棋牌大全下载安装

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                        1. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 康吉莱姆技术哲学思想探析

                          康吉莱姆技术哲学思想探析

                          时间:2019-02-19 10:04作者:邓刚
                          本文导读:这是一篇关于康吉莱姆技术哲学思想探析的文章,康吉莱姆 (Georges Canguilhem, 1904—1995) 是20世纪法国着名的哲学家和科学史家, 着名的《我知道什么?》 (Que sais-je?) 丛书, 最近出版了一本介绍他的小册子, 意味着法国学界将其列入20世纪法国思想星群之中。

                            摘    要: 法国哲学家康吉莱姆不仅在科学史和科学哲学有着重要的地位, 关于技术问题也有着深入而独创性的思考。康吉莱姆的技术观可从三个方面来理解:首先, 技术先于科学, 通过重新解读笛卡尔, 指出人类通过技术、工具等展开的实践活动是一种有缺陷的活动, 总是容易出错的活动, 但这些错误反而引导人们进一步展开科学的理论认知活动, 从而才得以形成各门科学中的知识与真理;其次, 技术源于生命, 通过技术制造出来的工具和机器可以视作一种人为的器官;再次, 技术是一种创造, 这种创造乃是人作为劳作的人的根本特征之一。

                            关键词: 康吉莱姆; 技术; 机器; 柏格森;

                            Abstract: The French philosopher Georges Canguilhem not only plays an important role in the history of science and philosophy of science, but also has profound and original insights on technology. Canguilhem's view on technology may be apprehended in terms of three dimensions: ( 1) Technology precedes science. By re-interpreting Descartes' ideas, he showed that human practice, in form of technology and tools, is a kind of defective activity, which easily resulted in errors, and these errors lead people to carry out further theoretical cognitive activities in science. Hence knowledge and truth in various sciences could be emerged and formed. ( 2) Technology derives from life. The instruments and machines should be regarded as artificial organs. ( 3) Technology is a kind of creation. It is one of the basic characteristics of human beings as homo faber.

                            Keyword: Canguilhem; technology; machine; Bergson;

                            KANGJILAIMU (Georges Canguilhem, 1904—1995) SHI20SHIJIFAGUOZHEMINGDEZHEXUEJIAHEKEXUESHIJIA, ZHEMINGDE《WOZHIDAOSHENME?》 (Que sais-je?) CONGSHU, ZUIJINCHUBANLEYIBENJIESHAOTADEXIAOCEZI[1], YIWEIZHEFAGUOXUEJIEJIANGQILIERU20SHIJIFAGUOSIXIANGXINGQUNZHIZHONG。KANGJILAIMUZHUANZHANGDEYANJIULINGYUZHUYAOSHIKEXUESHIHEKEXUEZHEXUE, SHANGCHENGBASHENLA, XIAQIFUKE, SHIFAGUORENSHILUNCHUANTONGDEGUANJIANRENWU。FUKEZAIJIKANGJILAIMUDE《ZHENGCHANGYUBINGTAI》DEYINGWENBANXIEXUSHI, TEBIEQIANGDIAOQISIXIANGDEZHONGYAOXING:“PAOKAIKANGJILAIMU, NIJIUWUFAGENGHAODILIJIEAERDOUSAI、AERDOUSAIZHUYI, WUFAGENGHAODILIJIEZAIFAGUODEMAKESIZHUYIZHEZHONGSUOJINXINGDEYIXILIETAOLUN;NIYEBUKENENGLINGHUIXIANGBUERDIE、KASITE、PASILONGDEDUTEZHICHU……NIYEHUICUOGUOJINGSHENFENXIJIADELILUNZHEZUODEZHENGGEFANGMIAN, YOUQISHILAKANGDEZHUISUIZHEMENDEZHEZUO。GENGYOUSHENZHE, ZAIYOUGUAN1968NIANYUNDONGQIANHOUDESIXIANGDEZHENGGETAOLUNZHONG, WOMENHENRONGYIZHAODAONEIXIEHUOJINHUOYUANDISHOUDAOKANGJILAIMUDEXUNLIANDERENDEWEIZHI。”[2]262DANGDAIZHEXUEJIABADIOU (Alain Badiou) YEZAITADE《YUANZHENGZHIXUEGAISHU》ZHONG, XUYANCAIYONGYIPIANTIMUWEI“DIKANGZHEXUEJIA”DEWENZHANGLAIXIANGKANGJILAIMUZHIJING[3]。BENWENSHITUCONGKANGJILAIMUDERUOGANWENBENRUSHOU, JIESHICHUTADEJISHUGUANDEZHUYAOGUANDIAN。

                            一、技术先于科学

                          棋牌大全下载安装   YAOKAOCHAKANGJILAIMUZHEXUEZHONGDEJISHUWENTI, SHOUXIANZHIDEGUANZHUDESHI, YIPIANFABIAOYU1937NIAN、TIMUWEI《DIKAERYUJISHU》DELUNWEN[4]490-498。ZAIZHEIPIANWENZHANGZHONG, KANGJILAIMUSHULILEDIKAERDEJISHUGUAN, TONGSHIPIPINGLE19SHIJIYILAISHIZHENGZHUYIDEGUANDIAN, JIJIANGJISHUSHIZUOKEXUEDEYANSHENHEYUNYONG。FAGUOXUEZHELEKU (Dominique Lecourt) ZHICHU, ZAIZHEIPIANWENZHANGYIJINGCHENGXIANCHUKANGJILAIMUDUIYUJISHUDEGUANXINJIQIHEXINGUANDIAN, YEYUSHILEQIZHEXUEFAZHANDERUOGANZHUTI[1]65。

