棋牌大全下载安装

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                      当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 杜威在范式转变、理论哲学和实践哲学

                      杜威在范式转变、理论哲学和实践哲学

                      时间:2018-12-17 10:31作者:陈亚军
                      本文导读:这是一篇关于杜威在范式转变、理论哲学和实践哲学的文章,自上世纪下半叶以来,杜威在西方思想学术界重新受到人们的重视,影响广泛而深远。其实,美国哲学家们从来没有真正离开过杜威,而当代实用主义者们更是以不同的方式继承、发展了杜威的思想。

                        摘    要:棋牌大全下载安装 作为古典实用主义集大成者,杜威对当代实用主义的发展有着至关重要的影响。他对西方传统哲学的改造为当代实用主义的发展制定了路标,因而被新实用主义最重要的代表人物罗蒂奉为精神导师。他在理论哲学和实践哲学方面的许多观点在当代一系列重要的哲学讨论中得到了深刻的体现。他的自然主义语言观、行为主义语义学以及整体主义哲学观,受到奎因的高度赞誉。他的实用主义实在论对于普特南的思想转变有着直接的启发。他对于逻辑实证主义经验观的批判以及对于传统心灵概念的改造,在麦克道威尔和普特南那里产生了强烈的共鸣。他的经验主义伦理学观点直接导致了罗蒂的“无形而上学的伦理学”和普特南的“无本体论的伦理学”。他的民主学说广为人知,伯恩斯坦对其做了大量深入的阐发;韦斯特则将其与艾默生所开创的个人主义传统相结合,对杜威的民主思想做了进一步的发展。杜威对于当代实用主义的影响如此深入而持久,以至于我们可以说,实用主义的当代发展是在杜威的旗帜下实现的。

                        关键词:棋牌大全下载安装 实践; 实在论; 心灵; 道德; 民主;

                        Abstract: Dewey, as the most important classical pragmatist, has strong and lasting influences on the development of contemporary pragmatism. He makes the guidepost for that development by reconstruction of traditional western philosophy, and so becomes the spiritual tutor of Rorty, the main representative of new pragmatism. Besides this, we also can see the impact from Dewey in today's discussions about a series of topics of theoretical and practical philosophies. His naturalistic doctrine of language, behavioristic semantics and holistic view of philosophy are highly appreciated by Quine. His pragmatist realism inspires Putnam significantly. His criticism against the conception of experience of logical positivism and reformation of traditional theory of mind are echoed obviously in MacDowell and Putnam. Moreover, Dewey's practical philosophy is also attractive to many contemporary pragmatists. His thought about ethics directly results in Rorty's “ethics without metaphysics” and Putnam's “ethics without ontology.” His ideas of democracy are well known by many people, about which Bernstein has a lot of elucidations. West tries to push Dewey's ideas forward by combining them with individualism deliberated by Emerson. Dewey is never absent from almost all of today's philosophical discussions. He still shapes the direction of the development of new pragmatism. So, it can be concluded that the development of contemporary pragmatism is fulfilled under Dewey's flag.

                        Keyword: practice; realism; mind; morality; democracy;

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                        以柏拉图、康德为代表的西方哲学的主流是理性主义、基础主义。杜威将这种哲学称作旁观者式的哲学。它将人对世界的反思态度作为哲学的出发点,人与世界被分离了,哲学家们努力寻求分离后的统一。而在杜威看来,这不过是徒劳地想把打碎了的鸡蛋重新拼凑起来而已。受达尔文的影响,杜威坚信人与自然的连续性,将人“在世界中的存在”当作哲学思考的起点。人与世界的交互作用是他的哲学的第一原则。人不是站在世界之外的旁观者,而是身在世界之中的能动者。“第一个伟大的思想是,生命是在环境中继续的,不仅是在它之中,而且是因为它并通过和它的交互作用。”1
                       

                      杜威在范式转变、理论哲学和实践哲学
                       

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                      棋牌大全下载安装   DUIYUDUWEIDESHIYONGZHUYIZHEXUE,RENMENCHANGYOUYIZHONGWUJIE,RENWEITAZHISHIYIZHONGXINGDONGZHEXUE,QUESHAOLILUNZHEXUENEIHAN。ZHEIZHONGWUJIEJISHENQIEGUANG,YANZHONGYINGXIANGLEDUIDUWEIZHEXUEDEQUANMIANBAWO。CHENGRAN,DUWEISHIZHONGSHIXINGDONGZHEXUEDE,DANZHEIJUEBUYIWEIZHETAQINGSHILILUNZHEXUE。QIAQIAXIANGFAN,LILUNZHEXUEHUATIZAIDUWEIZHEXUEZHONGZHANJULEZHONGYAOWEIZHI。TADEXUDUOLILUNZHEXUEGUANDIAN,ZAIXINSHIYONGZHUYIZHEKUIYIN、PUTENAN、MAIKEDAOWEIERNEILIDEDAOLEZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEDEFAYANGGUANGDA。

