,JIANLIANGXIAOERBIANDOU。WENQIGU。

                              棋牌大全下载安装   YIERYUE:“WOYIRISHICHUSHIQURENJIN,ERRIZHONGSHIYUANYE。”

                                YIERYIRICHUCHUYUAN,ERRIZHONGSHIJINYE。

                                YIERYUE:“RICHUCHUDARUCHEGAI,JIRIZHONGZERUPANYU,CIBUWEIYUANZHEXIAOERJINZHEDAHU?”

                                YIERYUE:“RICHUCHUCANGCANGLIANGLIANG,JIQIRIZHONGRUTANTANG,CIBUWEIJINZHEREERYUANZHELIANGHU?”

                              棋牌大全下载安装   KONGZIBUNENGJUEYE。

                                LIANGXIAOERXIAOYUE:“SHUWEIRUDUOZHIHU?”

                              棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIZHEIZE“GUSHI”ZHONG,KONGZISUIRANYOUYUDUI“BIANRI”WENTI“BUNENGJUE”ERBEI“LIANGXIAOER”JIXIAO,DAN“BIANRI”BIJINGSHUYU“ZHISHI”FANCHOU,“KONGZIBUNENGJUE”,ZHINENGSHUOMINGKONGZIDANGSHIDUITIANWENZHISHIDEZHANGWOSHIYOUXIANDE,KUANGQIEZAIDANGSHIDELISHITIAOJIANXIA,ZHENGGERENLEIDUIZIRANJIEDERENSHIDOUSHIFENYOUXIAN。YUZHOUZHIGUANGMAO、ZHISHIZHIGUANGBO,SUIZHIZHEYEBUNENGSHISHIJINZHI。YINWEIKONGZIMINGQUEBIAOSHIZIJI“BUNENGJUE”,DUIWEIZHICAIQU“CUNERBULUN”DEMINGZHITAIDU,ERMEIYOU“QIANGBUZHIYIWEIZHI”,XIANSHILEYIWEI“ZHIZHE”DEFENGFAN!ZHENGKEWEI:“ZHIZHIWEIZHIZHI,BUZHIWEIBUZHI,SHIZHIYE。”(《LUNYU·WEIZHENG》)

                                KONGZICENGJINGYUQIDIZIZIGONGTANTAOGUOZHISHIYUZHIHUIDEGUANXI。ZIYUE:“CIYE,NVYIYUWEIDUOXUEERSHIZHIZHEYU?”DUIYUE:“RAN,FEIYU?”YUE:“FEIYE,YUYIYIGUANZHI。”(《LUNYU·WEILINGGONG》)CICHUSUOJIANGDE“DUOXUEERSHI”JISHIZHIBOXUE,“YIYIGUANZHI”DE“YI”JISHIZHIGUANCHUANYU“RENXUE”TIXIZHONGDESHIJIANZHIHUI。KONGZISHIZHONGYIYIGEZHIZHEDETAIDU,DUIDAIDANGSHIHAI“BUNENGJUE”DEZHONGZHONGWENTI,“WUYOUZHIHUZAI?WUZHIYE。YOUBIFUWENYUWO,KONGKONGRUYE,WOKOUQILIANGDUANERJIEYAN”(《LUNYU·ZIHAN》)。DUIYUGUISHENWENTI,TAZHUZHANG“JINGGUISHENERYUANZHI,KEWEIZHIYI”(《LUNYU·YONGYE》)。ZAIKONGZIKANLAI,DUIDAI“GUISHEN”,YIFANGMIANYINGJINGWEI、JIEJU,YINWEIZHEISHI“LI”DEXUYAO,YAO“SHENZHONGZHUIYUAN”,YIJINXIAODAO;LINGYIFANGMIANYOUYAOYUANLI、HUIBI,YINWEIZAIDANGSHIDESHIDAIBEIJINGXIA,WULUNSHIKENDINGHUOFOUDINGGUISHEN,DOUNANYIZAILILUNSHANGYIHUOZAIXIANSHIZHONGYUYIQUEZHENG,YINERWEIYOU“JING”ER“YUAN”ZHI,FANGNENGBIMIANMISHENXINGUIERXIANYUWUWANG。“ZHEIZHONGBUKENDING、BUFOUDING,SHENZHIBUQUXUNWEN、HUAIYIHESIKAODETAIDU,SHIZHONGGUODEDIANXINGZHIHUI。”[3]

