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              当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 道德—价值层面解读科学

              道德—价值层面解读科学

              时间:2019-02-24 09:04作者:陈强强
              本文导读:这是一篇关于道德—价值层面解读科学的文章,回顾科学研究的历史可以看出, 与“第一波”主要通过对认识逻辑的研究强化科学的基础不同, 其“第二波”主要通过具体案例研究解构科学。总体上, 对科学的强化带有应然色彩, 意在提升科学的价值;而对科学的解构带有实

                摘    要:棋牌大全下载安装 在《民主为何需要科学》中, 科林斯和埃文斯阐述了他们多年科学研究的集成之思。本文将其概括为“从道德—价值的观点看科学”, 并从四个方面诠解。这四个方面是:从道德-价值的观点对科学进行理解与辩护;从应然的视角对科学规范进行新阐解;基于事实与价值的二分创生技术决策的新制度—“猫头鹰”;从科学作为好的价值观源泉回答民主为何需要科学的问题。尽管有必要“从道德—价值的观点看科学”, 但阐论还需细致化, 需保持开放的姿态, 在理解与批判中反思科学研究的历史与现状。

                关键词: 科学研究; 道德; 价值; 形成性愿望;

                Abstract: 棋牌大全下载安装Recently, Collins and Evans elaborated on their years of thinking about the science studies. We generalize it as “looking at science from a moral-value point of view”, and explain it from four aspects. The four aspects are: To understand and defend science from a morality-value point of view;To interpret science norm from the perspective of ought; Creating“The owls”based on the dichotomy of fact and value; Answering the question why democracy needs science from science as a good source of value. It is necessary to expound it in detail and reflect the history and present situation of science study in understanding and criticism.

                Keyword:棋牌大全下载安装 science studies; morality; value; formative aspirations;

                HUIGUKEXUEYANJIUDELISHIKEYIKANCHU, YU“DIYIBO”ZHUYAOTONGGUODUIRENSHILUOJIDEYANJIUQIANGHUAKEXUEDEJICHUBUTONG, QI“DIERBO”ZHUYAOTONGGUOJUTIANLIYANJIUJIEGOUKEXUE。ZONGTISHANG, DUIKEXUEDEQIANGHUADAIYOUYINGRANSECAI, YIZAITISHENGKEXUEDEJIAZHI;ERDUIKEXUEDEJIEGOUDAIYOUSHIRANSECAI, DUIKEXUEDEJIAZHIXINGCHENGLEBIANDI。LIJING“KEXUEDAZHAN”, KEXUEZHISHISHEHUIXUEZHENYINGDEBUFENXUEZHEKAISHIFANSI“DIYIBO”YOUQISHI“DIERBO”, QIZHONGKELINSI (Harry Collins) HEAIWENSI (Robert Evans) (XIACHENG“KE-AI”) POJUDAIBIAOXING。KE-AI2002NIANFAQI“KEXUEYANJIUDEDISANBO”, JUJIAOYU“ZHUANZHANG (expertise) YUJINGYANYANJIU”。[1]JIYUDUONIANDEKEXUEYANJIUJIJINNIANFAZHANQILAIDE“ZHUANZHANGGUIFANLILUN”, KE-AIZAI《MINZHUWEIHEXUYAOKEXUE》 (XIACHENG“JINZHE”) ZHONGCHANSHULEZHIZAICONGDAODE—JIAZHICENGMIANLIJIEKEXUE、WEIKEXUEBIANHUDEXILIEGUANDIAN, BENWENJIANGQIGAIKUOWEI“CONGDAODE—JIAZHIDEGUANDIANKANKEXUE”。JIUBIZHEDELIJIEERYAN, “CONGDAODE—JIAZHIDEGUANDIANKANKEXUE”JISHIKE-AIDUI“DIYI、ERBO”DEZHENGTISHENGCHAHEBUZHENGQUENEIRONGDEYANGQI;YESHIDUI“DISANBO”DESHENRUCHANFA。KEYISHUO, TAJISHIKE-AIDUIKEXUEYANJIULISHIDEZONGJIEYUFANSI, YESHIJICHENGZHISI, YIZAIJIANSHEXINGDI、GUIDINGXINGDITUIDONGDANGQIANDEKEXUEYANJIU。JINGYANDUYUSIKAO, BIZHECONGSIGEFANGMIANDUI“CONGDAODE—JIAZHIDEGUANDIANKANKEXUE”QUANJIE, TONGSHIDUIQIJIANPING, YIQINENGDUIGUONEIKEXUEYANJIUYOUSUOQIFAYUZHUYI。

                一、科学的道德理解与辩护

                ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI, “DIERBO”TONGGUODALIANGDEANLIFENXIJIESHILEKEXUEDEJIAZHIFUZAI, YOULIDIZHIYILEKEXUEDEQIUZHENNENGLI。ZHEIXUERUOLECONGRENSHILUOJIHESHIJIXIAOYONGWEIKEXUEZUOJICHUBIANHUDEKENENGXING。[2]26YOUCIYINCHULEYIGEGENBENWENTI:KEXUEHAIYOUTESHUZHICHUMA?JINYIBUYAN, HAINENGCONGQITACENGMIANWEIKEXUEZUOJICHUBIANHUMA?YU“DIERBO”BUTONG, KE-AIQIANGDIAO, ZUOWEI“DISANBO”ZHONGYAONEIRONGDE“JINZHE”JINGUANJIESHOU“DIERBO”GUANYUKEXUEGONGZUOBENZHIDESHUOFA, DANJUCHIQIJIELUN;RENWEIKEXUERENGYOUTESHUZHICHU, QITONGGUODAODEYUJIAZHIDEYILIJIEHEBIANHU。