                      棋牌大全下载安装   XINSHIYONGZHUYIJIAZUZHONG,KUIYINDUISHIYONGZHUYIZUIQUEFAQINQIEGAN。TACENGYANLIPIPINGZHANMUSIDEZHENLIGUAN,YECENGJUJUEJIESHOU“SHIYONGZHUYIZHE”CHENGHAO。DANJIBIANRUCI,TADUIDUWEIRENGJIYUHENGAODEPINGJIA:“WOYINGGAITIDAODUWEI。ZAISHIZHIXINGDEGUANDIANSHANG,WOYUDUWEITEBIEYIZHI,JINGUANWOCONGMEIYOUSHOUGUOTADEYINGXIANG。DANYOUYIDIANWUKEHUAIYI,ZAIBEICHENGZUOSHIYONGZHUYIZHEDENEIXIERENNEILI,WODUIDUWEIZUIYOUGONGMING。”13 KUIYINBUJINJICHENGLEDUWEIZHENGTILUNDELICHANG,WAJIELEJINGYANLUNDELIANGGEJIAOTIAO,RENWEIYIQIELILUNDOUSHIKEXIUZHENGDE,CONGBENTILUNDEJIAODUSHUO,HEMASHISHIYUWULIXUEBINGWUBUTONG,DOUSHICHULIJINGYANDEGONGJU;ERQIEZAIJUTIDEZIRANZHUYIYUYANGUANYIJIXINGWEIZHUYIYIYILUNFANGMIAN,TAHEDUWEIYEWANQUANYIZHI。DUWEIDEZIRANZHUYIYAOQIUWOMENBARENJIQINENGLIDANGZUOZIRANSHIJIEDEYIBUFEN,YONGZIRANDEYANGUANGXUNQIUDUIZIRANXIANXIANGDEJIEDA,JUCHIDUICHAOZIRANYINSUDEQIQIU。DUWEIDEXINGWEIZHUYIYAOQIUWOMENJIANGYUYANKANZUOSHENGHUOSHIJIEZHONGSHEHUIJIAOWANGDECHANWU,ZAIRENYURENDEGONGGONGDUIHUAZHONG,BAWOYUYANDEYIYI,JUCHIDUINEIZAISIRENYUYANDESUQIU。ZHEIXIEDOUZAIKUIYINNEILIDEDAOLEXIANGYING。KUIYINTONGYANGSHIYIWEIZHEMINGDEZIRANZHUYIZHE,TAXUANCHENG:“YUDUWEIYIYANG,WORENWEI,ZHISHI、XINLING、YIYISHITAMENBUDEBUYUZHIDAJIAODAODETONGYIGESHIJIEDEBUFEN,BINGQIEBIXUANZHAOSHIZIRANKEXUECHONGMANSHENGJIDETONGYANGDEJINGYANJINGSHENDUITAMENJIAYIYANJIU。”14 KUIYINYETONGYANGSHIYIWEIXINGWEIZHUYIZHE,TAXUANCHENG:“YUYANSHISHEHUIDEJIYI,WOMENDOUJINJINSHIGENJUTARENZAIGONGGONGKERENSHIDEHUANJINGXIADEWAIXIANXINGWEILAIHUODEZHEIZHONGJIYIDE。……ZAIZHEIYIDIANSHANG,DUWEIDEKANFASHIMINGQUEDE:‘YIYI……BUSHIJINGSHENDECUNZAIWU,TAZHUYAOSHIXINGWEIDESHUXING。’”14DUIKUIYINLAISHUO,TAHEDUWEIDEZHEIYIGONGTONGLICHANGBUJINSHIDUIYUYIXUEBOWUGUANSHENHUADEPAOQI,GENGZHONGYAODESHI,ZHEIYECUIHUILEZHANGQIYILAIXIFANGZHEXUEJIAMENDUIQUEDINGXINGDEZHUIQIU。BOWUGUANSHENHUAZHISUOYIKENENG,JIUSHIYINWEIZAICHUANTONGZHEXUEJIAMENNEILI,YUCIHEYUJUDEYIYIBIXUSHIQUEDINGDE:WEILEFAXIANTUZHERENYUCIDEYIYI,WOMENKENENGBUDEBUGUANCHATAMENDEWAIBUXINGWEI,DANZAITAMENDENEIXINYEJIUSHIZAITAMENDEJINGSHENBOWUGUANZHONG,YUCIRENGRANYOUYIGEQUEDINGDEYIYI,NAPAWOMENWUFAJIEZHUWAIZAIXINGWEIBIAOZHUNQUFAXIANZHEIXIEYIYI。14DUWEICONGSHEHUIXINLIXUE、RENLEIXUEDEJIAODUDUICHUANTONGZHEXUEXUNQIUQUEDINGXINGDESHIZHIJINXINGLEJIELU,KUIYINZECONGYUYIXUEJIAODUJICHENGLEDUWEIDELICHANGBINGJIAYIFAYANGGUANGDA。

                        SHIZAILUNSHIDANGDAIYINGMEIZHEXUEJIAMENZHENGLUNDEHEXINHUATI。XINSHIYONGZHUYIJIAZUZHONG,CHISHIZAILUNLICHANGDEZHUYAODAIBIAOWUYISHIPUTENAN。TAHELUODIYIQI,GOUCHENGLEXINSHIYONGZHUYIDELIANGDAZHONGZHEN。RANERZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,TADUISHIYONGZHUYI,YOUQISHIDUIDUWEIZHEXUEDERENSHIHEPINGJIAYULUODIHENBUXIANGTONG。RUGUOSHUOLUODIDUIDUWEIDEXINSHANGJIZHONGYUDUWEIDIANFUCHUANTONGZHEXUEDE“GEBAINISHIGEMING”,NEIMEPUTENANDUIDUWEIDEXINGQUBIANJUJIAOYUDUWEIDUICHUANTONGSHIZAILUNDEGAIZAO。LUODIYINWEIJIANGDUWEIKANZUOYUCHUANTONGZHEXUEJUELIEDEBANGYANG,YINCITEBIEQINGLAIDUWEIDESHIJIANZHEXUEJINGSHENERDUITADEJINGYANZHUYIXINGERSHANGXUEZESHENGANSHIWANG,DUIDUWEIDESHIZAILUNLICHANGGENGSHISHIERBUJIAN;PUTENANZEBUJINZANSHANGDUWEIDESHIJIANYOUXIANXINGZHUZHANG,ERQIECONGDUWEINEILIHUODELEZHONGJIANSHIZAILUNDEQIFA。LUODIYIYUPAOQIDEDUWEIDEJINGYANZHUYIXUESHUOQIAQIAZUIWEIPUTENANSUOKANZHONG。

                      棋牌大全下载安装   DUWEIZHUZHANGHUIDAOSHENGHUOSHIJIE,HUIDAOQIANFANSIDEJINGYANZHILIU。ZAICI,DUIXIANGSHIRENDEYIXIANGXINGHUODONGDECHANWU,JIERUSHIJIEDEFANGSHIYUSHIJIECUNZAIDEFANGSHIBUZAIXINGCHENGDUILI,ZHUKELIEXIDEYIMIHE。ZHEIZHONGXIAOJIEZHUKEFENLIEDEFANGSHIDUIHOUQIPUTENANYINGXIANGSHENDA,TAKAISHIYISHIDAO,ZIJIDENEIZAISHIZAILUNRENGRANMEIYOUBAITUOXINGERSHANGXUESHIZAILUNDEKEJIU,GUWULUNCONGKETICHUFAHAISHICONGZHUTICHUFA,DOUWUFAXIAOCHUZHUKEZHIJIANDEGEHE。YUSHI,ZAISHANGSHIJIJIUSHINIANDAI,TAZHONGXINHUIDAODUWEISUOCHANGDAODEZHIJIESHIZAILUNLICHANG,TONGGUODUIZHIJUEGAINIANDEGAIZAO,ZHAODAOLEHANWEISHIZAILUNLICHANGDEJUTITUJING。