                            ZUOWEIFAGUOREN, KANGJILAIMUSHIFENSHUXIDIKAERDESIXIANG。ZAOZAI1927NIAN, TAJIANGFAGUOZHEXUEJIABUTELU (Emile Boutroux, 1845—1921) DELADINGWENLUNWEN《LUNDIKAERDEYONGHENGZHENLI》FANYICHENGFAWEN[4]935-978。ZAIHOULAIDEXUESHUSHENGYAZHONG, TACONGWEIJIANDUANYUDIKAERDELILUNDUIHUA。《DIKAERYUJISHU》YIWENSUICONGDIKAERQIERU, DANSHIBINGWEIXIANYUDIKAERZHEXUE, ERSHIKUOZHANDAOGENGPUBIANDEJISHUYUKEXUE、JISHUYUSHENGMINGDEGUANXIDENGWENTI。ZAIZHAIYAOZHONG, KANGJILAIMUXIEDAO:“ZAISHIZHENGZHUYIZHEXUEZHIHOU, RENMENTONGCHANGRENWEI, JISHUHUODONGZHISHIKEGUANZHISHIDEYIZHONGDANCHUNDEKUOZHAN……DIKAERZHEXUEYIYIZHONGRENMENYIXIANGBUDAODE、WANBEIERZIXIDEFANGSHI, SIHUYIJINGZHENGMIANDITANSUOLEZHEIYIZHONGYAOWENTI, BINGQIEKAOCHALELILUNYUSHIJIANDEGUANXI。WOMENYOULIYOURENWEI, DUIYUJISHUDEYIYIDEFANSIZAIDIKAERTIXIZHIZHONGJUYUHEXINDIWEI”[4]490。XIANRAN, KANGJILAIMUBINGWEITINGLIUZAIYIZHONGWENBENSHULIDEZHEXUESHIQUANSHI, ERSHIJIECIQIJIDUIDANGSHILIUXINGDESHIZHENGZHUYIJISHUGUANJINXINGPIPAN。

                            在康吉莱姆看来, 笛卡尔对技术活动的本性和价值的思考并不是偶然的, 而且关于机器的思考与其哲学有着密切的关系。在《方法谈》第六部分, 笛卡尔指出根据他的哲学方法, 有可能建立起一种新的形而上学和物理学, 并进而发展出有利于人类的医学、机械学、道德学, 使我们成为“自然的主人和拥有者”[5]634。笛卡尔将物质视作广延、将心灵视作思维等哲学观点, 都基于一种新的形而上学, 同时也基于一种新的技术观。人们经常将笛卡尔的自然哲学说成是一种机械唯物主义, 正是因为笛卡尔将宇宙和宇宙中的存在者视为机器, 将人的身体和动物的躯体都视为自动机 (automate) , 这一做法实际上已经将某种新的技术观念引入了宇宙论和形而上学。海德格尔显然洞察到了在笛卡尔处哲学与技术之间的这一隐秘联系, 在《存在与时间》中指责笛卡尔仅仅从广延来理解存在者, 并认为笛卡尔的知性仅仅是数学物理学意义上的认识, 然而“恰是笛卡尔的世界分析才使我们得以稳当地建设起当下上手的范本的结构, 这种分析只需举手之劳, 把自然物补足为充分的使用物就行了”[6]115-116。在海德格尔看来, 正是出于将世界中的存在者都视作可以上手的对象, 才导致笛卡尔将物质理解为广延。一定程度上, 手前状态和在手状态之分, 其前提正在于某种使用手来展开的技术活动。
                           

                          康吉莱姆技术哲学思想探析
                           

                            DUIYUKANGJILAIMULAISHUO, TAGUANXINDESHIRUHECONGJISHUWENTIRUSHOULAIZHONGXINJIEDUDIKAER, ZHENGMING“DUIJISHUDEGUANZHUNAISHIDIKAERZHEXUEDEYUANTOUZHIYI”[4]491。HUAIZHEZHEIYIWENTIDAOXIANG, TADUIDIKAERDEZHEZUOHETONGXINJINXINGLEYIFANSHENCHA。ZHEIXIETONGXINJIESHICHU, DIKAERCHONGMANHAOQIJINGSHEN, DUIYUDANGSHIGEZHONGLEIXINGDEJIQIHEGONGJUDEZHIZAOFANGFAJIGONGYI, DUIYUGEZHONGLEIXINGDEGONGCHENGHESHOUYI, MANHUAIXINGQUDISHICHANGJIAYIGUANZHU。GONGJUDEZHIZAOHEYIXUEJIYI, SHIQIDUOJUANTONGXINZHONGZUIWEICHANGJIAN、ZUISHOUGUANZHUDEZHUTIZHIYI。DANGRAN, DUIYUJISHU、GONGYIDEXINGQU, ZAIDANGSHIDEXUEZHEMENZHONGBINGBUSHAOJIAN, DIKAERDEDUTEXINGHEYUANCHUANGXINGTIXIANZAITADUIYUKEXUEYUJISHUDEGUANXITICHULEYIZHONGXINDEGOUXIANG, BINGZHUZHANGJISHUYINGGAIZAIKEXUEDEZHIDAOXIAJINXING。KANGJILAIMUZONGJIEDAO:“WEIERBUZHIQISUOYIRAN, ZHEIZHISHIJISHUGONGJIANGDEBENZHI;CHENGNUOERBUXINGDONG, ZHEISHIJIANGHULANGZHONGDEXINGDANG;TONGGUODUIZHIXIAOYUANYINCONGERYOUYIQUDEXIAOGUO, ZHEICAISHIDIKAERDEBAOFU”[4]494。