                1. 道德选择

                科-埃认为, 尽管科学不能引导我们通向可观察世界的绝对真, 但科学依旧是理解可观察世界的首选方式。“我们看重那些为观察而观察者;观察要比不观察好。我们说这些观察者有经验和专长。……就像道德选择一样, 我们知道自己必须选择专长胜过无专长, 且必须选择遵循科学价值观的专长, 即使我们并不知道如何以任何基本的方式证明这种选择是正确的。”[2]27需要解释的是:对科学的选择为什么像一种道德选择。科-埃用一个事例予以解释:尽管哲学家们一直为好的道德选择做基础辩护, 但无一例外地失败了。但人们并未因此就不能很好地做道德判断。原因在于“我们并非在寻求决定性辩护的基础上做选择, 这是道德行为的一个特点。撇开哲学家不谈, 哲学辩护并非道德判断的来源。”[2]27换言之, 选择科学并不需要有“绝对性辩护”, 就像做道德选择时那样, “正确的选择是自明的。”[2]28科-埃特别指出:“这里发生的事情更多的是一种启示而非论证。”[2]28在科-埃看来, 再多的论证似乎都会得到同样的结论, 即我们终究还是会选择基于专长和科学价值观的观察来作为理解“可观察世界”的方式, 而非其他。
               

              道德—价值层面解读科学
               

                2. 道德制度

              棋牌大全下载安装   YANGEYIYISHANG, “KEXUEZUOWEIYIZHONGDAODEZHIDU”ZAI“JINZHE”ZHONGZHIBEITIJIYICI:“ZHEISHIYIBENGUANYUKEXUEZUOWEIYIZHONGDAODEZHIDUDESHU。”[2]30DANGAISIXIANGQUEGUANCHUAN“JINZHE”QUANSHU。KEXUEHEYIZUOWEIYIZHONGDAODEZHIDU?ZONGJIEQILAIDUITADEHUIDAJIUSHI:KEXUESHIYIZHONGNENGGOUWEISHEHUI“TIGONGDAODELINGDAOLI”HE“JIANSHOUDAODEDIXIAN”DEZHIDU。[2]16KE-AIZHICHU, DUIMODUNKEXUEGUIFANDERELIETAOLUNYUFAXISIZHUYIDECHUXIANMIQIEXIANGGUAN。20SHIJI40-50NIANDAI, RENMENFAXIANSHEHUIZAOYIBUZAILIANGXING, JIQIEXUYAOXUESHUHEKEXUEJIADEDULI, ZUNCONGMODUNKEXUEGUIFAN。CISHI, ZIYOU—SHICHANGZIBENZHUYIDUIMINZHUSHENGHUOCHANSHENGLEJUDADEFUSHIXINGYINGXIANG, TONGYANGXUYAONENGGOUTIGONGDAODELINGDAOLIDEKEXUE, “ZHEISHIYINWEIHAODEXINGWEISHIKEXUECUNZAIDELIYOU (raison d’être) DEBENZHI。”[2]16“CIWAI, WEIXIKEXUEDEJIAZHIGUANYUWEIXIMINZHUSHEHUIDEFANGSHIYOUZHONGDIEZHICHU。”[2]31GUANYURENMENDUIMODUNKEXUEGUIFANSHIJIXIAOYONGDEZHIYI, KE-AIYEZUOLEHUIDA。KE-AIJINGUANMEIYOUSHENGCHENGMODUNGUIFANSHIYOUXIAODE, DANCHENGRENKEXUEJIA (ZHISHAOYIXIESHEHUIKEXUEJIA) SHIYONGDEKEXUEMOXINGZHIJIEDAOZHILEMODUNSUOJIEDINGDEGUIFAN, ERQIEZHENGSHIKEXUEJIADEKEXUELINIANQUSHIKEXUEZUOWEIYIZHONGZHIDU, BINGFUYUKEXUEWEIZHENGGESHEHUITIGONGDAODELINGDAOLIDEQIANLI。

                3. 道德事业

                “KEXUEZUOWEIYIZHONGDAODESHIYE”ZAI“JINZHE”ZHONGYEZHIBEITIJIYICI:“WOMENRENWEI, KEXUEYINGGAIBEISHIWEIYIXIANGDAODESHIYE, YINGGAISONGYANGYINDAOKEXUEGONGZUODEJIAZHIGUAN。”[2]8ZAIKE-AIDESIXIANGTIXIZHONG, KEXUEZUOWEIYIZHONGDAODESHIYE, SHIJIYUJIANGKEXUESHIZUOYIZHONGSHOU“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG” (formative aspirations) YINDAODESHENGHUOFANGSHI。ZHEILISHIZAIWEITEGENSITANYIYISHANGSHIYONG“SHENGHUOFANGSHI”, ER“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”YIWEIZHE“SHENGHUOFANGSHIDECUNZAI, YINWEIZHEIZHONGSHENGHUOFANGSHIXIADECHENGYUANDABUFENSHIJIANDOUKEWANGYIMOUZHONGFANGSHIXINGSHI, JISHITAMENBUKENENGYIZHIDOUCHENGGONG。”[2]42YEJISHISHUO, KEXUEZHEIZHONGSHENGHUOFANGSHIDECHENGYUANZUNXUNYIXIEGONGTONGDE“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”。CIWAI, KE-AIRENWEI, KEXUEDE“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”BUZHIMODUNTICHUDEGUIFAN, ZHEIDIANLIUDAIXIAWENXIANGSHU。ERSUZAOKEXUEZHEIZHONGSHENGHUOFANGSHIDEZHENGSHIZHEIXIE“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”。JINGUANZHEIXIE“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”BINGFEIZAIYIQIESHIKONG、DUIRENHEKEXUESHIJIANDOUNENGFAHUIXIAOYONG, DANZHEIBINGWUDAAI, YINWEI“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANGDUIJITI (SHENGHUOFANGSHI1) JINXINGSUZAO, JISHICUNZAIYIXIEBUFUHETAMENDEOURANXINGWEI。”[2]45HUOZHESHUO, “JINGUANRUCI, BUFENKEXUERENGRANWANHAOWUSUN。”[2]17YOUYUMUQIANDUOSHUKEXUEJIAYIRANCHIYOUJIUDESHIJIEGUAN, YINCIZHEIXIE“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”RENGNENGGOUFAHUIHENHAODEZUOYONG。HUANYANZHI, JINGUAN“DIERBO”JIELULE“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”ZAIHENDUOKEXUESHIJIANZHONGDESHILING, DANKEXUEJIADEKEXUEGUANNIANBINGWEIYINCIFASHENGSHENKEBIANHUA, YIJIUSHOUSHANGSHUNEIXIE“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”DEYINDAO。ZAIKE-AIKANLAI, GOUCHENGKEXUEJIAZHIGUANZHUTIBUFENDEZHENGSHIZHEIXIE“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”。ERQIE, “DANGWOMENTONGGUOZHEIXIEJIAZHIGUANGONGZUOSHI, KEMINGXIANDIKANCHUZHEIXIEJIAZHIGUANQUANBU—JIHUQUANBU—JIYUYIZHONGNONGQINGSHIWUZHENXIANGDEYUANWANG。”[2]45-46KEYIKANCHU, KEXUEZUOWEIDAODESHIYESHIJIYUTASUOBINGCHIDEJIAZHIGUAN, ZHEIXIEJIAZHIGUANDUIKEXUEXINGCHENGHAODEYINDAO。