                        ZHIJUEZAICISHIGUANZHONGDA,“RUGUOBUTIJIZHIJUE,RENMENWUFALIJIESIWEIRUHETONGSHIJIEGUAGOUDE”。15 “YUYANZHUANXIANG”SHIZHIJUEHUATIZAIYINGMEIZHEXUEJIEXIAOSHILESANSHINIANZHIJIU,RANER,BUZHONGXINLIJIEZHIJUE,YUYANYUSHIJIEGUANXIDENANTIJIUWUFAZHENZHENGDEDAOJIEJUE。ZAOZAISHANGSHIJICHU,DUWEIBIANDUILUOJISHIZHENGZHUYIDEGANJUEJINGYANGUANDIANTICHUZHIYI,RENWEI“ZHENGTONGDELUOJIJINGYANZHUYIDEMIUWUJIUZAIZHEIER。TAJIASHECUNZAIZHE‘SUOYU’、GANJUE、ZHIJUEDENGDENG,TAMENXIANYUBINGDULIYUSIXIANGHUOGUANNIANERCUNZAI,SIXIANGHUOGUANNIANSHITONGGUOFUHEHUOCHAIFENSUOYUERHUODEDE”。16 DANRENDEGANJUEJINGYANBUTONGYUDONGWUDEGANSHOUXING: “SUOWEIJIANDANDE‘HONGZAIZHEILI’ZHONGBAOHANZHEYIGELILUNZAIQIZHONG。”17 “SHIJISHANG,YIQIERENSHILUNSHANGDETAOLUNDOUYIJUYUYIGECONGZHIJIEZHANYOUDAOYUYANTANLUNDELINGYULAIHUIDEBUZHIBUJUEDEBIANHUAN。”18 DUWEIDEZHEIXIEZHUZHANG,YUYANLESAILASIDE“SUOYUSHENHUAPIPAN”、PUTENANYUMAIKEDAOWEIERDE“SHIJIEGAINIANHUA”YIJIBULANDUNDE“TUILUNYUYIXUE”DELUNDIAN。ZHIYOUJIANCHIZHEIXIEZHUZHANG,CAIYOUKENENGTUPOSHIZAILUNYUFANSHIZAILUNZHENGLUNDEPINGJING,ZHAODAOYITIAOJIJIANCHIZHENGTILUNYOUBIMIANXINGERSHANGXUESHIZAILUNDETUJING。PUTENANHOUQIDEZHUANBIAN,ZHENGSHIZIJUEYANZHEZHEIYILUJINGQIANXINGDE。TAZHONGXINHUIDAOZHIJUEJINGYANZHEIGEHUATI,TONGGUOJIANCHIZHIJUEDEGAINIANHUA,ZHONGXINHUIDAOZHIJIESHIZAILUNDELICHANG。TADEJIEJUEFANGSHIZHENGSHIDUWEISUOQINGLAIDEFANGSHI。

                        ZHIJUEGAINIANDEGAIZAOZHIJIEGUANSHEDAOXINLINGGAINIANDEZHONGSU。ZHEISHIDANGDAIZHEXUEJIAMENSUOREZHONGDELINGYIGEZHONGYAOHUATI。GUANYUZHEIGEHUATI,DUWEITONGYANGZOUZAILESHIDAIDEQIANMIAN。DUWEIZAIHENZHANGYIDUANSHIJIANLISHIHEIGEERDEZHONGSHIXINTU,ZAIFOUDINGDIKAERSHIXINLINGGAINIANFANGMIAN,TADESILUHEDEGUOZHEXUE、TEBIESHIHEIGEERDEZHEXUEYOUZHEMINGXIANDEQINYUANGUANXI。XINLINGZAIDUWEIZHEILIHEZAIHEIGEERNEILIYIYANG,SHIZAISHIJIANZHONGSHENGCHENGDE;BUTONGZHICHUZAIYU,DUWEIBAHEIGEERZIRANZHUYIHUALE。XINLINGBUSHIYIZHONGCHAOZIRANDEJINGSHEN,ERSHIRENZAIYUHUANJINGJIAOHUZUOYONGDEGUOCHENGZHONGZIRANXINGCHENGDENENGLIXITONG。YINCI,DUWEIRENWEI,XINLINGYINGGAIBEILIJIEWEIDONGCIERBUSHIMINGCI:“XINLINGSHOUXIANSHIYIGEDONGCI。TAYIZHIWOMENYOUYISHIDI、MINGQUEDIHEWOMENSUOCHUDEHUANJINGDAJIAODAODEYIQIEFANGSHI。”19