                                ZHEIZHONG“JINGERYUANZHI”DEZHIZHEXIONGJIN,XIANRANYUQI“WEINENGSHIREN,YANNENGSHIGUI”“WEIZHISHENG,YANZHISI”(《LUNYU·XIANJIN》)、“JIRUZAI,JISHENRUSHENZAI”(《LUNYU·BAYI》)DENGGUANDIANYIMAIXIANGCHENG。ZHEIZHONGXIONGJINTUXIANDESHIQI“RENXUE”SIXIANGZHONGYINYUNZHEDESHIJIANZHIHUI,ZHEIZHONGZHIHUICHONGYIZHEHUAXIAGULAOWENHUADEDUTEQIXI——BUZHUZHONGYIHUOBUXIJIDUIWENTIZUO“ZHUFENHAOXI”SHIDECHUNLILUNTANJIU,ERSHIXIGUANYULIZUDANGXIA,GUANZHURIYONGCHANGXING,YIJIEJUEXIANSHIWENTI。YINCI,KONGZI“RENXUE”ZOUDEBUSHIZHISHIHUAJINLU,ERSHIYIQINGGANWEIJIDIANQUZHAOXUNDAODEDEBENYUANHEDONGLI:YOU“QINQIN”ER“RENMIN”,YOU“RENMIN”ER“AIWU”。KONGZI“RENXUE”DEZHEIZHONGTEZHI,ZAIYIDINGYIYISHANGSHUO,ZHENGSHIQI“WUMINZHIYI”DEBIAOZHENG:JINLIZUOYOULIYUMINZHONGDESHISHI,ERBUSHIQUFANTANNEIXIEYOUSHENXUANYUAN、LIUYUKONGSHUDEXUELI。ZHEIZHONGJIJIRUSHIDERENSHENGTAIDUHEWUSHIJINGSHEN,TUXIANDESHI“ZHIZHEBUHUO”DERENSHENGZHIHUI。ZHENGSHIZHEIZHONGRENSHENGZHIHUIDEJINRUN,FANGSHIDEZHONGHUAMINZUSHIZHONGWEICHUXIANMOUXIEMINZUNEIZHONGWUFAJIETUODEYUANZUIGAN、NANYIZIBADEZONGJIAOKUANGRE、JIDUANCANRENDEJINYUZHUYI,YIJIGEZHONGXUEXINGDEYIDUANCAIJUEHUOZONGJIAOZHANZHENG。

                                “ZHIZHEBUHUO”,BUJINYIZAIZHIXIAOSHENGMIELIUBIANDEWAIZAIDAQIANSHIJIEDEAOMI,GENGWEIZHONGYAODEHAIZAIYU,JINGYOUXINLINGDEZIWOJUEJIEERWEIRENZISHENGOUZHUYIGEWENXINCHANGLIANGDENEIXINSHIJIE。ZHEIGENEIXINSHIJIEGOULIANZHEDEXINGDEZIWOWANSHAN、DEXINGDEZIWOJIANLV、RENGEDEZIWOTAOYE、JINGJIEDEZIWOTISHENG。“RENYUANHUZAI?WOYUREN,SIRENZHIYI。”(《LUNYU·SHUER》)“JUNZIQIUZHUJI,XIAORENQIUZHUREN。”(《LUNYU·WEILINGGONG》)ZHIYOUDANGRENDUIRENSHENG“JINGJIE”ZHIWEIDAYUZIJUE,RENSHENGDEZHONGJIJIAZHI,RENDEXINLINGCAINENGTANDESHANGYOUSUOANDUN,CAINENGYONGYOU“ANSHENLIMING”DEZHICHENG,CONGER“ZHUANSHIWEIZHI”,DAZHI“ZHIZHEBUHUO”DEJINGDI。

                                二、转智为仁:“仁者不忧”

                              棋牌大全下载安装   YOUSHANGKEJIAN,KONGZISUOTUICHONGDE“ZHIZHEBUHUO”DE“ZHI”(“ZHI”),JUEBUXIANYURENZHIZHI“ZHI”,GENGZHONGYAODEYIZHIFANSHENGZHI“ZHI”。ZHEIZHONGFANSHENGZHI“ZHI”DEJIAZHIQUXIANG,ZISHIZHIZHONGDOUSHOUDAO“REN”DEZHUZHAOYUDAOYIN。“ZHI”ZAIKONGZINEILIZHUYAOTIXIANWEIYIZHONGJUEJIE“REN”DESHIJIANZHIHUI,BINGQIEZHEIZHONGZHIHUIZHIJIEJIANGRENDAOXIANGDUI“REN”DEXUANQUYUJIANXING,ZHENGSHIZAICIYIQUSHANG,KONGZIZHICHU:“LIRENWEIMEI。ZEBUCHUREN,YANDEZHI?”(《LUNYU·LIREN》)《ZHOULI·DIGUAN》YUE:“WUJIAWEILIN,WULINWEILI。”《ZHENGZHU》YUE:“LIZHE,MINZHISUOJUYE。JUYURENZHEZHILI,SHIWEISHANYE。QIUJUERBUCHURENZHEZHILI,BUDEWEIYOUZHI。”JINZHUZHECHI,JINMOZHEHEI,BUTONGDEHUANJINGSUZAOBUTONGDERENGE。“DEBUGU,BIYOULIN。”(《LUNYU·LIREN》)RENRUGUONENGYI“REN”WEIJUSUO,JURENYOUYI,CAINENGCHENGDESHANGSHIYIGEZHENZHENGDEZHIZHE。