                二、科学规范的新阐释

              棋牌大全下载安装   “CONGDAODE—JIAZHIDEGUANDIANKANKEXUE”DEDIERGEZHONGYAOFANGMIANSHIDUIKEXUEGUIFANDEXINCHANSHI, YESHIJIANG“DISANBO”YU“DIERBO”QUBIEKAIDEXIANZHEBIAOZHI。YONGKE-AIDEHUASHUOJIUSHI:“DISANBOBUTONGYUDIERBODEDIFANGZAIYUTADEGUIFANXINGLICHANG。”[2]18SHISHISHANG, “DISANBO”DE“GUIFANXINGLICHANG”YEBUTONGYU“DIYIBO”。KE-AIDUIKEXUEGUIFANDEXINCHANSHIKEGAISHUWEIYIXIALIANGGECENGMIAN。

                1. 重释科学规范的价值

                YUZHONGBUTONG, KE-AIBUDANMEIYOUFOUDINGMODUNTICHUDEKEXUEGUIFANDEJIAZHI, ERQIEJIEYONGHOUQIWEITEGENSITANDEZHEXUEZIYUANDUITAJINXINGZHONGXINLIJIE。ZAIKE-AIKANLAI, JINGUANXIANSHIZHONGCUNZAI“FANGUIFAN”, DAN“WOMENHAISHIXIANGSHUOMODUNQUESHIJIESHILEYIXIEGUANYUKEXUEGONGZUOBENZHIDEZHONGYAOXINXI”[2]53。WEISHENMENI?YINWEIJINGUANMODUNCUOWUDICONG“SHI” (is) ZHONGDECHU“YINGGAI” (ought) , DANKEXUEGUIFANBENSHENBINGMEIYOUCUO。YUMODUNBUTONGDESHI, “WOMENZHISHIYONGGUIFANBENSHENSHIHAODEZHEIYIXIANGFA, ERBUSHENGCHENGTAMENSHIYOUXIAODE。”[2]53-54KEYIZHEIYANGLIJIEKE-AIDEZHUZHANG:YINGCONG“YINGGAI”KANDAIKEXUEGUIFAN, ERBUSHI“SHI”。JIUXIANGDAODEGUIFANZAIXIANSHIZHONGDEXIAOYONGYIYANG, KEXUEJIAZAIKEXUESHIJIANZHONGYEHENNANYANGEZUNSHOUSUOYOUKEXUEGUIFAN, DANTAMENBIRANZUNSHOULESUOYOUKEXUEGUIFANZHONGDEBENZHIBUFEN, HUOZHESHUOKEXUEGUIFANZHONGDEBENZHIBUFENBIRANYINDAOLEKEXUEJIADEKEXUESHIJIAN。ZHEISHIJIANGKEXUEYUQITARENLEISHIJIANQUBIEKAILAIDEGENBENYIJU。

                WEILEJIANGZIJIDESHANGSHUZHUZHANGCHANSHUQINGCHU, KE-AIJIEYONGWEITEGENSITANDE“JIAZUXIANGSIXING”HE“SHENGHUOFANGSHI”GAINIANSHUOMINGKEXUE。KE-AIRENWEI, “JIAZUXIANGSIXINGGAINIANNANQIZUOYONG, CHUFEIXIANZHIYIGEJIAZUDEBUZHISHIJIAZUCHENGYUANZHIJIANDEGONGTONGSHUXING, ERSHIHAIYOUQITAXIANZHIFANGSHI。”[2]41ZHEIDIANBUNANLIJIE, YINWEIDANCHUNYIGONGTONGSHUXINGJIEDINGSHIWUSHIFOUSHUYUTONGYIGEJIAZUJIANGSHI“JIAZUXIANGSIXING”GAINIANDEJIESHILISANGSHIDAIJIN, BIJINGHENDUOSHIWUZHIJIANDOUYOUXIANGTONGSHUXING, ZHEIJIANGQINGXIANGRENSHILUNXIANGDUIZHUYI。YINCI, KE-AIYONG“SHENGHUOFANGSHI”HE“JIAZUXINGXIANGSI”GAINIANYITONGXIANZHIYIGEJIATINGDECHENGYUAN, YICI“TIGONGYIZHONGBIYAODEXIANZHI”[2]41。“CONGSHEHUIXUEDEJIAODULAIKAN, ‘SHENGHUOFANGSHI’LEISIYUXUDUOQITASHEHUIXUE/LISHIGAINIAN, ZHEIXIEGAINIANFANYINGLESHENGHUOZAIYIGESHEHUIQUNTIZHONGDEDIANXINGSHENGHUOFANGSHI。”[2]41YEJISHISHUO, “SHENGHUOFANGSHI”SUOFANYINGDEYIXIEXIANGTONGDIANBIXUSHIMOUGESHEQUNZUYIYONGLAIJIEDINGZISHENDUTEXINGDEDIANXINGTEZHENG。YOUCI, KE-AIJIANGKEXUESHIZUO“YIGEQICHENGYUANSHOUDIANXINGXINGWEIHEYITUJIEDINGDESHEHUIQUNTI”[2]41。JULIERYAN, ZHANXINGSHUHETIANWENXUEDEBENZHICHAYIZAIYUSHIJIANTAMENDEQUNTIDESHENGHUOFANGSHICUNZAIBENZHICHAYI, ERZHEXIANGYOUBUTONGDEDIANXINGXINGWEIHEYITU (HUOZHESHUOXINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG) , SHOUBUTONGDEJIAZHIGUANYINDAO。“KEXUEDETEDIANSHIYIXILIEDEXINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”[2]45, “XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANGDUIJITI (SHENGHUOFANGSHI) JINXINGSUZAO, JISHICUNZAIYIXIEBUFUHETAMENDEOURANXINGWEI”[2]45。