                        DUWEIZHEIZHONGDUTEDEXINLINGGAINIANTONGYANGBEIDANGDAIZHEXUEJIAMAIKEDAOWEIERHEPUTENANSUOJICHENG。JINGUANMEIYOUZHENGJUBIAOMINGMAIKEDAOWEIER、PUTENANDEXIANGGUANSIXIANGZHIJIELAIZIDUWEIDEYINGXIANG,DANLIANGZHEZHIJIANDERUCHUYIZHELINGRENYINXIANGSHENKE。HEDUWEIYIYANG,MAIKEDAOWEIERYAOBAXINLISHIJIECONGYIZHONGGUDINGDENEIZAIKONGJIANDESHEXIANGZHONGJIEFANGCHULAI,BATAHERENDEWAIZAISHENGHUO、RENDEZIRANFAZHANSHILIANXIZAIYIQI,XINLINGBINGMEIYOUYIGESUOWEIDEJUSUO。“XINLISHENGHUOFASHENGZAIHECHU,ZHIYAOSHUOTAFASHENGZAIWOMENDESHENGHUOSUOFASHENGDEDIFANGJIUGOULE,BINGBUXUYAORENHEGENGJIAJINGQUEDEFANGSHIJIANGQIZHUNQUEDINGWEI。YUSHI,TADEZHUANGTAIHESHIJIANJIUXIANGWOMENDESHENGHUOYIYANGKEYINEIZAIDIYUWOMENDEHUANJINGXIANGGUAN。”20 RUGUOWOMENDUIZHAODUWEIDEXIALIELUNSHU,WOMENHUIFAXIAN,MAIKEDAOWEIERDEZHEIFANHUA,DUWEIZAIBANGEDUOSHIJIYIQIANBIANYIJINGSHUOGUOLE:“XINLINGDE(WEIZHI)HUOCHANGSUO——TADEJINGZHIFANGMIAN——JIUSHIYOUJIXINGDONGDEXINGZHI,ZHEIXIEXINGZHISHOUYUYANJIQIHOUGUODEZHIYUE。……TADEFANGSHIBUKENENGMEIYOUJIEGOUZUOWEIQIJIZHI,DANTABUTONGYUJIEGOUZHENGRUZOULUBUTONGYUTUIHUOHUXIBUTONGYUFEIYIYANG。”21 XINLINGBUSHISHITI,BUCUNZAIYURENHEKONGJIANZHIZHONG;XINLINGSHIYIZHONGNENGLIXITONG,TACUNZAIYUHEHUANJINGDEJIAOHUZUOYONGZHONG。PUTENANDESHUOFASHI:“GUANYUXINLINGDETANLUNBUSHIGUANYUWOMENDEMOUGEFEIWUZHIBUFENDETANLUN,ERWUNINGSHIYIYIZHONGFANGSHIMIAOSHUGUANYUWOMENSUOYONGYOUDEMOUXIENENGLIDEYUNYONG,ZHEIXIENENGLIBANSUIZHEWOMENDANAODEHUODONGBINGBANSUIZHEWOMENYUHUANJINGDEGEZHONGJIAOHUZUOYONGERCHANSHENG,DANSHIBUBIYIHAIYUANDEFANGSHIYONGWULIXUEDEHUOSHENGWUXUEDECIHUI,HUOSHENZHIYONGJISUANJIKEXUEDECIHUILAIJIESHITAMEN。”22 TAMINGQUEDIJIANGZIJIDEZHEIYIGUANDIANGUIGONGYUDUWEI。23

                        YUYIXUE、SHIZAILUNYIJIYUCIXIANGGUANDEZHIJUE、XINLINGDENG,DOUSHIDANGDAIZHEXUEJIAZHENGLUNDEJIAODIANHUATI。DUWEIZAIZHEIXIEHUATISHANGDEDUTEDONGJIAN,DUIDANGDAIXINSHIYONGZHUYIZHEJUYOUGUANGFANDEYINGXIANG,DEDAOMINGQUEDEHUIYING。KEYISHUO,ZAIDANGDAIYINGMEIZHEXUEJIAMENSUOTAOLUNDECHUNCUILILUNZHEXUEWENTISHANG,DUWEIWEITADEHOUYITIGONGLENANDEDESIXIANGZIYUAN。

                        (三)

                        YIDANSHIXIANLEYUANZHEXUEDEZHUANXIANG,RENDESHENGHUOERBUSHIDAXIESHIZAICHENGWEIZHEXUEDEJUJIAODIAN,SHIJIANZHEXUEZAIZHENGGEZHEXUETIXIZHONGBIANBIRANYONGYOUJUZUQINGZHONGDEWEIZHI。CHUANTONGLUNLIXUEYUCHUANTONGXINGERSHANGXUEMIBUKEFEN,LUNLIXUESHIXINGERSHANGXUEDEYIGEFENZHI。ZHENGRUXINGERSHANGXUEDEZHONGJIMUDESHIDUIDAXIESHIZAIDEJIESHIYIYANG,LUNLIXUESUOREZHONGDEYESHIDUIDAXIESHANDEBENXINGDEZHUIJIU。DUWEIJIYIFOUDINGCHUANTONGXINGERSHANGXUE,BIANBIDINGFANGQIDUIYUPUBIANDAODEYUANZEDEXUNWEN。TADELUNLIXUEYUTADEJINGYANZHUYIYIMAIXIANGCHENG,QITEZHENGZHUYAOYOUYIXIAJIDIAN:1.LUNLIXUESHIZAITEDINGCHANGJINGZHONGDUITEDINGWENTIDEJIEJUEZHIDAODEXUNQIU,SHIBANGZHUWOMENGUOGENGHAOSHENGHUODEGONGJU。SHENMEYANGDELUNLIXUECAISHIZHENZHENGDELUNLIXUE?ZHEILIMEIYOUXIANYANCHIDU,XUANZEDEBIAOZHUNZHINENGLAIZIYUDUIZENYANGCAISUANGENGHAODIJIEJUEWENTIDELIJIE,LUNLIXUECHENSHUDEZHENBUKENENGYIJULUNLIXUEZHIWAIDELIYOULAILUNZHENG。2.DAODEYUANZEYUDAODESHENGHUODEGUANXIZHONG,BUSHIDAODEYUANZEZHICHENGDAODESHENGHUO,ERSHIXIANGFAN,DAODEYUANZELAIZIYUDAODESHENGHUOHUODAODEJINGYAN。DAODEJINGYANSHIDIYIWEIDE,ZUOLINGXIANYUSHUO。3.LUNLIXUESHIDUOYUANDE,ZAIBUTONGDEDAODESHIJIANCHANGJINGXIA,YOUBUTONGDEXUYAOJIEJUEDEWENTI,YINERYOUBUTONGDELUNLIXUE,BUKENENGXIANGKANGDESUOSHUODENEIYANG,ZHIYOUYIZHONGDANYIERDULIDEDAODEDONGJI。4.DANLUNLIXUEYEBUKENENGJIANLIZAISHENGWUZIRANTEXINGRUTONGQINGDEJICHUSHANG。XIUMO、BIANQINDEQINGGANLUNLIXUESHIBUNENGCHENGLIDE。