                            KANGJILAIMURENWEI, DIKAERYIJINGQINGCHUDIRENSHIDAO, ZAICONGLILUNDAOSHIJIANDEGUODUZHONG, HUIYOUYIXIEKUNNAN, JINPINGLIZHIBENSHENBUZUYIJIEJUE。SHIJIANHUANJIEWUFADADAOLILUNSHEXIANGDEWANMEICHENGDU, ZAILILUNZHONGSUOGOUXIANGCHULAIDEJIQIHUOGONGJUWULUNDUOMEWANMEI, XIANSHIZHONGYEWUFAJIANGQIWANMEIDIZHIZAOCHULAI, ERZONGSHIHUIYOUBUZUHEQUEXIAN。DIKAERXIEDAO:“XINGERSHANGCENGMIANLAIJIANG, RENMENDANGRANKEYIZHIZAOYIGERUTONGNIAOERNEIYANGFEIZAIKONGZHONGDEJIQI, YINWEIZHISHAOZAIWOKANLAI, NIAOERYESHIZHEIYANGDEYIXIEJIQI, DANSHI, ZHEIJUHUABINGBUNENGGOUFANGZAIXINGTICENGMIANHEXINLINGCENGMIANLAIJIANG, YINWEIBIXUDEYOUYIXIEJIQIJINGXIDEDANHUANGHEYIGEJIQIQIANGDADEXITONG, RANERZHEIQUESHIRENMENSUOWUFAZHIZAOCHULAIDE”[4]495。LILUNSHANG, YIQIEWUZHIDOUKEYIGUIJIEWEIGUANGYAN, CONGERZHENDUIJUNYUNDE、TONGZHIDEGUANGYAN, RENMENKEYIGENJUZIJIDEYIYUANHEXUYAO, ZUORENYIDEQIEGEHEHUAFEN, BUCUNZAIWUFABEIRENSHICHUANTOUDEYINGHE。RANER, JIUSHIJIANERYAN, RENMENZAIRICHANGSHENGHUOZHONGYUDAODEBINGBUSHIYIBANYIYISHANGDEGUANGYAN, ERSHIXINGXINGSESEDEWUZHIDUIXIANG, MEIGEDUIXIANGDOUYOUQITEXING, DOUHUODUOHUOSHAOCUNZAIZHEBUWEIKEXUESUOZHIDEMIANXIANG, CONGERGOUCHENGLERENLEIDERENSHIHESHIJIANDEZHANGAI。KANGJILAIMUZHICHU:“RUGUODUIYUKEXUEERYAN, WUZHISHITONGZHIDE、WUMINGDE, NEIME, JISHURENYUANSUOZHUZHANGDEWUZHI, QUESHITESHUDE、DUOYANGDE。YINCI, DIKAERDEKEXUEXUYAOSHIYANDETANSUO”[4]496。

                          棋牌大全下载安装   KANGJILAIMUYIDIKAERDE《QUGUANGXUE》WEILI, SHUOMINGJINGPIANZHIZUOGONGYIZHONGJISHUSHANGDEYICICHENGGONG, JIDIKAERTIGONGLEYIGEJINYIBUSIKAODEJIYUAN, TUIDONGLETAZAIGUANGXUESHANGDELILUNGEXIN。KANGJILAIMUDUICIZONGJIESHUO:“ZIRANZHISHIZAILIANGGEFANGMIAN, YILAIYURENDEJISHU。SHOUXIAN, SHITONGGUOGONGJU (ZHEILISHIYANJING) DEYUNYONGLAIFAXIANXINDEXIANXIANG。QICI, JISHUSHANGDEBUWANMEI, SHIYINWEIYUDAOLEBIXUJIEJUEDEKUNNAN, CONGERWEIJINYIBUDELILUNYANJIUTIGONGLEJIYUAN。KEXUELAIZIYUJISHU, GUANJIANZAIYUZHEIYIDIAN:JISHUSHANGDEGANGA、BUCHENGGONG、SHIBAI, SHIDERENDEJINGSHENQUZHUIWENRENLEIDEJIYISUOYUDAODEDIKANGDEXINGZHI, QUSHEXIANGDULIYURENDEYUWANGDEDUIXIANGSUOXINGCHENGDEZHANGAI, QUTANXUNZHENZHENGDEZHISHI”[4]497。YEJIUSHISHUO, JISHUHUODONGBUJINSHIDERENMENYOUKENENGJIESHICHUXINDEXIANXIANG, ERQIEJISHUHUODONGBENSHENCHUXIANDEZHANGAI (RENSHILUNDEZHANGAI) SHIDERENMENWEILEKEFUZHANGAIERKAIZHANLILUNHUODONG, CONGERFAZHANCHUKEXUE。YUSHI, BUZAISHIKEXUEXIANYUJISHU, ERSHIJISHUXIANYUKEXUE。MASHELEIYEZHICHU, YIGEKEXUEGAINIANDEXINGCHENG, TONGSHIYILAIYUYUYANHESHIJIANCHANG。ZAISHIJIANLINGYU, “JISHUCAISHITUIDONGKEXUEDEZHENZHENGDONGLI……JISHUDETUIDONGLICONGYIKAISHIJIUJUYOUJUEDINGXINGZUOYONG。JISHIZAIGUANCHADEJIEDUAN, KEXUEZHIYOUHUODELEWAIZAIXUYAODEZHICHI, TACAINENGJIANGOUQIZISHEN, SHUOMINGQINGCHUTADEGUANJIANXIANXIANG”[7]60。