                              棋牌大全下载安装   “ZHUANSHIWEIZHI”GURANZHONGYAO,DANQUEBUSHIZUIZHONGHUDE。《LIJI·ZHONGYONG》YUE:“GUWEIZHENGZAIREN,QURENYISHEN,XIUSHENYIDAO,XIUDAOYIREN。RENZHERENYE,QINQINWEIDA。”《MENGZI·JINXINXIA》YUE:“RENYEZHE,RENYE。HEERYANZHI,DAOYE。”HANRULIUXIZAI《SHIMING》ZHONGYEJIANG“REN”YU“REN”XIANGGOULIAN:“REN,RENYE,RENSHENGWUYE。”RENSHIYINWEI“REN”ERCHENGWEIRENDE,“REN”ZHIWEIDEZEZAIYUSHENGYANGWANWU。JIANG“REN”YU“REN”XIANGGUANLIAN,JINERJIANG“REN”SHIWEINEIZAIYURENDEBENXING,QISIXIANGYUANTOUJIUYINYUNZAIKONGZIDE“RENXUE”ZHIZHONG。ZIYUE:“MINZHIYURENYE,SHENYUSHUIHUO。”“ZHISHIRENREN,WUQIUSHENGYIHAIREN,YOUSHASHENYICHENGREN。”(《LUNYU·WEILINGGONG》)ZAIKONGZIKANLAI,“SHUI”YU“HUO”GURANSHIRENSUOBIXUDE,DAN“REN”DEZHONGYAOXINGYUANSHENGYUSHUIHUO;“SHENG”SUIRANSHIRENSUOQIPANDE,DANQIZHONGJIYIYIRENGRANYIFUYU“REN”。DANGYIGENENGBEICHENGQIWEI“REN”DEREN,ZAOJIYU“SHENG”YU“REN”BUKEDEJIANDELIANGNANJINGDISHI,TALIYINGXUANZE“SHASHENYICHENGREN”,ERBUYING“QIUSHENGYIHAIREN”。ZAICI,WOMENFAXIAN,KONGZISHIXIANQINSHIQIZUIZAOFUYU“REN”YI“REN”DEJIAZHINEIHEDESIXIANGJIA。TABUJINQIANGDIAO“REN”DUIYURENDEZHONGJIYIYI,ERQIEJINGSHI“ZHISHIRENREN”LIYINGZAIDANGXIARENSHENGJUEDUANZHONG,YIWUFANGUDIQUJIANLV“CHENGREN”ZHIDAO。

                                RUGUOSHUOZISIGUANYU“RENZHERENYE,QINQINWEIDA”ZHISHUO,TUXIANDESHI“QINQIN”ZHIAISHIRENZHISUOYIWEIRENDEQINGGANGENJIDEHUA,NEIMEMENGZIGUANYU“RENYEZHE,RENYE。HEERYANZHI,DAOYE”DELUNSHU,ZEJIEZHULERENZAIJIANLV“DAO”DEGUOCHENGZHONG,“REN”YU“REN”XIANGFUXIANGCHENGDESHENCENGYIYUN。ZHUXICENGDUICIZUOZHU:“RENZHE,RENZHISUOYIWEIRENZHILIYE。RANREN,LIYE。REN,WUYE。YIRENZHILI,HEYURENZHISHENERYANZHI,NAISUOWEIDAOZHEYE。”[4]465ZHEIYIZHUSHI,SUIRANZAILIXUEDESHIYUNEINENGGOUZIYUANQISHUOBINGYOUSUOFAXIAN,DANJIANG“REN”SHIWEI“LI”、JIANG“REN”SHIWEI“WU”,WEIMIANZAIYIDINGYIYISHANGJIANGYUANBENYITIBUERDE“REN”YU“REN”SHULIKAILAI,ZHEIZHONGLVEYOU“ZHISHIHUA”ZHIXIANDEQUANSHI,YOUKENENGYOULIYUXIANQINZHUZIHUNRONGERSUZHUQINZHENGDESHIJIANZHIHUI。YINWEIZAIKONG、MENG、ZISINEILI,“REN”SHI“RENZHISUOYIWEIREN”DENEIZAIYIJU,ERBUSHIZAIRENDEJIANLVZHIWAIDEMOUZHONG“LI”YU。HUANYANZHI,“REN”ZHIZAI“REN”JIANXINGRENDAODEGUOCHENGZHONGXIANXIAN,FOUZE“REN”“DAO”“LI”DOUWUCONGTANQI。ZHUXIZHIHOUDEMINGDAIXINXUEJIAWANGYANGMINGZEMINGQUEZHUZHANG“YITIZHIREN”:“DARENZHINENGYITIANDIWANWUWEIYITIYE,FEIYIZHIYE,QIXINZHIRENBENRUOSHI,QIYUTIANDIWANWUERWEIYIYE。”[5]968ZAIYANGMINGKANLAI,TIANDIWANWUJIEWEIYITI,RENJIUSHISHENGJI,WANWUBICIJIAOGANHUFA,CHENGWEIYITI,WUWOWUERWUBIE。TIWUDAOZHEIGEDAOLI,ZEWEI“RENZHE”。