                      棋牌大全下载安装   PUTENANZAI2004NIANFABIAOLE《WUBENTILUNDELUNLIXUE》YISHU,XITONGCHANSHILETADELUNLIXUESIXIANG。ZAIZHEIBENSHUZHONG,DUWEIBANYANLEDAOSHIDEJIAOSE。PUTENANMINGQUEZHICHIDUWEIDELUNLIXUECHUFADIAN,ZHICHU:“WOXIANGQIANGDIAODESHIDUWEIDEZHEIGEGUANDIAN,JILUNLIXUEGUANZHUDESHISHIJIANWENTIDEJIEJUE……ZHEILIDE‘SHIJIANWENTI’JINJINSHIZHI‘WOMENZAISHIJIANZHONGYUDAODEWENTI’,TEDINGDEHECHUYUQINGJINGZHONGDEWENTI,YUCHOUXIANGDE、LILUNHUADE,HUOLILUNDEWENTIXIANGDUI。”24

                      棋牌大全下载安装   PUTENANRENWEI,YILIXINGWEIJICHUDEDAODEZHEXUE,BAZHENGGEDAODEJIEGOUMIAOHUICHENGYIGEDAOLIDEJINZITA。DAODEYUANZESHIZHEIGEJUDAJINZITADEZHICHENGDIAN,TAZHIYUEBINGJUEDINGLEZHENGGEDAODESHENGHUOSHIJIAN。TARENWEI,“ZHEIZHONGSHUOFASHIYOUZHIKEXIAODE。HAIWEICENGYOURENCHENGGONGDIBAYIGEGONGLIJIEGOUQIANGJIAYULUNLIXUEZHISHANG”。25 PUTENANGAOJIERENMEN:“ZHONGYAODESHISHIJIANWENTI——YUZHEXUEJIADELIXIANGHUASIWEISHIYANBUTONG——DIANXINGDISHI‘ZALUANDE’。TAMENMEIYOUQUEDINGDEJIEJUEBANFA,ZHIYOUCHULIYIGETEDINGDESHIJIANWENTIDEHAOYIXIEDEHECHAYIXIEDEFANGFA。ZHENGRUDUWEIQIANGDIAODE,ZAIWULIXUEZUOWEIQIFANSHIDEZHEIZHONG‘KEXUEDE’YIYISHANG,RENMENYIBANBUNENGQIWANGWEIYIGESHIJIANWENTIZHAOYIGE‘KEXUEDE’JIEJUEBANFA。”24ZUOWEIDUWEIERBUSHIKANGDEDEXUESHENG,PUTENANFANDUIYONGDAOLIDEJINZITAXINGZHUANGLAIMIAOHUIZHENSHIDEDAODEYUANZEYUDAODESHENGHUOZHIJIANDEGUANXI,FUZADEDAODESHENGHUOBUSHIYOUDAODESHENGHUOZHIWAIDEYUANZEZHICHENGQILAIDE;XIANGFAN,DAODEYUANZEZHINENGLAIZIDAODESHENGHUO,QIADANGDEBIYUYINGGAISHIJINZITAXINGZHUANG,ERBUSHIXIANGFAN。

                        RANER,TEBIEZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,PUTENANQINGXINGDIRENSHIDAO,DUWEIDELUNLIXUEBINGMEIYOUJICHUANTONGDEDAODEQINGGANZHUYIHEGONGLIZHUYILIUXIAHOUMEN。YEJIUSHISHUO,DUWEIBINGMEIYOUYINWEIBUZANCHENGKANGDESHIDEDAODEXIANYANZHUYI,ERZHUANGUOSHENQUQIUZHUYUZIRANDEQINGGANDENGJINGYANYAOSU。XIANGFAN,YUFANDUIJINGYANZHUYIDE“JIYU”SHENHUAXIANGYIZHI,DUWEITONGYANGFANDUIYONGTONGQINGZUOWEIDAODEDEJICHU。DUICI,PUTENANDAWEIZANSHANG:“YUXIUMOHEBIANQINZHEIYANGDEJINGYANZHUYISIXIANGJIABUTONG,DUWEIBURENWEIJINJINYOUYUTONGQINGDEQINGGANJIUNENGZUCHENGYIGEDAODEGONGTONGTI。”24YINWEIDUWEIMINGQUEZHICHU:“TONGQINGSHIZHENZHENGDEZIRANBENNENG,ZAIBUTONGDEGERENSHENSHANGQIANGDUSHIBUTONGDE。TASHIFAZHANSHEHUIDONGCHALIHESHEHUIHUAQINGGANDEYIGEBAOGUISHOUDUAN;DANSHIZAIBENZHISHANGTAHESUOYOUZIRANBINGFUCHUYUTONGYIGECENGCI。”26 ZHEIYANGYILAI,PUTENANJIUHELUODILAKAILEJULI。

                        HEPUTENANXIANGBI,LUODIYUQISHUOJICHENGLE、BURUSHUOFAZHANLEDUWEIDELUNLIXUE。LUODIDUIDUWEIDELUNLIXUEJIBENLICHANGSHIJIANJUEHANWEIDE,TABADUWEISHIDELUNLIXUEYUKANGDESHIDELUNLIXUEJIAYIDUIZHAO,ZHUZHANGDAODEYUANZEQIYUANYUDAODESHENGHUO,SHOUDAODESHENGHUODEZHIYUE,ERBUSHIXIANGFAN。YONGLUODISUOXINSHANGDEWOERZEDEHUASHUO:“DAODEQICHUSHIHOUZHONGDE,CONGWENHUASHANGSHIWANZHENGDE,CHONGFENDICHANSHENGGONGMINGDE,ZHISHIZAIYIXIETESHUQINGKUANGXIA,ZAIDAODEYUYANZHUANBIANWEITESHUYUANWANGDEQINGKUANGXIA,TACAISHIZISHENBIANDEXIBOQILAI。”27