                          棋牌大全下载安装   CONGJISHUWENTIRUSHOU, KANGJILAIMUDUIYUDIKAERZHEXUEZUOCHULEYIZHONGQUANXINDEJIEDU。TABUJINZHICHULEJISHUWENTIZAIDIKAERXUESHUOZHONGDEZHONGYAOXING, ERQIEDUIYUJISHUYUKEXUEDEGUANXIZUOCHULEQUANXINDEJIEDU。DANGRAN, ZHEIYANGYIZHONGJIEDUSHIJISHANGYIJINGCHAOCHUDIKAERZHEXUEDEFANWEI, YINWEIDIKAERXIANRANQIANGDIAODESHIKEXUEDUIYUJISHU、LILUNDUIYUSHIJIANDEZHIDAOYIYI。

                            二、技术与生命

                            KANGJILAIMUBINGWEITINGLIUZAIDUIJISHUYUKEXUEGUANXIDERICHANGLIJIEDEDIANFU, ERSHIJINYIBUTANTAOLEJISHUDEBENZHIDENGWENTI。JISHUYUANZIYUHECHU?KANGJILAIMUMINGQUEDISHUO:“JISHUDECHUANGSHICHUJIUZAIYUSHENGMINGTIDEXUQIUZHIZHONG……JIRANWOMENWUFAZHIZAOCHUYIGEXINDESHENTI, WOMENJIUDEZAINEIZAIDEQIGUANZHIWAIZENGJIAWAIZAIDEQIGUAN, ZAIZIRANDEQIGUANZHIWAIZENGJIARENGONGDEQIGUAN。BIXUDAOXUQIU、YUWANGHEYIZHIZHIZHONG, QUXUNZHAOJISHUZHIZAODECHUANGSHICHU。”[4]497KANGJILAIMURENWEIJISHUTIXIANZHERENDESHENGMINGBENSHENDEYIZHONGXUQIU, JIZAIZIRANQIGUANZHIWAI, TONGGUOZHIZAOGONGJU、JIQILAIXINGCHENGRENGONGDEQIGUAN, ZHEIYIGUANDIANSHANGCHENGBOGESEN, XIAQISIDIGELE。BOGESENRENWEIRENLEILIZHIDEZHUYAOGONGNENGZHIYI, JIUZAIYUTONGGUOZHIZAOGONGJU, JIRENLEITIGONGMOUZHONGRENWEIDEQIGUAN, YIMIBURENLEIDEZIRANBENNENGHEZIRANQIGUANFANGMIANDERUOSHI:“JIARUSHUOWOMENDEQIGUANSHIZIRANDEGONGJU, NEIMEWOMENSUOSHIYONGDEGONGJUJIUSHIRENWEIDEQIGUAN。GONGRENDEGONGJUSHITASHOUBEIDEYANZHANG, YINERRENLEIDEQIJUSHEBEIJIUSHISHENTIDEYANZHANG”[8]188-189。KANGJILAIMURENWEIBOGESENJIANGJIXIEFAMINGSHIZUOYIZHONGSHENGWUXUEGONGNENG, “《CHUANGZAODEJINHUA》ZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANG, KEYISHIZUOYIBUGUANGYIQIGUANXUE (organologie générale) DELUNZHE”[9]161。SIDIGELEJINYIBUFAZHANLEZHEIZHONGQIGUANXUE, JIANGJISHUDUIXIANGLIJIEWEIYIZHONG“YIZHI”HEQIGUANDETIWAIHUA。

                          棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIHOULAISHOURU《SHENGMINGDERENSHI》 (La connaissance de la vie) YISHUZHONGDE《JIQIYUYOUJITI》 (Machine et organisme) YIWENZHONG, KANGJILAIMUGENGQUANMIANFAZHANLEZHEIYIGUANDIAN。ZAIRENMENXIYIWEICHANGDEJIXIELUNGUANDIANZHONG, CHANGCHANGJIANGSHENGMINGTIYESHIZUOMOUZHONGJIQI, YUMOUZHONGJISHUGUANYOUZHEMIQIEDEGUANLIAN, JIRENWEIKEXUEZHISHIZAILUOJIHESHIJIANSHANGDOUXIANYUJISHU。ERKANGJILAIMUZAIZHEIPIANWENZHANGZHONGJIXUYIDIKAERWEIDUIXIANGJINXINGJIEDUHEPIPAN, CONGERGENGSHENKEDIJIESHICHUJISHUYUSHENGMINGZHIGUANXI。