                                ZIYUE:“RENZHEBUYOU。”(《LUNYU·ZIHAN》)DAFANYOUZHISUOCONGLAI,BUWAIHUYOUCHENGBAI、YOUDESHI。RUGUOCANWULE“YITIZHIREN”DEZHENDI,JIUBUHUIYOU“CHENGBAI”:YINWEIYUZHOUYURENSHENGSHI“YITIZHIREN”,YINERRENMENDEZUOWEI——KAITUO、ZAOZUO,DOUZHIBUGUOSHIBANSUIZHEYUZHOUYANJINDEMANMANZHENGCHENGWANGQIANMAICHUDEYIXIAOBU,DUICIHETANCHENGGONG?RANZERENMENRUGUOBUZUOWEI,BIANLIANZHEIYIXIAOBUDOUBUNENGWANGQIANMAI,NEIKEJIUZHENDESHIWANGWEIRENSHENGLE;ZAIZHE,TANGRUOCANWULE“YITIZHIREN”DEZHENDI,BIANBUHUIYOU“DESHI”:YINWEIZHIYOURENMENZAIRENDINGMOUYANGDONGXISHISHUYUZIJIDESHIHOU,CAIHUIYOUDESHIKEYAN。JIRANWANWUYITI,MEIYOURENHEDONGXIWEIJISUOYOU,ZIRANYEJIUMEIYOURENHEDONGXIWEIJISUOSHI。RENMENYIDANPAOQILECHENGBAIDESHI,ZHENDEJIUWUSUOWEI“YOU”LE。ZHENGRUMENGZISUOYAN:“WANWUJIEBEIYUWOYI。FANSHENERCHENG,LEMODAYAN。”(《MENGZI·JINXINSHANG》)

                                “JUNZITANDANGDANG,XIAORENZHANGQIQI。”(《LUNYU·SHUER》)JUNZICHANGHUAIZHIYIDE,XINJINGLANGMING,WUSUOYOULV,GUQI“TANDANGDANG”;ERXIAORENCHANGHUAIZHIYILI,WEIDEZHI,HUANBUDE,JIDEZHI,HUANSHIZHI。HUANDEHUANSHI,ZHONGRIZHUIZHUIBUAN,GUQI“ZHANGQIQI”。YINCHENGBAIDESHIERYOUXINCHONGCHONG,JIBUHUICHENGWEIYIGEZHIZHE,GENGBUHUICHENGWEIYIGERENZHE。RANER,PAOQICHENGBAIDESHIZHIYOU,BINGFEIYIWEIZHEBUSIJINQU、WUSUOZUOWEI。KONGZILAONIANSHICENGRUSHIZISHU:“QIWEIRENYE,FAFENWANGSHI,LEYIWANGYOU,BUZHILAOZHIJIANGZHI。”(《LUNYU·SHUER》)DANGSHIDEKONGZIYIDAILINGDIZIZHOUYOULIEGUO9GENIANTOU,LIJINJIANXIN,BUJINQILIXIANGBAOFUWEIDEYISHIXIAN,HAIXIANXIESANGSHIXINGMING,DANKONGZIBINGWEIYINCIZHINANERTUI,ERSHIZHONGSHI“ZHIQIBUKEERWEIZHI”(《LUNYU·XIANWEN》)。RENZHEBINGBUYIWEIDIJUJUEDUIWAIZAIDONGXIDEZHUIQIU(“WEI”),ZHIBUGUOZHEIZHONGZHUIQIUBIXUFUHEREN:“BUYIERFUQIEGUI,YUWORUFUYUN。”“FUERKEQIUYE,SUIZHIBIANZHISHI,WUYIWEIZHI。RUBUKEQIU,CONGWUSUOHAO。”(《LUNYU·SHUER》)KONGZIJUJUEDESHIBUYIZHIFUGUI,RENKEDESHIDUIRENDAODEJIANSHOU,“JUNZIWUZHONGSHIZHIJIANWEIREN,ZAOCIBIYUSHI,DIANPEIBIYUSHI”(《LUNYU·LIREN》)。KONGZIYISHENGJIJIJINQU,“ZIZAICHUANSHANG,YUE:SHIZHERUSIFU!BUSHEZHOUYE”(《LUNYU·ZIHAN》)。TABINGBUYINSHIGUANGRULIUSHUIBANSHIQUERYOUYUGANSHANG,ERSHIGANKAISHUIDEHAODANGYUBENYONG,JINERMIANLIZIJIZIZIBUJUAN(“BUSHEZHOUYE”)DIJINQU。ZHENGSUOWEI“XUEERSHIXIZHI,BUYISHUOHU”(《LUNYU·XUEER》)。ZHENGSHIZAICIYIYISHANG,《YICHUAN》ZHUZHANG:“JUNZIYIZIQIANGBUXI。”RANER,RUGUOZHISHIXUEXIZHISHI,ERBUNENG“ZHUANSHIWEIZHI”,JINER“ZHUANZHIWEIREN”,QIJIEGUOZHINENGSHI:“ZHIJIZHI,RENBUNENGSHOUZHI;SUIDEZHI,BISHIZHI。”(《LUNYU·WEILINGGONG》)HUANYANZHI,RENMENZAIZHISHIYUZHIHUIDEYINLINGXIAQUDEDECHENGJIU,TANGRUOMEIYOUDUI“REN”DEJIANSHOU,ZUIZHONGDOUJIANGHUAWEIWUYOU。