                MINGXIANDESHI, KE-AIDUIKEXUEGUIFANDELIJIETIAOCHULE“SHI”YU“YINGGAI”DEHUNXIAO, JIANGERZHEQUBIEKANDAI。TAMENSHICONGYINGRANCENGMIANKANDAIKEXUEGUIFANDE, ERFEISHIRAN。YUCITONGSHI, TAMENYONGQUANBUDEKEXUEGUIFANLAIJIEDINGZUOWEISHENGHUOFANGSHIDEKEXUE, ZHEISHIYIZHONGXINSHIJIAO。

                2. 形成性愿望

              棋牌大全下载安装   KE-AITICHULERUOGANJUYOUKEXUEGUIFANXINGZHIDE“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”, QIZHONGDUOSHUSHIKEXUEYANJIUYIWANGCHENGJIUDEXINCHANSHI, JI“JIESHIWOMENYIZHIDOUZHIDAODE……ZHEIBENSHUZHISHISHITUZHONGXINZHENGLICHANGSHI, HUOZHEBACHANGSHIYINDAORENMENZHUYIDEQIANYAN”[2]48。XIANERYIJIANDESHI, KE-AIDUIZHEIXIE“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”BINGMEIYOUCHONGFENLUNZHENG, ERSHIGENGDUODISUZHU“BUYANERYU”。YONGKE-AIDEHUASHUOJIUSHI“GENGDUODESHIYIZHONGQISHIERFEILUNZHENG”。

                “XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”FENWEILIANGBUFEN。[2]45-68YIBUFENSHIWEIRENSHUZHIDE, JUTIBAOKUO: (1) GUANCHA。JINGUANJINTONGGUOGUANCHAJINXINGZHENGSHIZUOWEIYIZHONGZHEXUESIXIANGSHISHIBAIDE, DANZUOWEIYIZHONGSHEHUIXUESIXIANG, TAQUEMEIYOUSHIBAI。KEXUEYIJIUYILAIYUGUANCHA;RENSHIDAOGUANCHABUSHIRENMENSUOXIWANGDENEIZHONGCHUNCUIDEDONGXIBINGBUHUICUIHUIZUOWEIYUANWANGHEXINGDONGSHIJIANZHINANDEGUANCHA。 (2) QUEZHENG。QUEZHENGYINGUINAWENTITONGYANGJINGBUQIZHEXUEDESHENCHA, ZHENGRUKELINSI“SHIYANDAOTUI”LUNZHENGDENEIYANG[3]65-82。RANERWOMENRENGRANFUYUKANSIYICHENGGONGZHONGFUDESHIYANJIEGUOGENGDADEQUANZHONG, ERFEIXIANGFAN。 (3) ZHENGWEI。BIDUIRUXIALIANGGESHIJIE:ZAIDIYIGESHIJIE, SHENGCHENGGUANCHADAOLESHENMEDERENYUANYIZHICHUSHENMETIAOJIANXIATAMENDEGUANDIANKENENGBEIZHENGMINGSHICUOWUDE, BINGJIJIDIYAOQINGRENMENDUIZHEIXIEGUANDIANSHIYAN。ZAIDIERGESHIJIE, BUZHUIQIUZHENGWEI, BUZHIDAORUHEGAIBIANHUOZHIYIGUANCHAJIEGUODESHIJIE。BUYANERYU, RENMENXIWANGDESHIDIYIGESHIJIE。 (4) GONGYOUZHUYI。JINGUANGONGYOUZHUYISHIZUINANBEIZHENGMINGDUIKEXUEPUBIANYOUYIDEGUIFAN, DANYOU“ZUZHIDEHUAIYIZHUYI”QUEJIANLIZAITAZHISHANG, YINCITASHIFENZHONGYAO。ERQIEYEKANBUCHUYIGEYIBAOMIWEIKEXUEGUIFANDESHEHUIBIYIGONGYOUZHUYIWEIKEXUEGUIFANDESHEHUIHAOZAISHENMEDIFANG, DUIGONGYOUZHUYIDEPIANHAOYESHIBUYANERYUDE。 (5) PUBIANZHUYI。ZHIXUWENYIGERENSHIFOUXIANGSHENGHUOZAIDUIKEGUANCHADESHIJIEDEKANFASHIGENJUTAMENDEZHONGZU、GUOJI、WENHUAHUOXINGBIELAIHENGLIANGDESHEHUILI, JIUNENGDEDAOBUYANZIMINGDEDAAN:“BUYUANYI”。 (6) WUSILIXING。YUPUBIANZHUYILEISI, RENMENBUHUIPIANAISHENGHUOZAIYIGEYOUGUAN“KEGUANCHADESHIJIE”DEGUANDIANDEQUANZHONGYOUGERENXINYANGHEZHENGZHIQUANYILAIJUEDINGDESHEHUILI。YUWUSILIXINGXIANGDUILIDEZHENGSHIGERENXINYANGHEZHENGZHIQUANYI。 (7) YOUZUZHIDEHUAIYIZHUYI。KESHIYONGTONGYANGDELUNZHENGCELVE, JISHEZHIYIGEZHEIYANGDEWENTI:NANDAORENMENNINGYUANSHENGHUOZAIYIGEDUIWULIHESHENGWUSHIJIEDEZHUZHANGCHIHUAIYITAIDUERBUGULIDESHEHUILI?KE-AIRENWEIDAANXIANRANSHI:“BUYUANYI”。