                            DIKAERYOUYIGEZHEMINGDELUNDUAN:“DONGWU—JIQI”, DONGWUSHIYITAIJIQI, SHENZHIHAIBIAOSHUGUORENDESHENTIYESHIYITAIJIQI。DIKAERZAI《LUNREN》ZHONGXIEDAO:“ZHEIXIEREN, HEWOMENYIYANG, SHIYOUYIGELINGHUNHEYIGESHENTIZUCHENGDE, WOBIXUSHOUXIANDANDUDUISHENTIJINXINGMIAOSHU, QICIDANDUDUILINGHUNJINXINGMIAOSHU, RANHOUZAIJIESHICHUZHEILIANGZHONGSHITIYINGDANGRUHELIANJIEYIJIZUHECONGERXINGCHENGYUWOMENXIANGSIDEREN。WOJIASHESHENTIBUSHIBIEDE, ERJIUSHIYIZUNNITUDIAOSUHUOZHENIZHIJIQI, SHANGDIZHUANMENZHIZAOCHULAIBINGSHIZHIJINKENENGDIYUWOMENXIANGSI”[5]379。ZAIDIKAERKANLAI, ZAIRENWEIZHIZAOCHULAIDEZHONGBIAODENGZIDONGJIZHONG, WOMENKEYIKANDAOTONGGUOXUDUOJINGXIDEJIXIEGOUJIANXINGCHENGDEJIQINENGGOUZIXINGYUNDONG, NEIMESHANGDIZHIZAODEZHEIXIEJIQI (RENHEDONGWUDEQUTI) DANGRANYENENGGOUZIXINGYUNDONG。TONGGUOZHEIYIJIESHI, RENHEDONGWUDEQUTIJIUKEYIBEIJIESHIWEIWUSHUGEBUFENDEZUHE, MEIYIBUFENDANDANGYIDINGDEGONGNENG, BINGQIEHUXIANGZHIJIANTONGGUOJIXIEZUOYONGJINXINGYUNDONGDEGOUTONGHECHUANDI。

                            KANGJILAIMURENWEI, “DONGWU—JIQI”DELILUNYOULAIYULIANGGEQIANTI:DIYI, CUNZAIZHEYIGEJIQIDEZHIZAOZHE, JIZAOWUZHU;DIER, CUNZAIZHEMOUZHONGDONGWUZUOWEIDONGWU—JIQISUOMOFANGDEDUIXIANG。DONGWU—JIQISUOMOFANGDEMOXING, ZHINENGSHIDONGWUBENSHEN, NEIJIUYIWEIZHE, XIANYOUSHENGMINGCUNZAI、XIANYOUDONGWUCUNZAI, CAIYOUYUZHIXIANGSIDEDONGWU—JIQI。YINCI, “RUGUOSHIXIANJICHULEGEZHONGJIQI, JIXIELUNNENGGOUJIESHIYIQIE, DANSHIJIXIELUNWUFASHEXIANGZHEIXIEJIQIBENSHENSHIRUHEBEIJIANZAODE”[9]147。JIXIELUNSHIHEYUDUISHENTIGEGEQIGUANDEGONGNENG、YUNZUOFENBIEJIAYIYANJIU, SHIHEYUDUISHENTIDEJIEPOUXUEYANJIU, DANSHIBUSHIHEYUJIESHIZHENGGEJIQIDEYUNXINGJIQIBENSHENWEIHEBEIJIANZAO。SHIJISHANG, JIQIDEJIANZAO, YOULAIYUZHIZAOZHE (JIXIESHI) , YOULAIYUDUIMOUZHONGSHENGWUGONGNENGDEMOFANG (YONGCHU) , YINCIZUIZHONGYILAIYURENDEJISHUHUODONG。KANGJILAIMUYINCIYEJIUDIANFULEDIKAERGUANYUSHENGMINGDEJIXIELUNLIJIE, SHENGMINGTIBUZAISHIMOUZHONG“DONGWU—JIQI”, ERSHISHOUXIANYAOJIANGJIQILIJIEWEIRENDEJISHUFAMING, ERRENDEJISHUHUODONGNAISHISHENGMINGBENSHENYUSHIJIEDAJIAODAODEJIBENXINGWEIFANGSHIZHIYI, BINGQIEZHEIZHONGJISHUHUODONGNAISHIYIZHONGFAMINGHECHUANGZAO。

                            三、技术与创造

                            ZHENGRUKANGJILAIMUSUOYAN, JISHUHUODONGDEYUANTOULAIZIYURENDESHENGMINGBENSHEN, BINGQIEJISHUHUODONGBENSHENSHIYIZHONGCHUANGZAO, NEIMEZHEIZHONGCHUANGZAOYINGDANGZAIHEZHONGYIYISHANGLAILIJIE。ZHENGRULEKUSUOZHICHUDE[1]68, ZHEIYIGUANDIANSHIDUINICAIXUESHUODEYIZHONGFAZHAN, NICAIZAI《BEIJUDEDANSHENG》ZHONGCENGSHUODAO:“KEXUEWENTI, JINJINZAIKEXUEDECENGMIANSHIWUFADEDAOJIEJUEDE……BIXUZAIYISHUDESHIJIAOXIAKAOCHAKEXUE, ZAISHENGMINGDESHIJIAOXIAKAOCHAYISHU”[10]5。YEJIUSHI, WULUNKEXUEHAISHIJISHU, ZUIZHONGZHIYOUCONGSHENMEIDESHIJIAOCHUFA、CONGSHENGMINGCHUFA, CAINENGDEDAOBAWO。ZHEIYIGUANDIANYIWEIZHESHENME?WEICIYOUBIYAOKAOCHAKANGJILAIMUZAI1938NIAN2YUE26RISUOZUODEYIFENXUESHUBAOGAO, TIMUWEI《JISHUHUODONGYUCHUANGZAO》 (Activitétechnique et création) [4]499。