                                KONGZILIZHU“ZHIYUDAO,JUYUDE,YIYUREN”(《LUNYU·SHUER》)。JIRANRENZHEYIJINGZIANYUWEIRENZHIDAO,NEIMEZIRANJIUBUHUIZAIWEICHENGBAIDESHIERYOULV,GENGBUHUIWEIBUKANDEXIANSHIZAOJIERFENMEN。YINCI,DANGZIGONGJIUBIJUSHOUYANGSHANBUSHIZHOUSUERSIDEBOYI、SHUQISHIFOUXINCUNYUANFENERXUNWENLAOSHISHI,KONGZIDUANRANDADAO:“QIURENERDEREN,YOUHEYUAN?”(《LUNYU·SHUER》)JIRAN“ZHIZHE”YINJUEJIELE“WEIREN”ZHIDAOERBUZAI“HUO”,NEIME,“RENZHE”YEJIUHUIYINNENGGOUJIANXING“WEIREN”ZHIDAOERBUZAI“YOU”。

                              棋牌大全下载安装   CHENGRAN,“REN”ZHEIYIGAINIANDESHOUCITICHUWEIBISHIYUKONGZI,DANWUYISHIKONGZIFUYULE“REN”YIJIWEIFENGHOUDEYIHAN,BINGSHIZHICHENGWEIQISIXIANGDEHEXINQIEJINERFAZHANCHENGWEIXITONGDE“RENXUE”。DIZIMENCENGDUOCIXIANGKONGZIWEN“REN”,QIZHONGFANCHIJIUWENLESANCI。KONGZIDEHUIDAFENBIESHI:“AIREN”(《LUNYU·YANYUAN》);“JUCHUGONG,ZHISHIJING,YURENZHONG。SUIZHIYIDI,BUKEQIYE”(《LUNYU·ZILU》);“RENZHEXIANNANERHOUHUO”(《LUNYU·YONGYE》)。KONGZIDUIFANCHIWENRENDESANCIHUIDA,ZIRANBUNENGQIONGJINWOMENDUI“REN”DELIJIE,DANBIJINGKAIQILEDONGJIAN“REN”ZHIHANYUNDEHUYOU。ZAIKONGZIKANLAI,SHOUXIAN,“REN”DEBENZHISHI“AIREN”。“REN”BUJINJIRENYIXINLINGDEGUANAIYUWENNUAN,YEJIYUSHIJIEYIGUANGMINGYUWENQING,SHIJIYUNEIDEGAOSHANGDEXINGYUXIANYUWAIDEMEIHAODEXINGDEYOUJITONGYI;QICI,“REN”DEJIBENNEIHANSHI“GONG”“JING”“ZHONG”。ZAIJIAGONGJINGYOULI,YIQIFUHEXIAOTIDELUNLIYAOQIU。BANSHIYANSUJINSHEN,YIQIFUHELIDEJIBENGUIFAN。DAIRENZHONGHOUCHENGSHI,YIQITUXIANRENDEYUANBENDISE;ZAICI,“REN”DEJUTIBIAOXIANSHI“XIANNANERHOUHUO”。GANYUTIAOZHANKUNNAN、ZHANSHENGKUNNAN,JUEBUTAOBIKUNNAN,GENGBUNENGBAKUNNANLIUJITAREN。ERDUIYURONGYUHUOLIYI,ZEYAOCIRANG,XIANRENHOUJI。ZHENGYOUYUCI,“MENGZHIFANBUFA”1CAIZHIDECHENGDAO,QIRENZHEPINGECAIQIANGULIUFANG。

                                ZAIMENGZIKANLAI,“RENZHEAIREN”ZHI“REN”,ZHAOSHIYU“RENJIEYOUZHI”DE“CEYINZHIXIN”(《MENGZI·GAOZISHANG》)。“CEYINZHIXIN”SHIRENNENGGOUZIJUEYISHIDAOZHEIYI“RENZHIDUAN”GURANZHONGYAO,DANGENGWEIZHONGYAODESHI,HAIBIXUCHIXUBUXIEDIDUIQIJIAYIPEIZHI、ZIYANG、TISHENG、KUOCHONG,FANGNENGYIN“REN”DEYINDAOERBUDUANDISHI“REN”CHENGWEIZHENZHENGYIYISHANGDE“REN”;“REN”YEHUIYIN“REN”DUI“REN”DECHIXUJIANXING,ERCHENGWEINEIZAIYU“REN”DE“REN”。ZHENGSHIZAICIYIYISHANG,KONGZIDE“RENXUE”CAIHUIYIN“REN”BUDUANDIJIAN“REN”QI“SHENG”,ERCHENGWEIYINYUNZHERENWENDISEDE“RENDAO”。

                                YOUSHANGKEJIAN,WEIYOUTIWU“WANWUYITIZHIREN”,FANGNENG“ZHUANZHIWEIREN”,CONGERDAZHI“RENZHEBUYOU”DEJINGJIE,ZHEIYEZHENGSHIKONGZI“RENXUE”DUISHIJIANZHIHUIDEYINZHENG。“TABUZAILILUNSHANGQUTANQIUTAOLUN、ZHENGBIANNANYIJIEJUEDEZHEXUEKETI,BINGRENWEIBUBIYAOQUJINXINGZHEIZHONGCHUNSIBIANDECHOUXIANG。ZHONGYAODESHIZAIXIANSHISHENGHUOZHONGRUHETUOSHANDICHULITA。”[6]35YINCI,“REN”ZAINEIRONGSHANGSUOYAOBIAODADESHIYIZHONG“DAODEDIZIJUEXIANGSHANGDEJINGSHEN”。[7]303-305

                                三、仁智合一:“安仁利仁”