                      棋牌大全下载安装   RANER,XIBODEDAODEYUANZESHIRUHEQIYUANYUDAODESHENGHUODE?LUODIDUICIZUOLEJINYIBUDEFAHUI。ZHENGSHIZHEIZHONGFAHUI,JIANGLUODIDAOXIANGYIGEBUTONGYUDUWEIYEBUTONGYUPUTENANDEFANGXIANG。ANZHAOLUODIDEJIESHI,WOMENMEIGERENDOUSHENGHUOZAIMOUGEJIATING、SHIZU、TUANTIZHIZHONG,SHUXIQIZHONGDEXISU、XIGUAN,DUIZHEIGEJIATING、SHIZU、TUANTIZHONGDEQITACHENGYUANJUYOUYIZHONGZIRANDEQINGGAN。RUGUOWOMENDESHENGHUOZHISHIJUXIANZAIZHEIGEFANWEINEI,NEIYIQIEDOUSHIZIRANDE,BUXUYAOSHENMEDAODEYUANZE;RUGUOWOMENDEPANDUANZHIXIANYUJIATINGFANWEI,NEIYIQIEDOUSHIHENQINGCHUDE,BUXUYAOGUIFAN。DANYOUYUSHIJIANSHENGHUOFANWEIDEKUODA,WOMENHUIYUDAOZIJIBUSHUXIDETAREN,YUSHIJIUYOUBIYAOZHIDINGGUIFAN,YUSHIYEJIUCHANSHENGLECHOUXIANGYUANZE。ZHEIXIEGUIFAN、YUANZEQISHIJIUSHIWOMENYUANXIANSHENGHUOZHONGSUOXINFENGDEDONGXIDEFANGDA,“FUHEDAODEDEXINGWEIYEJIUSHINIYIZIRANERRANDIDUIDAINIDEFUMU、ZINVHUONIDESHIZUCHENGYUANDEFANGSHILAIXINGDONG”。28 KANGDESHIDECHOUXIANGYUANZEQISHISHIHOUZHONGDESHIJIANZHIHUIDEXIBOHUA。FANDUIKANGDEDEXIANYANLUNLIXUESHILUODIZOUXIANGXIUMODEJINGYANZHUYIQINGGANLUNLIXUE,ZHUZHANG“DAODEDEJINBUJIUSHITONGQINGXINYUELAIYUEDADEWENTI。TABUSHITISHENGDAOQINGGANZHISHANGYIDADAOLIXINGDEWENTI”。29 XIANRAN,LUODIZUIZHONGPIANLILEDUWEI。

                        ZAIDUWEINEILI,MINZHUSHISHIJIANZHEXUEZUIZHONGYAODELUNTI。TAJISHIYIGEZHENGZHIZHEXUEHUATI,TONGSHIYESHILUNLIXUEHUATI。DUWEIYISHENGSHIZHONGGUANZHUMINZHU,JIUXIANGBOENSITANSUOSHUODE:“MINZHUSHIJISHANGSHITASUOYOUZHEZUODEZHONGXINLUNTI。”30 ZAIBUTONGDESHIQI,DUWEIJIUMINZHUFABIAOLEDUOZHONGDUOYANGDEGUANDIAN,ZHEIXIEGUANDIANDUIHOULAIDESHIYONGZHUYIZHECHANSHENGLEZHONGDADEYINGXIANGBINGWEITAMENSUOJICHENG。RUGUOSHUODUIYUDUWEIDEQITALUNTI,DANGDAISHIYONGZHUYIZHEZHIJIANSHANGYOUFENQIDEHUA,NEIMEZAIMINZHUZHEIGEHUATISHANG,TAMENJIHUYIZHIDIJIESHOULEDUWEIDEJIAOHUI,QUBIEZHISHICONGBUTONGDEFANGMIANDUIQIJIAYICHANSHI。

                        BOENSITANSHIXINSHIYONGZHUYIJIAZUZHONGDUIDUWEIMINZHUSIXIANGZUIWEIGUANZHUDEZHEXUEJIA。TONGGUODUIDUWEIZHEXUEWENBENDEYANJIU,BOENSITANWEIWOMENFAJUELEDUWEIMINZHUSIXIANGDEDUTEJIAZHI。TADUIDUWEIDEMINZHUGAINIANYOUDUOFANGWEIDEKAOCHA。ZAIWOKANLAI,QIZHONGZUIZHIDEGUANZHUDESHIZHEIMESANDIAN:SHOUXIAN,BOENSITANTISHIWOMEN,DUWEIDEMINZHUYILUNLIWEIJICHU,YIYIZHONGJINGSHENQIZHI(ethos)WEIQIANTI。DUWEISHUO:“SHIQINGDEHEXINBUZAIYUTOUPIAO,BUZAIYUJISUANPIAOSHU,KANNALISHIDUOSHU;ERZAIYUNEIGEGUOCHENG,TONGGUONEIGEGUOCHENG,DUOSHUDEYIXINGCHENG。”31 MINZHUZHISUOYISHIYIZHONGZHENGTIXINGSHI,ZHISHIYINWEITASHIYIZHONGDAODEDE、JINGSHENLIANXIDEXINGSHI。BOENSITANDUICIJIWEIZANSHANG,RENWEIDUWEILUNZHENGLE:“MEIYOUYIGEZHIGUANZHONGYAODEMINZHUJINGSHENQIZHIHUOWENHUA,ZHENGZHIDEMINZHUJIUHUISHIKONGDONGDE、MEIYOUYIYIDE。”32 GERENZHUYIHAOWUYIWENSHIMINZHUDEQIANTI,DANZHEILIDEGERENBUSHIWUFAWUTIANDEYUANZI,ERSHITONGGUOJIAOYU,FENXIANGLEGONGTONGLUNLIGUANDEGEREN,SHIYOUJIZHENGTIZHONGDEGEREN。QICI,BOENSITANZHUYIDAO,ZAIDUWEINEILI,MINZHUDEMUDEYUSHIXIANZHEIYIMUDEDESHOUDUANSHITONGYIDE。DUWEIZHICHU,“MINZHUDEJIBENYUANZESHI:ZIYOUHEGETIHUADEMUDE,ZHINENGTONGGUOYUNEIXIEMUDEXIANGYIZHIDESHOUDUANCAINENGHUODE。”33 BOENSITANFEICHANGZHONGSHIDUWEIDEZHEIYISIXIANG,RENWEIDUWEITONGGUOCANYUTUOLUOSIJIANDEDIAOCHA,GENGJIAQINGXINGDIRENSHIDAO:SHOUDUANSHIMUDEDEZUCHENGBUFEN,MINZHUDEMUDEBUSHIWUTUOBANG,ERSHIZHIDAORENMENDANGXIAJUTIXINGDONGDEZHINAN。“TA(ZHIDUWEI——YINZHU)QIANGLIEFANDUIZHEIYANGYIZHONGGUANDIAN,JIMINZHUDEMUDEKEYITONGGUOFEIMINZHUDESHOUDUANERDADAO。”34 ZUIHOU,BOENSITANGAOSUWOMEN,DUWEIHAIYOUYIGEZHONGYAODESIXIANG,NEIJIUSHIDUISUOWEI“SHENSISHULVDEMINZHU”DEFOUDING。ANZHAOZHEIZHONGMINZHUGUAN,MINZHUSHIYIGELIXINGLUNZHENGDESHIQING,YUQINGGAN、YUWANG、JIQINGWUGUAN。BOENSITANRENWEI,DUWEICONGLAIDUIZHEIZHONGMINZHUGUANBUGANXINGQU。“TAQINGXIANGYUTANLUNZHILIYIJIZHILIDEXINGDONG。ZHILIBUSHIYIZHONGTESHUNENGLIDEMINGCHENG,ERSHIBIAOZHIZHEYIZUBAOKUODUIXIJIE、XIANGXIANGHEJIQINGDEGUANZHUDEXIGUANHEQINGXIANG。”35 HUANJUHUASHUO,MINZHUBUSHIYIZHONGZHISHI,ERSHIYIZHONGSHENGHUOFANGSHI。