                            ZAIZHEIPIANWENZHANGZHONG, KANGJILAIMUJIANGYIQIEZHEXUEFENWEISANDALEI:KEXUEZHUYI (scientisme) 、SHIYONGZHUYI (pragmatisme) HESHENMEIZHUYI (esthétisme) 。KEXUEZHUYI, ZAIYUJIANGYISHIDEYIQIEGONGNENGDOUGUIJIEWEILILUNGUIDINGXING、GUIJIEWEIKEXUERENZHI;SHIYONGZHUYI, ZESHIJIANGYIQIEGONGNENGDOUGUIJIEWEISHIYONG;SHENMEIZHUYI, ZESHIJIANGYIQIEYISHIDEGONGNENGGUIJIEWEIYIZHONGSHENMEIGONGNENG。TASHITUCONGZUIHOUYIZHONGSHIJIAOLAIKAOCHAJISHU, YINWEIJISHUSHIYIZHONGCHUANGZAO, ZHIYOUCONGSHENMEIJIAODUCAIYOUKENENGZHENZHENGBAWOCHUANGZAO:“JISHUZAIQIANPIPANJINGYANZHIZHONGSHIZHIJUEDEDUIYINGWU, ZHENGRUTONGYISHUZAIFANSIJINGYANZHIZHONGSHIKEXUEDEDUIYINGWU”[4]502。ZHIJUEZUOWEIYIZHONGFEIFANSIDEJINGYAN, QIDAODINGWEI、QUERENSHENFENHUOZHEFENLEIDENGZUOYONG, JIANGRUOGANDEKEGANXINGZHIJIHEDAOMOUYIDUIXIANGZHIXIA, SHITUQUEDINGDUIXIANGDEXINGZHIYUSHULIANG, YIBIANYOUZHENDUIXINGDIRENSHIDUIXIANGCONGERDADAOCAOZONGHELIYONGDUIXIANGDEMUDE。JISHUYESHIYIZHONGFEIFANSIDEJINGYAN, CHAOXIANGDESHICHUANGZAO。JISHUSHITONGGUOMOUXIESHOUDUAN, LAIKUAYUEZHANGAIYIMANZURENDEMOUZHONGXUQIUHUOZHEYUWANG。JISHUBUTONGYUYISHU, YISHUSHICHUNCUIDE、WANQUANDECHUANGZAO。JISHUBINGFEICHUNCUIDECHUANGZAO, YIFEICHUNCUIDERENSHI, ERSHISHIZHONGCHUZAIYUZHIJUEDEYIZHONGFUZADEGUANXIZHIZHONG。JISHUSHIYIZHONGNULI, NULISHIDESHENGMINGCONGZHIJUESUOTIGONGHEYINFADEBUMANZUZHUANGTAIZHIZHONGJIETUOCHULAI, WEICIXUYAOTONGGUORENDENULILAIKAIZHANRUOGANXINGDONG, CONGERGAIBIANRENYUWAIZAIDUIXIANGDEGUANXIYIJIRENYUZIRANDEGUANXI。“SHIJISHANG, JINGSHENJIUZAIWOMENDEJINGYANZHIZHONG, JIUSHIZHEIZHONGNENGGOUBUMANZUYURENHEYIZHONGYOUXIANDEXIANSHIKENENGXING, JINGSHENNENGGOUGUANLIANDAOMOUZHONGPANDUANNENGLIHEXIUGAINENGLICONGERQUSHIZHEIZHONGXIANSHIFASHENGBIANYI”[4]503。