                                KONGZI“RENXUE”ZHONGYINYUNZHEDEZHEIZHONG“DAODEDIZIJUEXIANGSHANGDEJINGSHEN”,TONGGUO“ZHUANSHIWEIZHI”YU“ZHUANZHIWEIREN”DEYIBIAOXIAN,ER“ZHUANZHIWEIREN”DESHIZHIZESHI“RENZHIHEYI”。

                                《LUNYU》ZHONGJIANGRENZHI(ZHI)BINGLIE、HUCANZHICHUSHENDUO。ZIYUE:“ZHIZHELESHUI,RENZHELESHAN。ZHIZHEDONG,RENZHEJING。ZHIZHELE,RENZHESHOU。”(《LUNYU·YONGYE》)ZAIKONGZIKANLAI,ZHIZHEMINGYUSHILIERZHOULIUWUZHI,YOUSIYUSHUI;RENZHEDAYUSHILIERHOUZHONGBUQIAN,YOUSIYUSHAN。ZHIZHERUSHUIYIBANSHENGXINGHUOPO,KAILANGLEGUAN,JINENGMINGWUZHIWANHUA,YOUNENGYUZHIWANHUA,GULEZAIQIZHONG;RENZHEZEXIANGSHANYIYANGPINGWENDANDING,KUANRONGRENHOU,JIBUYIYUWU,YIBUSHANGYUWU,SUOYINENGGOUZHANGSHOU。QISHI,“SHAN”“SHUI”GEYOUQIANQIU,RENZHIHEYISHIKONGZIBISHENGZHUIQIUDELIXIANGJINGJIE。SUIBUNENGZHI,RANXINXIANGWANGZHI。

                                ZIYUE:“BURENZHEBUKEYIJIUCHUYUE,BUKEYIZHANGCHULE。RENZHEANREN,ZHIZHELIREN。”(《LUNYU·LIREN》)ZAIKONGZIKANLAI,MEIYOUDAZHIRENDEJINGJIEDEREN,JIBUNENGZHANGSHIJIANDICHUYUJIANPOQIKUDEKUNJINGZHIZHONG,YEBUNENGZHANGSHIJIANDIJUYUSHUSHIYUYUEDELEJINGZHIZHONG。YINWEIDUIYUBURENZHELAISHUO,“SHIYI”(“YUE”)ZEXINHUI,“DEYI”(“LE”)ZEWANGXING,ANPINLEDAOYUFUGUIBUYINJIENANYIQIJI。ER“RENZHE”WULUNCHUYUHEZHONGZAOJIZHUANGTAIZHIZHONG,DOUHUILETIANZHIMING、“AN”ZHIRUOSU、ZHICHENGWUXI、YOUYUANBOHOU。ER“ZHIZHE”(ZHIZHE)YOUYUMINGBAISHILI,ZEHUIYIRENWEIMUBIAO,SHIQISUOZUOSUOWEIDOUYOU“LI”YUREN。“REN”YU“ZHI”(ZHI)JIURUTONG“CHENG”YU“MING”ZHIGUANXI:“ZICHENGMING,WEIZHIXING;ZIMINGCHENG,WEIZHIJIAO。”(《LIJI·ZHONGYONG》)YOULECHENG(REN)ZIRANMING(ZHI),ERCONG“MING”DAO“CHENG”,HAIXU“LIXING”——XIAYIFAN“XIUDAOZHIWEIJIAO”DEGONGFU。

                                “REN”YU“ZHI”(“CHENG”YU“MING”)SUIYOUQUBIE,YEYUNHANZHENEIZAIDEGUANTONG。ZHENZHENGDE“ZHI”SHIYIZHONGZHIRENDE“ZHI”,ERBUSHI“EJIAOYIWEIZHIZHE”(《LUNYU·YANGHUO》)DEXIAORENZHIZHI。ZHIBIYOUREN,FANGKEWEIZHIZHI,RENYIBIYOUZHI,FANGNENGCHENGZHIWEIREN。ZHENGSUOWEI:“WEIZHI,YANDEREN?”(《LUNYU·GONGYEZHANG》)“HAORENBUHAOXUE,QIBIYEYU。”(《LUNYU·YANGHUO》)MENGZICENGJIEYONGZIGONGDEHUAZANMEIKONGZI:“XUEBUYAN,ZHIYE;JIAOBUJUAN,RENYE。RENQIEZHI,FUZIJISHENGYI。”(《MENGZI·GONGSUNCHOUSHANG》)XIHANDONGZHONGSHUCENGDUIRENZHIGUANXIYUYIZHUANLUN:WURENZHIYOUZHI,YOURU“KUANGERCAOLIBING”;WUZHIZHIYOUREN,ZERU“MIERCHENGLIANGMA”。(《CHUNQIUFANLU·BIRENQIEZHI》)