                LINGYIBUFENYOUKE-AIXINTICHU。 (1) CHENGSHIYUZHENGZHI。CHENGSHIYUZHENGZHIJINGUANSHIFEICHANGYIBANDEJIAZHIGUAN, DANXUNZHAOZHENGJUDEZHENGZHIHEXUANBUJIEGUODECHENGSHISHIKEXUEBUKEHUOQUEDE。 (2) HEFALIJIEDEHEXIN。HEFALIJIEDEHEXINQIANGDIAODESHILIJIEHEPINGJIAKEXUEFAXIANDEJIAZHIDEHEXINYINGSHIKEXUEZHUANJIAERFEIGONGZHONG, ZHEIYUKE-AIDUIJISHUJUECEDE“JISHUJIEDUAN”HE“ZHENGZHIJIEDUAN”DEERFEN[4]XIANGYIZHI。 (3) QINGXI。YOUYUKEXUEJIABIXUKEQIUCHUANDAYIZHONG (ZHENGQUEDE) JIESHI, YINCIQINGXIZAIKEXUEZHONGYESHIBIBUKESHAODE。 (4) GERENZHUYI。WOMENZAIYUANZESHANGBIXUJIADINGGERENKEYIYUZIRAN“DUIHUA”, BINGQIEBIQITAREN“TING”DEGENGQINGCHU。ZHEISHIKEXUEDEZHONGYAOTEZHENGZHIYI。ZHEIZHONGZHUZHANGYIJUDESHISHISHI:YOUXIERENBIQITARENCHUYUGENGHAODEGUANCHAWEIZHIHUOZHESHIGENGHAODEGUANCHAZHE。 (5) LIANXUXING。LIANXUXINGJIYUZHEIYANGYIZHONGDONGJIAN:JISHISHIZUIJUGEMINGXINGDEKEXUESIXIANGYEHUIXUNQIUXISHOUHEBAOLIUYIQIANBEIRENWEISHIZHENLIDEBUFEN。 (6) KAIFANGXING。KAIFANGXINGYUANZIKEXUEZHUZHANGDEKEZHENGWEIHEYOUZUZHIDEHUAIYIZHUYI。ZAIKEXUEGUODU, MEIYOUSHEIDEZHUZHANGNENGGOUZHONGJIEKEXUE, KEXUEYONGWUZHIJING。 (7) YIBANXING。KEXUEHEKEXUEJIAZHISUOYISHIFENZHONGSHIYIBANXING, SHIYINWEIMOUXIEZHUZHANGDESHIYONGXINGYUEGUANGFAN, TAMENJIUYUERONGYIBEIZHENGSHIHUOZHENGWEI。 (8) ZHUANZHANGDEJIAZHI。KE-AIRENWEI, KEXUEZUIWEIJIBENDEYIGETEZHENGJIUSHIFUYUZHUANZHANGHENHAODEJIAZHI。BUJINKEXUEJIAKEWANGCHENGWEIZIJILINGYUDEZHUANJIAQIEZHONGSHIZHUANJIADEGUANDIAN, ERQIERENMENZHONGSHIZHUANJIADEGENYUANSHIYINWEIZHUANJIAWANCHENGDERENWUERFEITAMENSUOZAIWEIZHIDEQUANWEI, JINGUANERZHEZAISHIJIANZHONGNANYIJIERANFENKAI。

                BUNANKANCHU, KE-AIDUI“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”DECHANSHUHUODUOHUOSHAODOUQUEFA“JUEDINGXINGBIANHU”。ZHEIYESHI“JINZHE”YIZHIQIANGDIAODE, JIBUBAOZHENG“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”ZAIRENHESHIKONGZHONGDOUCHANSHENGSHIJIXIAOYONG。KE-AIDELICHANGSHIYINGRANDEHEJIAZHIDE, ERFEI“SHI”DEHE“SHISHI”DE。GENBENSHANGSHIDAODE—JIAZHIDE。

                三、创生技术决策的新机构

                JIYUDUIKEXUEDEDAODE—JIAZHILIJIE, KE-AICHUANGSHENGLEYIZHONGYONGYUGONGGONGLINGYUJISHUJUECEDEXINJIGOU (institution2) :“MAOTOUYING” (The owls) , TASHI“MAOTOUYINGSHIDESHEHUIXUEJIAHEMAOTOUYINGSHIDEKEXUEJIAHUNHEERCHENGDEZIXUNXIAOZU”[2]101-102。YAOLIJIEKE-AICHUANGSHENGZHEIZHONGXINJIGOUDESHENCENGYONGYI, YIZHEXUYAOLEJIECHUANGSHENGTADEBEIJINGSIXIANG, ZAIZHEXUYAOQINGCHUTAZAIMINZHUSHEHUIZHONGDEZHIZE。

                1. 背景思想

                ZAIBEIJINGSIXIANGFANGMIANSHOUXIANXUYAOLEJIEDESHIKE-AIDUIKEXUEZHONGSHISHIYUJIAZHIGUANXIDEZHONGXINGUIDING。YIBANRENWEI, GUIFANGUANHUJIAZHI, YUSHISHIWUSHE。RANER, “DIERBO”DEANLIFENXIBIAOMINGSHISHIYUJIAZHIZAIKEXUESHIJIANZHONGBINGBUSHIYANGEQUFENKAIDE, ERSHIJINMIJIEHEZAIYIQI。KE-AIRENWEI, “DIYIBO”LIQIUSHISHIYUJIAZHIDEQUFEN, KEXUESHIJIANBEIMIAOSHUCHENGJIAZHIWUSHE, KEXUEJIAYANGEZUNSHOUKEXUEGUIFAN;“DIERBO”MOPINGLESHISHIYUJIAZHIDEQUFEN, KEXUESHIJIANBEIRENWEISHIJIAZHIFUZAIDE, KEXUESHIJIANCHUYUSHIFANZHUANGTAI;ER“DISANBO”YAOJIANCHISHISHIYUJIAZHIDEQUFEN。DANSHI, “DISANBO”BINGBUSHIXIANG“DIYIBO”DEJIANDANDAOTUI, ERSHIYOUSUOYANGQI。[2]24JI“DISANBO”JIANCHISHISHIYUJIAZHIDEQUFENSHICHUYUYINGRAN, ERFEISHIRAN, ZHEIDIANYU“DIYIBO”QIAQIAXIANGFAN。YEJISHISHUO, JINGUAN“DISANBO”YIJINGRENSHIDAOLE“DIERBO”JIESHIDEKEXUESHIJIANDESHIFAN, DANCHUYUWEIHUKEXUEHEMINZHUSHEHUIDEKAOLV, YIRANJIANCHIRENWEIKEXUESHIJIANYAOJIAZHIWUSHE, ZHEISHIZAIDAODE-JIAZHIDEYIYISHANGLIJIEKEXUE。

              棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIBEIJINGSIXIANGFANGMIANHAIXULEJIEDESHIJISHUJUECEDE“JISHUJIEDUAN”HE“ZHENGZHIJIEDUAN”ZHIFEN。[2]24KE-AIRENWEI, GONGGONGLINGYUDEJISHUJUECEYINGYOU“JISHUJIEDUAN”HE“ZHENGZHIJIEDUAN”ZHIFEN, ERFEIXIANG“DIERBO”SUORENWEIDENEIYANG, QUANRANSHIZHENGZHIDE。ZHEISHI“DISANBO”YU“DIERBO”DEYIDAQUBIE。KE-AIJIANG“JISHUJIEDUAN”JIEDINGWEI“ZHENGQIUZHUANJIAYIJIAN”[2]24;JIANG“ZHENGZHIJIEDUAN”JIEDINGWEICHULIZHENGQIUDAODEZHUANJIAYIJIANBINGZAIKAOLVZHEIXIEYIJIANHOUZUOCHUZHENGCEJUEDINGDESHEHUIJIGOUHEJINCHENG[2]25。ZHEIZHONGHUAFENSHIDESHUYU“JISHUJIEDUAN”DEKEXUESHIJIANBEIHUAGUISHISHIBUFEN, BUJINNENGXISHOU“DIERBO”GUANYU“ZHUANJIAJIANYIYINGGAIBAOKUOLAIZIKEXUEWAIBUDE、JIYUJINGYANDEZHUANJIADEJIANYI”[2]24DEDONGJIAN, ERQIEKEYITICHU“TIGONGJISHUZIXUNDEFANGSHIYINGJINLIANGJIANSHAOLAIZIZHENGZHIPIANJIANHEYINGXIANGDEZUOYONGDEGUIFANXINGYAOQIU”[2]24。ZHEISHISHISHANGSHIRANGSHUYU“JISHUJIEDUAN”DEKEXUESHIJIANSHOUSHISHIZHUDAO, JINLIANGJIANGJIAZHIDEYINGXIANGJIANDAOZUIXIAO。ZAI“ZHENGZHIJIEDUAN”ZEQIANGDIAOJIAZHIDEZUOYONG, JI“ZHEILIDEGUIFANXINGZHUZHANGSHI, ZHENGZHIJIEDUANYIMINZHUYUANZEWEIJICHU, SUOYOUGONGMINBULUNQIZHUANYEZHISHIRUHE, DOUYONGYOUPINGDENGDELIYI。ZHIGUANZHONGYAODESHI, ZHENGZHIJIEDUANZONGSHIYOUXIANYUJISHUJIEDUAN, YINCIBUCUNZAIZHUANJIZHUYIWENTI。”[2]25

                2. 在民主社会中的职责

                YAOLIJIE“MAOTOUYING”ZAIMINZHUSHEHUIZHONGDEZHIZE, XIANDEMINGBAIKE-AIWEIHEJIANGZHEIZHONGJIGOUCHENGWEI“MAOTOUYING”。KE-AIRENWEI, ZIRANKEXUEJIAZHONGDESHAOSHURENKEYIHENHAODILIJIEKEXUEDESHEHUIFENXI, TAMENJIUXIANG“MAOTOUYING”ZHEIZHONGDONGWU, BUJINCONGMINGGUOREN, GENGWEIKEGUIDESHITAMENDETOUKEYIZIYOUXUANZHUAN, JINENGXIANGZUOKANYOUNENGXIANGYOUKAN, ERQIETAMENZAILIANGZHONGSHIYEXIAJIEXIANFENMING。YEJISHISHUO, ZHEIXIESHAOSHUDEZIRANKEXUEJIAJIKEYIYONGZIRANKEXUEDESHIJIAOSHENSHIKEXUE, YEKEYIYONGSHEHUIKEXUEDESHIJIAOSHENSHIKEXUE。ZAIKE-AIKANLAI, NEIXIETONGSHIZHICHI“DISANBO”HE“DIERBO”DEKEXUEYANJIUZHE, XIWANGJIANGSHEHUIFENXIJIARUDAOKEXUEZHONG, ERBUSHIBICITIDAI, TAMENJIANGZAIJUECEGUOCHENGZHONGBANYANXINJIAOSE, “XINJIAOSESHICONGZHENLIZHUANXIANGZHUANZHANGZHONGQUELIQILAIDE。”[5]TAMENYEXIANGMAOTOUYING, KEYIZHUANGUOTOUXIANGLIANGGEFANGXIANGKAN。YINCI, YEYINGSHI“MAOTOUYING”ZHEIZHONGXINJIGOUDEZHONGYAOCHENGYUAN。ZHEIJIUJIESHILEXINJIGOUWEIHESHI“MAOTOUYINGSHIDESHEHUIXUEJIAHEMAOTOUYINGSHIDEKEXUEJIAHUNHEERCHENGDEZIXUNXIAOZU”。