                      棋牌大全下载安装   DANPUTENANQUEYAOJIMINZHUXUNZHAOYIZHONGZHISHILUNDELUNZHENG。ZAITAKANLAI,DUWEISHIJISHANGYIJINGWEIMINZHUJICHULE“YIGERENSHILUNDEBIANMING”。36 PUTENANXIANGSHUODESHI,DUWEISHIWOMENKANDAO,WOMENBUKENENGSUZHUYUDAXIEDESHIZAI,YEJIUSHISHUO,WOMENBUKENENGCONGBENTILUNDEJIAODULAIWEIMINZHUTIGONGLUNZHENG。MINZHUDECHUANTONGBIANHUZHESUOMIANLINDEKUNJINGZAIYU,TAMENDOUSHITUYUXIANJIADINGWOMENZHIDAOWOMENDEBENZHIHEWOMENDENENGLISHISHENME。ERYIDUSHIHEIGEERXINTUDEDUWEIZERENWEI,ZAISHIJICANYUZHENGZHIZHIQIAN,WOMENBUZHIDAOWOMENDELIYIHEWOMENDEXUYAOSHISHENME。PUTENANZHICHU:“ZHEIGEGUANDIANDEYIGEBIRANJIELUNSHI,DUIYUWOMENYINGGAIRUHESHENGHUOZHEIYIWENTI,BUKENENGYOUZUIHOUDEDAAN,YINERWOMENZONGSHIYINGGAIYUNXUJINYIBUDETANTAOHESHIYAN。ZHEIQIAQIAJIUSHIWOMENXUYAOMINZHUDEYUANYIN。”36JIRANZAIRUHESHENGHUOWENTISHANGWUFAZHIWANGBENTILUN,NEIMEZUOWEIYIZHONGSHENGHUOFANGSHI,XIANGKENENGXINGKAIFANG、SUZHUTANJIUDEMINZHUBIANSHIWEIYIDEXUANXIANG。MINZHUSHIYIZHONGSHEHUIGONGJU,TAZAIBENTILUNWAJIEZHIHOU,CHENGLERENLEICHULISHENGHUOWENTIDEWEIYIYIKAO。

                        RANER,PUTENANHELUODIYIYANG,RENWEIDUWEIBIJINGSHIWEIGONGGONGZHEXUEJIA,TAHENHAODILUNZHENGLEMINZHUDEGONGGONGJIAZHI,QUEHUSHILE“RUHESHENGHUO”DEGERENLUNLI。DUIYUGERENMIANLINDEDAODEXUANZEWENTI,MINZHUSHIBUXIANGGANDE。PUTENANZAICITICHULEZHANMUSISHIDECUNZAIZHUYIZUOWEIBUCHONG。ZHEISHIYIZHONGDUIYUDUWEISIXIANGDEFAZHAN,DANTASHIFOUNENGBEIDUWEISUOJIESHOU,QUEBUWUYIWEN。SHUSITEMANBIANDUICIJICHULEFOUDINGDEHUIDA。37 SHUSITEMANDEFOUDINGDEDAOLEDANGDAILINGYIWEISHIYONGZHUYIZHONGYAODAIBIAORENWUWEISITEDEKENDING。TONGGUOJIANGDUWEIZHIYUAIMOSHENGCHUANTONGZHIXIA,WEISITEWEIDUWEIDEMINZHUSIXIANGZUOLEBIEJUYIGEDEBIANHU。ZAIWEISITEYANLI,“DUWEIZHEIZHONG‘SHIYANZHUYI’CAIQULECHUANGZAOXINGMINZHUDEXINGSHI——YIZHONGHANGAIZIYOUZHUYI、JIEFUXUNZHUYI、SHEHUIZHUYIDENGYINSU,RANERZUIZHONGQUEBEIAIMOSHENGZHUYIDEWENHUAMINGANXINGSUOZHIDAODEGERENDEHESHEHUISHENGHUODEXINGSHI。”38 ZAIWEISITEKANLAI,“DUWEIXUNQIUYIZHONGMINZHUWENHUA,YIZHONGBEISHIYANFANGFAZHIDAODESHENGHUOFANGSHI,JIEHELEDUIGETIHEGONGTONGTIDEAI,BINGZHIGENYUAIMOSHENGZHUYIDEZIRANSHENLUN。”“DUIDUWEILAISHUO,ZHENGZHIHESHEHUISHENGHUODEMUDEJIUSHI,TONGGUOYOUXINDEHUANJINGHETIAOZHANSUOCIJIQILAIDERENDELILIANGDESHIFANG,ZIWOGUIFANDEGONGTONGTIHEZIWOSHENGFADEGERENDAODEDEDAOFAZHAN,WENHUARIYIBIANDEFENGFU。”38WEISITEDUIDUWEIMINZHUGUANDEJIEDUBINGFEIWUZHONGSHENGYOU,DUWEIZAITASUOXIEDEJINIANAIMOSHENGDEWENZHANGYIJILUNSHUXINJIUGERENZHUYIDEZHEZUOZHONG,DOUDUIGERENDEDEXINGGAIJINDUIYUSHEHUIGAIJINDEYIYIYOUCHONGFENDELUNSHU。ZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANGSHUO,WULUNSHILUODIJIANGDUWEIGUIWEIGONGGONGZHEXUEJIA,HAISHIPUTENANRENWEIDUWEIMINZHUSIXIANGBUZUYIZHIDAOGERENXUANZEDESHUOFA,DOUSHINANYICHENGLIDE。