                                “ZIYUE:HAOXUEJINHUZHI,LIXINGJINHUREN。”(《LIJI·ZHONGYONG》)ZHI(ZHI)ZHEYURENZHEDEQUBIEKEYILIJIEWEI:ZHIZHEGENGZHUZHONG“ZHIREN”,YIJIDUI“REN”BENSHENDELIJIEYIJIDUIRUHE“LVREN”DEJIANJIE,YIQIU“ZHIZHEBUHUO”;ERRENZHEBUJINYAO“ZHI”HEWEIREN,RUHE“LVREN”,ERQIEHAIBIXUNENGGOUJIANG“LVREN”FUZHUYU“LIXING”。ZHENGRUXUNZISUOYAN:“YANYAOZEZHI,XINGZHIZEREN。”(《XUNZI·ZIDAO》)YANYUHEHUYAOZHICAINENGCHENGDESHANGSHI“ZHIZHE”,XINGWEIHEHUGUIFANCAINENGCHENGQIWEI“RENZHE”。WEIYOURENZHIHEYI,FANGNENGSHI“ZHIZHEBUHUO,RENZHEBUYOU”DEYIGUANTONG。“ZHIZHE”YINWEIZHIMING、ZHILI、ZHIREN,GUBUHUO;“RENZHE”YINWEIAIREN,BUNIANJIUE,CHUSHITANDANG,NEISHENGBUJIU,GUBUYOU。RENZHEYUZHIZHEYUANRONGXIANGTONG、XIANGFUXIANGCHENG,YIZHIYU“ANRENLIREN”。WEIRUCI,FANGNENG“FANSHUSHI,YINSHUI,QUGONGERZHENZHI,LEYIZAIQIZHONGYI”(《LUNYU·SHUER》)。WEIRUCI,FANGNENG“YIDANSHI,YIPIAOYIN,ZAILOUXIANG,RENBUKANQIYOU,HUIYEBUGAIQILE”(《LUNYU·YONGYE》)。ZHEIZHONGLE,WUYISHIANRENLIRENHOUDE“ZHILE”。

                              棋牌大全下载安装   《LUNYU》ZHONGYOUGUANYUZILU、CENGXI、RANYOU、GONGXIHUASHIZUO,KONGZIWENSIRENZHIXIANGDEJIZAI。ZILU、RANQIU、GONGXIHUAFENBIECONGQIANGGUO、FUMIN、XIANGLISANGEFANGMIANTANLUNZHIGUOLIZHENGZHIDAO,QIEZHENZHENYOUCI。KONGZITINGHOUJIEWEIZHIKEFOU,WEIDUDUICENGXISUOSHUO“MOCHUNZHE,CHUNFUJICHENG,GUANZHEWULIUREN,TONGZILIUQIREN,YUHUYI,FENGHUWUYU,YONGERGUI”(《LUNYU·XIANJIN》),BIAOSHISHOUKEN。SHIDE,ZAICHUNNUANHUAKAIDEMUCHUNSANYUE,SHENZHECHUNZHUANG,XIANGYUEWULIUGECHENGNIANREN、LIUQIGESHAONIANER,ZAIYIHESHUIZHONGXIJINGCHUGOU,ZAIWUYUTAISHANGHUFENGQIYU,ERHOUCHANGZHEGEYAOFANCHENG,NEIGAISHIHEDENGDEKUAILE!HEDENGDEWUYOU!

                                《LIJI》YUE:“JUNZILEDEQIDAO,XIAORENLEDEQIYU。”XIAORENDEQIYU,ZEXINXIRUOKUANG,QIEHUANDEHUANSHI,YOUHUANZHONGSHEN;JUNZIDEQIDAO,ZEYUDAOWEIYI,QIEHUIHONGTANDANG,ZHONGSHENWUYOU。ZAIKONGZIKANLAI,RENZHIYOUYI“REN”WEIXINZHAI,CAINENGZHENZHENGZUODAOXINYOUSUOAN、XINWUSUOYOU,CAICHENGDESHANGSHIZHENZHENGDE“ZHI”。“ZHI”ZAICIXIANRANSHIYI“REN”WEIJIAZHIDAOYINDEYIZHONGSHIJIANZHIHUI(YIHUOSHIJIANLIXING、DAODELIXING),ERBUSHIYIJIAZHIZHONGLIZIXU、YIRENZHIZHUTILIYONGYUGAIZAORENZHIKETI、JINERMANZUZISHENGONGLIWEIMUDEDEGONGJULIXING。RUGUOYIZHEIZHONGGONGJULIXINGLAIKANDAIKONGZISUOCHENGDAODE“ZHI”,NEIMEJIUHUIJIANGQIJIBIANCHENGYIZHONGJIEYISHIXIANMOUZHONGGONGLIMUDEDEGONGJU,ZHEIZHONGGONGJUHUALEDE“ZHI”YEBIANSHIQULETASUOYINGYOUDEBENZHENYIYI。ZAIKONGZIKANLAI,“ZHIZHIZHEBURUHAOZHIZHE,HAOZHIZHEBURULEZHIZHE。”(《LUNYU·YONGYE》)ZHIXIAOMOUZHONGDAOLI,BURUXIHAOTA;XIHAOTA,BURULEYUYITAERXING。YI“LE”DETAIDUSHENSHI“REN”,“REN”JIUBUZAISHIRENDESHENGMINGZHIWAIDERENZHIDUIXIANG,ERSHIYURENDESHENGMINGXIANGJIBULIDEQIJUZHIZHAI。YUSHI,“REN”BIANZAIRENDEJIANXINGZHONGXIANXIANWEI“REN”,“REN”YEZAIJIANXING“REN”DEGUOCHENGZHONGZHUJIANCHENGQIWEI“REN”。“REN”YU“REN”DEXIANGJIBULIYUDONGTAISHENGCHENG,BUJINSHIDE“RENZHE”NENGANSHOUYU“REN”,ERQIEYISHIDEZHIXIAO“REN”DE“ZHIZHE”DESUOZUOSUOWEIDOUNENGZHUDONGDIYOULIYU“REN”。