                KE-AIQIANGDIAO, “MAOTOUYING”DEZHIZEBUSHIDAZHIZHENLI, ZHISHIBAOGAOGONGSHI。TADEGONGZUOSHI“PINGPANZHUANJIAZHISHIDEDANGQIANZHUANGKUANG, JIANGTAMENHUODEDEJIELUNCHUANDIJIZHENGKE, GONGQISHIYONGHUOTUIFAN”[2]102。HUANYANZHI, TAMENDEGONGZUOSHIZHONGSHIDIDAIBIAORENHEKENENGBEIRENWEIDUIZHEIXIEJUEDINGYOUYINGXIANGDEJISHUJIANYIDENEIRONGHEQUEDINGXINGDECHENGDU。XINZHIDUZHISUOYIYI“MAOTOUYINGSHIDESHEHUIXUEJIAHEMAOTOUYINGSHIDEKEXUEJIA”WEICHENGYUAN, JIUSHIYINWEITAMENZAIMIANDUIGONGGONGLINGYUDEJISHUJUECESHI, YOUXIANGDUIGUORENDEPANDUANNENGLI, “ZHEIYIWEIZHEQUEDINGNAXIERENZHENGZAICONGSHIHAODEKEXUEYANJIUHE/HUOZHEJUYOUXIANGGUANDEJIYUJINGYANDEZHUANZHANG。”[2]100RANER, DUOSHUGONGGONGLINGYUDEJISHUJUECEZAIKEXUEJIANEIBUBINGBUKENENGXINGCHENGYIZHIYIJIAN, DANWANGWANGYOUZHULIUYIJIAN。ZHEIBINGBUSHISHUOZHULIUYIJIANJIUSHIZHENGQUEDE。HENDUOXIAOZHONGDEKEXUEYIJIANZAIZHANGYUANCENGMIANFANERBEIZHENGMINGSHIZHENGQUEDE。DANJUECEZHEBIXUZAIDUANQINEIJUEDINGCAIYONGNAZHONGKEXUEGUANDIAN。ERZHEISHIDEJISHUJUECEBUZAISHIYIGECHEDIDEKEXUEWENTI, XUSUZHUKEXUEDESHEHUIKEXUE。KE-AIZHICHU, “DIERBO”HE“DISANBO”DEKEXUEYANJIUYIZHIZHILIYUDUIKEXUEDESHEHUIGOUCHENGJINXINGSHENKEDEFANSIHEFENXIXINGLIJIE———NONGQINGKEXUESHIRUHEFAZHANDE。ZHEIZHONGLIJIEYOUZHUYUJIEDINGHECHENGRENKEXUEGONGSHIJIQIXINGZHIHELILIANG。ZAI“DIYIBO”XIA, ZHIYOUKEXUEZHENLI。DANXIANZAIWOMENRENSHIDAOMEIYOUKEXUEZHENLI, ZHIYOUYOUDENGJIDEGONGSHI。XINJIGOUJIANGDUIDANGQIANKEXUEGONGSHIDESHIZHIHELILIANGJINXINGRENSHI。

                SHISHISHANG, KE-AIGUANYU“MAOTOUYING”ZHEIZHONGXINJIGOUDESHEXIANGZONGTISHANGSHIJIYU“DIERBO”HE“DISANBO”, DANYOUSUOYANGQI。YIFANGMIAN, KE-AIBINGBURENTONG“DIERBO”CHEDIMOQUSHISHIYUJIAZHIZHIJIANQUBIEDEZUOFA, RENWEIZAIJISHUJUECEDE“JISHUJIEDUAN”YAOJINKENENGZUZHIJIAZHIDEYINGXIANG;LINGYIFANGMIAN, KE-AIRENTONG“DIERBO”YONGGONGSHITIDAIZHENLIDEZUOFA, TONGSHIJIANCHI“ZHENGZHIJIEDUAN”YOUXIANYU“JISHUJIEDUAN”DEZHUZHANG。YOUGUAN“MAOTOUYING”ZHEIZHONGZHIDUDEZUYUANDEGOUCHENGJIQIZAIMINZHUSHEHUIZHONGDEZHIZEDESHEXIANG, DOUSHIJIYUZHEILIANGGEFANGMIANDEGUANDIAN。

                四、对民主为何需要科学的回答

                ZONGTISHANG, “JINZHE”DEGENBENMUDEZAIYUHUIDATAZISHENTICHUDEWENTI:MINZHUWEIHEXUYAOKEXUE。“JINZHE”DEHUIDASHI:“WOMENRENWEIMINZHUXUYAOKEXUE, YINWEIKEXUESHIHUOKENENGSHILIANGHAOJIAZHIGUANDEYUANQUAN。KEXUEDELIJIEYIZHICUNZAIZHENGYI, DANKEXUEDEJIAZHIQUESHIYONGHENGDE。”[2]26JINGUANSHANGWENZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGJIESHILEZHEIGEHUIDA, DANBIZHEZAIZUOLIANGDIANCHANSHI。

              棋牌大全下载安装   DIYIDIAN, KE-AISIKAOKEXUEYUMINZHUGUANXIDEBUTONGSHIJIAO。BANSUI“DIERBO”DEANLIYANJIU, SHIXIASTSXUEJIERELIETAOLUNDESHI“KEXUEWEIHEXUYAOMINZHU”, YEJI“KEXUEDEMINZHUHUA”WENTI。KEYIKANCHU, KE-AIYEZHICHI“KEXUEDEMINZHUHUA”BINGCANYUQIZHONG。BUTONGDESHI, KE-AIMEIYOUZHIBUYUCI。ERSHIFANGUOLAISIKAO“MINZHUWEIHEXUYAOKEXUE”, YEKEYISHUOSHI“MINZHUDEKEXUEHUA”WENTI。KEYIKANCHU, ZHEILIANGGEWENTIDUIKEXUEYUMINZHUGUANXIDESIKAOBUWUCHAYI。“KEXUEDEMINZHUHUA”QIANGDIAODESHIRUHEJIANGKEXUENARUMINZHULINIANHEZHIDUKUANGJIAZHIZHONG;“MINZHUDEKEXUEHUA”QIANGDIAODESHIMINZHURUHEJIANGKEXUEZUOWEIZISHENDEJIAZHIGUANYUANQUAN。KE-AITONGSHIZHUZHANGERZHE。KE-AIRENWEI, KEXUEDEJIAZHIGUANZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGYESHIMINZHUDEJIAZHIGUAN, ERZHEYOUYIDINGDEZHONGDIE。[6]CONGKE-AISUOLIEDE“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”LAIKAN, YOUXIEQUESHIKEYITONGSHIZUOWEIMINZHUDEJIAZHIGUAN。DANRUHEJIANGGENGDUODEKEXUEJIAZHIGUANTONGMINZHUJIAZHIGUANXIEDIAOYIZHI, QUESHIGENANTI。