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                        注释

                        1 The Later Works of John Dewey,Vol.10,ed.Jo Ann Boydston (Carbondale:Southern Illinois University Press,1989)19.
                        2John Dewey,Logic:The Theory of Inquiry (New York:Henry Holt and Co.,1938)48.
                        3桑德拉·罗森塔尔着,陈维纲译:《从现代背景看美国古典实用主义》,北京:开明出版社,1992年,第117页。
                        4John Dewey,“Philosophy and Democracy”,转引自韦斯特着,董山民译:《美国人对哲学的逃避》,南京:南京大学出版社,2016年,第123页。
                        5贺麟:《哲学与自然之境》“中译本序”,北京:商务印书馆,2003年,第7页。
                        6韦斯特着,董山民译:《美国人对哲学的逃避》,第299页。
                        7韦斯特着,董山民译:《美国人对哲学的逃避》,第299页。
                        8Richard Rorty,“Overcoming the Tradition:Heidegger and Dewey,” Consequences of Pragmatism (Minneapolis:University of Minnesota Press,1982)53.
                        9罗蒂着,李幼蒸译:《哲学与自然之境》,北京:商务印书馆,2003年,第21页。
                        10罗蒂:《超越传统:海德格尔与杜威》,载于孙伟平编译:《罗蒂文选》,北京:社会科学文献出版社,2007年,第138页。
                        11Richard Bernstein,The Pragmatic Turn (Malden:Polity Press,2010)23.
                        12参见Randall Auxier,“Foucault,Dewey and the History of the Present,’ The Journal of Speculative Philosophy,New Series,16.2(2002):75-102.
                        13W.V.O.Quine,“Interview with Willard Van Orman Quine (1994),” Quine in Dialogue (Cambridge,Mass.:Harvard University Press,2008)70.
                        14 涂纪亮、陈波主编:《蒯因着作集》第2卷,北京:中国人民大学出版社,2007年,第368、368、370页。
                        15普特南着,孙宁译:《三重绳索:心灵、身体与世界》,上海:复旦大学出版社,2017年,第10~11页。
                        16博伊兹顿主编,陈亚军、姬志闯译:《杜威全集·中期着作》第四卷,上海:华东师范大学出版社,2012年,第313页。
                        17杜威着,傅统先、邱椿译:《人的问题》,上海:上海人民出版社,2006年,第292页。
                        18杜威着,傅统先译:《经验与自然》,南京:江苏教育出版社,2005年,第92页。
                        19The Later Works of John Dewey,Vol.10,ed.Jo Ann Boydston (Southern Illinois University Press,1934) 268.
                        20John McDowell,“Putnam on Mind and Meaning,” The Twine Earth Chronicles,ed.A.Pessin and S.Goldberg (M.E.Sharp Inc.,1996)309.
                        21John Dewey,Experience and Nature (The Open Court Publishing Company,1971)238.
                        22Hilary Putnam,The Threefold Cord:Mind,Body and World (Columbia University Press,1999)37.
                        23Hilary Putnam,The Threefold Cord:Mind,Body and World (Columbia University Press,1999)169-170.
                        24 普特南着,孙小龙译:《无本体论的伦理学》,上海:上海译文出版社,2008年,第25、25~26、95页。
                        25普特南着,童世骏、李光程译:《理性、真理与历史》,上海:上海译文出版社,1997年,第152页。
                        26The Middle Works of John Dewey,ed.Jo Ann Boydston,vol.5 (Carbondale:University of Southern Illinois Press,1978-1983)271-272.转引自普特南着,孙小龙译:《无本体论的伦理学》,第95页。
                        27Michael Walzer,Thick and Thin:Moral Argument at Home and Abroad (Notre Dame University Press,1994)4.转引自罗蒂着,黄勇编,张国清译:《后形而上学希望》,上海:上海译文出版社,2004年,第302页。
                        28罗蒂着,黄勇编,张国清译:《后形而上学希望》,第302页。
                        29Richard Rorty,Philosophy and Social Hope (New York:Penguin Books,1999)82.
                        30Richard Bernstein,The Pragmatic Turn (Malden:Polity Press,2010)71.
                        31The Early Works of John Dewey,ed.Jo Ann Boydston vol.1 (Carbondale:University of Southern Illinois Press,1978-1983)234.
                        32Richard Bernstein,The Pragmatic Turn (Malden:Polity Press,2010)74.
                        33The Later Works of John Dewey,Vol.11,Jo Ann Boydston,(Carbondale:University of Southern Illinois Press,1978-1983)298.
                        34Richard Bernstein,The Pragmatic Turn (Malden:Polity Press,2010)79.
                        35Richard Bernstein,The Pragmatic Turn (Malden:Polity Press,2010)85.
                        36 普特南着,杨玉成译:《重建哲学》,上海:上海人民出版社,2008年,第187、195页。
                        37舒斯特曼着,彭锋等译:《哲学实践:实用主义和哲学生活》,北京:北京大学出版社,2002年,第104~107页。
                        38 韦斯特着,董山民译:《美国人对哲学的逃避》,第149、149页。

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