                            YOUCIKEJIAN, KANGJILAIMUCONGSHENMEIJIAODULAILIJIEJISHU, CONGERJIANGJISHULIJIEWEIYIZHONGCHUANGZAO。ZHEILISUOSHUODE“CHUANGZAO”YICI, YINGDANGZAIHEZHONGYIYISHANGJIAYILIJIE?“CHUANGZAO, SIHUJIUSHICONGXUWUDAOCUNZAIDEGUODU, ZHEIYANGYIZHONGXINGDONGYINGDANGSHIBUKEFENDE、SHUNJIANWANCHENGDE。《SHENGJING》ZHONGDESHANGDIZAILIUTIANLICHUANGZAOLESHIJIE, DANSHI, MEIYICIDECHUANGZAODOUWUXUXIUGAI、WUXUZHONGFU”[4]500。XIANRAN, ZHENGSHIJIDUJIAOCHUANTONGTIGONGLEZUIWEICHEDIDECHUANGZAOGAINIAN, JIYIZHONG“CONGWUDAOYOU” (ex nihilo) DECHUANGZAO, YIZHONGWUXUZHILIAO、WUXUMOXING、WUXULINIANDECHUANGZAO。DANSHI, ZHENGRUJIANADAXUEZHEJILIN (Vincent Guilin) SUOZHICHUDE, KANGJILAIMUBINGFEIZONGJIAOYIYISHANGLAILIJIECHUANGZAO, ERSHISHOUDAOQILAOSHIALAN (Alain) DEYINGXIANG, GENGDUODISHICONGYISHUJIAODUHUODEYIZHONGGUANGYISHANGDECHUANGZAOGAINIAN[11]。KANGJILAIMUZAI1952NIANWEIJINIANTADELAOSHIALANFABIAODE《ALANGUANYUYISHUCHUANGZAODEFANSI》YIWENZHONGYINSHULEYIDUANBODELAIERDEHUA:“YINWEIXIANGXIANGLICHUANGZAOLESHIJIE, KEYIQIADANGDISHUOSHIXIANGXIANGLITONGZHIZHESHIJIE……XIANGXIANGLISHISHISHIZAIZAIDIYUWUXIANXIANGGUANLIAN”[12]418。ZAIGUDIANZHUYIMEIXUEZHIZHONG, RENWEIYISHUCHUANGZAOBAOHANSANGEYINSU:LINGGAN、FANGFA、YUANXING。YISHUCHUANGZAONAISHIGENJUYIDINGDEGUIZE、YIDINGDEFANGFA, JIANGMOUGEGUYOUDELIXIANG、LINIANJIAYIYISHUHUADEZAIXIAN, HUOZHESHIDUIYUXIANSHIDEMOUZHONGYISHUHUADEJIAGONGHUOZHEZAIXIAN, YOUHUOZHESHIYISHUJIAZISHENDESHENGMING、JIQING、LINGGANJIEZHUYIDINGDEYISHUXINGTAIDEZAIXIAN。SUOYOUZHEIXIEGUANDIAN, DOURENGRANSHIZAIGUANGYIDEBOLATUZHUYIFANWEIZHIZHONGZHANKAI, CONGERJIANGYISHUSHIZUOMOUZHONGYIYOUSHIWUDEZAIXIAN。KANGJILAIMUZHICHU, BOGESENHEALANZAI20SHIJICHUFENBIEYIBUTONGDEFANGSHIXIANQILEDUIZHEIZHONGBOLATUZHUYIDEFANKANG[12]419。LIANGWEIZHEXUEJIADOUJIANGOULEYIZHONGGUANYUYISHUCHUANGZAODELILUN, DOURENWEIZAIYISHUZUOPINZHIZHONG, MEIYOURENHEBENZHIHUIXIANYUCUNZAI[12]420。KANGJILAIMUZHICHU, ALANRENWEIZHIYOUZAICHUANGZAOYISHUZUOPINDEHUODONGWANCHENGLEZHIHOU, CAIYOUKENENGQUTANCHUANGZAOHEYISHUZUOPIN。“WEILEZHIDAOYIGESHIJIESHISHENME, BIXUCHUANGZAOYIGESHIJIE, YINWEIZAIYIJINGCHUANGZAOCHUYIGESHIJIECHULAIZHIQIAN, GENBENBUKENENGQUZHIDAO”[12]421。ZAIALANZHEILI, CHUANGZAOHEXIANGXIANGYOUGUAN, YISHUCHUANGZAODEGONGNENGJIUSHIBAXIANGXIANGGUDINGXIALAI。DANXIANGXIANGBINGFEIYIZHONGRUOHUADEZHIJUE, BINGFEIYONGLAIFUZHURENSHIHUODONGDEGONGJUXINGHUODONG。XIANGXIANGDEDUIXIANG, BINGBUSHIZHENZHENGDEDUIXIANG, YEBUSHIYIZHONGFEICUNZAI、YIZHONGXUWU, ERSHIYIZHONG“BIEYANGCUNZAI” (l’être-autre) 。YINCI, ALANBAXIANGXIANG、FAMINGYURENDESHOUGONGYI、LAODONG、XINGDONGLIANXIQILAI, TARENWEI“RENLEIFAMINGDEZUIGAOFAZE, ZAIYURENMENZHINENGZAILAOZUODESHIHOUCAINENGYOUSUOFAMING。RENSHOUXIANSHIGONGJIANG”[12]423。

                          棋牌大全下载安装   WOMENKANDAO, CHUANGZAOGAINIANZAIKANGJILAIMUZHEILI, SHENSHENDIZHAGENDAORENLEIZUIJIBENDESHENGMINGHUODONGZHIZHONG。RENBUZHISHI“ZHIREN” (homo sapiens) , GENGSHI“LAOZUODEREN” (homo faber) 。RUGUOSHUO, ZAIRENZHIHUODONGZHONG, RENMIANDUIBUDUANZENGJIADEXINDUIXIANG, ZONGSHIZHILIYUJIANGZHEIXIEXINDEMOSHENGDUIXIANG、MOSHENGJINGYAN, TONGGUOQUFEN、BIANBIE、FENLEIDENGCAOZUO, HUAGUIYURENLEIJIYOUDEZHISHIHEJINGYAN, JIJIANGGEBIEHUAYUEWEIPUBIAN、JIANGTESHUHUAYUEWEIYIBAN。NEIME, ZAIZHURUSHOUGONGYI、YUANYI、NONGYEDENGJISHUHUODONGHEHUIHUA、YANZOUYINLEDENGCHUANGZAOXINGYISHUHUODONGZHONG, RENMENJIANGBUDEBUMIANDUIGEZHONGGEYANGWUFAZUIZHONGHUAYUEWEIPUBIANHEYIBANDEGEBIE、TESHU, MIANDUI“ZHEIYIGE”, ZHEIJIANGGOUCHENGRENLEISHIJIANHUODONGDEZHONGZHONGZHANGAI。MIANDUIZHEIXIEBUTONGDEZHANGAI, XUYAORENMENFAHUIQIZHIHUI、NAIXIN、CAINENG, ZUIZHONGXUNFUCAILIAO, ERMEIYICIDEXUNFUGUOCHENGJIQIJIEGUO, DOUJIANGCHENGXIANCHUWUFAYUJIANDEXINYINGXINGTAI, ZHEITIXIANCHURENLEIJINGSHENDEGAODUZIYOUHECHUANGZAOXING。YINCI, MIANDUIJISHUWENTI, RUTONGYISHUCHUANGZUO, MEIGERENDOUBIXUQINZIPIGUASHANGZHEN, PIJINGZHANJI, KAIPICHUSHUYUZIJIDEDAOLU:“SHISHANGBENMEIYOULU, ZHIYOUWOZIJIDEZUJI, KAIPICHUWODEDAOLU, ZHEICAISHIZHENZHENGDEXINGDONG。”[4]504RENZUOWEILAOZUODEREN, ZAIYUTONGGUOJISHUHUODONGDENGXINGDONG, BUDUANDICHUANGZUOCHUXINDESHIWU, KAIPIXINDEDAOLU, YINCISHENGMINGBENSHENJIUSHIYIZHONGCHUANGZAO。ZHEIYIGUANDIANTIXIANCHUNICAIDUIKANGJILAIMUDEYINGXIANG, ZHENGRUFUKESUOSHUO:“RENZUOWEIYOUSHENGMINGDECUNZAISHIBUDUANBIANGENGDE, YINWEIRENSHILIXINGZHUTI, YOUYUZHEIYISHISHI, RENNENGGOUDUIZISHENYOUSUOXINGDONG, GAIBIANSHENGCUNDETIAOJIAN……ZHEISHIZAIKANGJILAIMUZHEILIFEICHANGZHONGYAODEYIZHONGKAOCHA, WORENWEIZHEIZHONGKAOCHAYUNICAIYOUZHEMIQIEDEGUANXI。”[13]876MASHELEIYEZHICHU:“KANGJILAIMUFEICHANGJIANCHINICAIDESIXIANGZAITAZIJIZHEXUEDAOXIANGZHONGDEZHONGYAODIWEI”[7]21。