                                “ANRENLIREN”,BINGFEIKUXINGSENGSHIDEZINVE,ERSHIJIANLIZAIBUYOUBUHUOJICHUSHANGDEYIZHONGYOURANZIDEDERENSHENGTAIDUHEJINGJIE。RENZHETONGGUOZHIXIAOTIANMING、ZHIZHETONGGUOTIRENJIANXING,DAZHIRENZHIYUANRONG、RENZHIHEYI。ZHENGYOUYUCI,KONGZIBUJINYONGYOU“JIANXIANSIQI”(《LUNYU·LIREN》)、“GONGZIHOUERBOZEYUREN”(《LUNYU·WEILINGGONG》)DEQIANGONGYUKUANHOU,ERQIEYEYONGYOU“WEIRENYOUJI”(《LUNYU·YANYUAN》)、“TIANSHENGDEWUYU”(《LUNYU·SHUER》)DEHUODAYUZIXIN。

                                四、结语

                              棋牌大全下载安装   XUFUGUANRENWEI,YUGUXILAWENHUA“ZHUYAOSHIYIZHINENGWEIJIDIANDERENWENZHUYI”XIANGBI,ZHONGGUOWENHUAKEYISHUOSHI“DAODEXINGDERENWENZHUYI”。[8]201MENGPEIYUANZAI《XINLINGCHAOYUEYUJINGJIE》YISHUZHONGYEZHICHU:“CONGBIJIAOZHEXUEDEJIAODUKAN,XIFANGZHEXUESHILIZHIXINGZHEXUE,ERZHONGGUOZHEXUEZESHIQINGGANXINGZHEXUE。”[9]18“QINGGANHUOZHEBEIKANCHENGSHIDAODELIXINGDEXINLIJICHU(RUKONG、MENG)。”“DAODELIXINGBENSHIQINGGANDE‘KUOCHONG’HETISHENG,SHIQINGGANDELIXINGHUA……SHIQINGGANYULIXINGDEZHENZHENGTONGYI”。[9]35-45ZHONGQING,SHANGQING,SHIZHONGSHIXIANQINRUJIASIXIANGDEJINGSUI。“HEWEIRENQING?XI、NU、AI、JU、AI、E、YU,QIZHEFUXUEERNENG。”“GURENQINGZHE,SHENGWANGZHITIANYE。XIULIYIGENGZHI,CHENYIYIZHONGZHI,JIANGXUEYINOUZHI,BENRENYIJUZHI,BOLEYIANZHI。”(《LIJI·LIYUN》)YINCI,“SHANGHAOXIN,ZEMINMOGANBUYONGQING”(《LUNYU·ZILU》)。ZHIZHENGZHEYICHENGXINWEIBEN,ZEMINZHONGJIUHUIYIZHENQINGXIANGDAI。XUFUGUANYUMENGPEIYUANZAICISUOJIANGDE“DAODEXINGDERENWENZHUYI”YIHUO“DAODELIXING”,QISHIJIUSHIKONGZI“RENXUE”ZHONGSUOYUNHANDESHIJIANZHIHUI。ZHEIZHONGZHIHUI,YITIXIANZAI《LUNYU》ZHONGJIZAIDEZHUDUOYOUGUANWEIRENCHUSHIDESHENGHUOGEYANZHIZHONG。DUICI,HEIGEERCENGYIQIBUGOU“ZHEXUE”ERJIAYICHAOFENG。SUZHUYUCHOUXIANGSIBIANDEHEIGEER,SHIZEBUKENENGLINGWUKONGZI“RENXUE”ZHONGYINYUNZHEDESHIJIANZHIHUIZHIJINGYISUOZAI。ZHEIZHONGZHIHUIBUQIQIUJIANGOUGAOMIAOCHOUXIANGDESIBIANTIXI,YINWEINEIBINGBUNENGJIEJUESHENGHUOSHIJIEZHONGDEJUTIWENTIHEXIANSHIYINAN。ZHENGKEWEI:“LILUNSHIHUISEDE,ERSHENGHUOZHISHUCHANGQING。”

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                                [8] 徐复观.中国人文精神之阐扬[M].北京:中国广播电视出版社,1996.
                              棋牌大全下载安装   [9] 蒙培元.心灵超越与境界[M].北京:人民出版社,1998.

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                                1MENGZHIFAN,MINGCE,LUGUODAFU。GONGYUANQIAN484NIAN,LUGUOYUQIGUODAZHANG。LUGUOYOUYIJUNBAITUIDESHIHOU,MENGZHIFANZAIZUIHOUYANHUBAITUIDELUJUN。CHELIZHICHENGMENHOU,MENGZHIFAN“BENERDIAN,JIANGRUMEN,CEQIMA,YUE:FEIGANHOUYE,MABUJINYE”。(《LUNYU·YONGYE》)

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