                DIERDIAN, KE-AIDEYINGRANLICHANG。KE-AIZAI“JINZHE”ZHONGSUOCHIDEYINGRANLICHANG, SHANGWENYIJINGZUOLELUNSHU, DANZHEILIXUYAOSHAOJIABUCHONG。ZAISIKAO“MINZHUWEIHEXUYAOKEXUE”SHI, KE-AIKANDAIKEXUEDESHIJIAOSHIYINGRANDE, HUOZHESHUOSHIJIAZHIDE。KEXUEZHEIZHONGSHENGHUOFANGSHIBUKENENGYINWEINANYIDAZHIZHENLIHEZAISHIJIANZHONGMOUXIESHIFANXIANXIANGDECUNZAIJIUBEIBIANDI。ZAIGENBENSHANG, “JIAZHIYAOQIANGYUSHISHI, TABINGFEISHIYIZHONGRUODEBIANHUFANGSHI”[2]85。KEXUEBENZHISHANGSHISHOUSHANGSHU“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”YINDAODESHENGHUOFANGSHI, ZHEISHIWOMENYIRANYAOCONGYINGRANLICHANGKANDAIKEXUEDEGENBENLIYOU。

                ZONGSHANG, ZHONGSHIKEXUESUOBINGCHIDEJIAZHIGUANSHI“CONGDAODE—JIAZHIDEGUANDIANKANKEXUE”DEHEXIN, “JINZHE”JIHUQUANBUWEIRAOCIZHANKAI。“JINZHE”DUIMINZHUWEIHEXUYAOKEXUEDEHUIDAZONGTISHANGBUGOUXIZHI, HAIXUSHENRUCHANFA。

                五、简评

              棋牌大全下载安装   SHANGWENCONGSIGEFANGMIANQUANSHILE“JINZHE”DEZHUYAOSIXIANG, XIANDUIQIZUOJIANPING。BIZHERENWEI, YOUBIYAO“CONGDAODE—JIAZHIDEGUANDIANKANKEXUE”, DANCHANLUNHAIXUXIZHIHUA。KE-AIZHICHU, “RUJIN, GUANYUKEXUEHEJISHUDEXUESHUTAOLUNBIANDEYUELAIYUEJIDUANHUA, DANZHEILIDEGUANDIANYURENHEYIGEJIDUANDOUBUXIANGTONG。TARENTONG20SHIJI70NIANDAIRENZHIGEMINGDAILAIDEDUIJIUKEXUEMOXINGDEFENGFULIJIEHEPIPAN, DANTAYEZHIZAIBAOCHIKEXUEZAISHEHUIZHONGDETESHUDIWEI。”[2]12YEJISHISHUO, “JINZHE”ZOUDESHIYITIAOYANGQIZHILU, TABAOLIUDESHI“DIYIBO”HE“DIERBO”DEJIJICHENGJIU, PIPANDESHI“DIYIBO”HE“DIERBO”DEJIDUANZHUZHANG。KEXUEYANJIULIJINGSHUSHINIANDEFAZHAN, QUESHIXUYAOZIWOFANSILE。KE-AIZAIZHEIFANGMIANMAICHULEJIANSHIDEYIBU。GUANJIANDEWENTISHI, KEXUEZAISHEHUIZHONGSHIFOUHAIYOUTESHUDIWEI?GAIZHANZAISHENMEYANGDELICHANGWEIKEXUEZUOJICHUBIANHU?“DIERBO”BUJINCUIHUILECONGRENSHILUOJIHESHIJIXIAOYONGWEIKEXUEDETESHUXINGBIANHUDEKENENGERQIEKANDAIKEXUEDESHIJIAORANGKEXUEYANJIUZOUXIANGLEJIDUAN。DANZHEIBINGBUYIWEIZHEKEXUEZAIYENANYIDEDAOJICHUBIANHU。CONGDAODE—JIAZHIDEGUANDIANLAIKAN, KEXUESHIYIZHONGSHOU“XINGCHENGXINGYUANWANG”YINDAODETESHUSHENGHUOFANGSHI, SHINENGWEISHEHUI“TIGONGDAODELINGDAOLI”HE“JIANSHOUDAODEDIXIAN”DEZHIDU。YINDAOKEXUEDEHAODEJIAZHIGUANSHIMINZHUSUOXUDE。DANGRAN, “JINZHE”DUIZIJIZHUZHANGDECHANSHU, YOUJINYIBUXIZHIHUADEKONGJIAN。JINGUANNANYIDUIKEXUEZUO“JUEDINGXINGBIANHU”, DANYEBUNENGGUODUODIYILAI“BUYANERYU”。YUCITONGSHI, RUHEJIANG“CONGDAODE—JIAZHIDEGUANDIANKANKEXUE”YUKEXUESHIJIANZHILIGENGHAODIQIHEQILAI, YEXUSHENRUSIKAOYUCHANLUN。ZONGZHI, DUI“JINZHE”DEGUANDIAN, XUBAOCHIXUEXIYUKAIFANGDEZITAI, ZAILIJIEYUPIPANZHONGFANSIKEXUEYANJIUDELISHIYUXIANZHUANG。

                参考文献

                [1]Collins H.Three Waves of Science Studies[C].Burguete M, Lam L. (ed.) All About Science:Philosophy, History, Sociology&Communication.Singapore:World Scientific, 2014:243-252.
                [2]Collins H, Evans R.Why Democracies Need Science[M].Cambridge:Polity Press, 2017.
                [3]Collins H.Reproducibility of Experiments:Experimenters’Regress, Statistical Uncertainty Principle, and the Replication Imperative[C].Atmanspacher H, Maasen S.Reproducibility:Principles, Problems, Practices, and Prospects.Hoboken:Wiley, 2016:65-82.
                [4]Collins H, Weinel M, Evans R.The politics and policy of the Third Wave:new technologies and society[J].Critical Policy Studies, 2010, 4 (2) :185-201.
                [5]Collins H.The Role of the Sociologist after half-a-century of studying science[J].South African Review of Sociology, 2013, 44 (1) :158-179.
                [6]Collins H, Evans R, Weinel M.STS as Science or Politics[J].Social Studies of Science, 2017, 47 (4) :580-586.

                注释

                1 斜体部分系笔者添加的注解。
              棋牌大全下载安装   2 “近着”中“institution”有两种含义,一种是“制度”,与“moral”连用,意指“道德制度”;另一种是“机构”,即这里所说的“新机构”。

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