                            四、结语

                            ZONGTISHUOLAI, KANGJILAIMUDEJISHUGUAN, BAOKUOSANGEFANGMIAN:YI, JISHUXIANYUKEXUE;ER, JISHUYUANYUSHENGMING;SAN, JISHUSHIYIZHONGCHUANGZAO。DUIKANGJILAIMUERYAN, JISHUHUODONGJIRANSHIYIZHONGCHUANGZAOXINGHUODONG, NEIMEWOMENJIUBUKENENGCONGYIYOUDEKEXUEZHISHILAIYUJIANQUANBUDEJISHUHUODONGYIJIZAIJISHUHUODONGZHIZHONGKENENGYUDAODEKUNNAN。XIANGFAN, JISHUHUODONGDEKAIZHANGUOCHENG, JIANGHUISHIRENMENBUDUANZAOYUXINDEWENTIHETIAOZHAN, CONGERBUDUANDIDUIRENMENYIYOUDEZHISHIJIEGOUTICHUTIAOZHAN, SHIDERENMENBUDEBUQUHUODEXINDEZHISHI, HUOZHEZHANKAIXINDEKEXUEYANJIU, YIBIANJIEJUEJISHUZHONGYUDAODEWENTI。KEXUEJISHUSHIYOUBUSHAOSHILISHUOMING, XUDUOJISHUDEFAMINGSHIZAIBINGBUWANQUANZHIXIAOXIANGGUANKEXUEYUANLIDEQINGKUANGXIACHUXIANDE。LIRU, ZHENGQIJIDEFAMING, XIANYUYUZHIXIANGGUANDERELIXUELILUNDECHUXIAN。YINCI, KANGJILAIMUZHUZHANG“KEXUESIXIANGDEFEIYUE, SHIYIJISHUSIXIANGDESHIBAIWEIQIANTIDE”[4]504。ZHEIYANG, KEXUEJIUXIANXIANWEIDUIYURENMENZAIJISHUSHIJIANGUOCHENGZHONGSUOYUDAODESHIBAI、CUOZHEHEZHANGAIDEFANSI。ERSHENGMINGBENSHEN, YEZHENGSHITONGGUOJISHUHUODONG, CHUANGZAOCHUXINDEJISHUDUIXIANG, ZHANKAIXINDESHENGMINGXINGTAI。

                            参考文献

                            [1]Lecourt, D.Georges Canguilhem[M].Paris:PUF, 2016.
                            [2][法]乔治·康吉莱姆.正常与病态[M].李春, 译.西安:西北大学出版社, 2015.
                            [3][法]阿兰·巴迪欧.元政治学概述[M].蓝江, 译.上海:复旦大学出版社, 2015.
                            [4]Canguilhem, G.Oeuvres complètes, Tome I, Ecrits philosophiques et politiques, 1926-1939[M].Paris:Vrin, 2011.
                            [5]Descartes, R.Oeuvres philosophiques, Tome I[M].Ed.by Alquié, F.Paris, Garnier, 1963.
                            [6][德]海德格尔.存在与时间[M].陈嘉映, 王庆节, 译.北京:三联书店, 1999.
                            [7][法]皮埃尔·马舍雷.从康吉莱姆到福柯:规范的力量[M].刘冰菁, 译.重庆:重庆大学出版社, 2016.
                            [8][法]柏格森.道德与宗教的两个来源[M].王作虹, 成穷, 译.贵阳:贵州人民出版社, 2007:188-189.
                            [9]Canguilhem, G.La connaissance de la vie[M].Paris:Vrin, 2015.
                            [10]Nietzsche, F.The birth of tragedy and other writings[M].Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1999:5.
                            [11]Guillin, V.Descartesàtravers mesges:Retour sur quelques lectures cartésiennes de Canguilhem[J].Revue de métaphysique et de morale.2015/3 (N°87) .
                            [12]Canguilhem, G.Oeuvres complètes, Tome IV, Résistances, philosophie biologique et histoire des sciences, 1940-1965[M].Paris:Vrin, 2015.
                            [13]Foucault, M.Dits etécrits, Tome II[M].Paris, Gallimard, 2001.

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