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                              2. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > “变化气质”的内涵与工夫论

                                “变化气质”的内涵与工夫论

                                时间:2019-02-28 14:25作者:崔涛 李红
                                本文导读:这是一篇关于“变化气质”的内涵与工夫论的文章,“变化气质”在朱熹哲学中有着重要意义,他说:“人之为学,却是要变化气禀”,“或问:‘若是气质不善,可以变否?’曰:‘须是变化而反之’”[。何谓“反之”?朱熹说:“反之者,修为以复其性,而至于圣人也。”

                                  摘    要: 朱熹的“变化气质”就是指通过修身养性使人的后天气质之性恢复到全无不善的先天本然之性;使被后天气质所遮蔽的人心恢复到纯粹清明的义理之心,也即道心。这个过程被朱子诠释为“修为以复其性”。在朱熹的哲学里,“变化气质”既是作为修养的最终目标和结果而存在,更是作为修养过程而存在,其本质是一种通过“为学”以实现“为德”的君子修养论,主要途径即“格物”“主敬”与“力行”。

                                  关键词: 朱熹; “变化气质”; 本体论; 价值论; 工夫论;

                                  Abstract: Zhu Xi′s "change of disposition" means that through self-cultivation, the acquired quality of people can be restored to the innate disposition,a pure and clear state with sense of righteousness, that is, the heart of Tao. This process was interpreted by Zhu Zi as "cultivation to restore its nature". In Zhu Xi′s philosophy, "change of disposition" exists not only as the ultimate goal and result of self-cultivation, but also as the process of self-cultivation. Its essence is a theory of self-cultivation of gentlemen, which realizes "behaving by virtue" through "learning", with the main ways being "studying the objects", "honoring people" and "practicing personally".

                                  Keyword: Zhu Xi; "change of disposition"; ontology; axiology; theory of effort;

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                                  一、“变化气质”的必要性

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                                  “复性”发展到朱熹这里,吸收了“气质”等概念,又称之为“变化气质”。人本无不善的性,由于坠入形气之中,受浊气之遮蔽熏染,从而生出种种的恶,这种现实的人性与儒家所要求的理想人格相去甚远,就使得“复性”,也即“变化气质”成为了一种必要。唯有变化我们的气质,去掉气质的遮蔽,才能恢复全无不善的本然之性,才有实现儒家成圣成贤要求的可能。那么,“复性”是如何发展为“变化气质”的?在朱熹这里,其内涵又有何丰富?
                                 

                                “变化气质”的内涵与工夫论
                                 

                                  二、“变化气质”的内涵

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                                  三、“变化气质”的工夫论

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                                棋牌大全下载安装   ZHUXIZAIGONGFULUNZHONGCENGJINGQIANGDIAO“JUJING”SHIRUMENCHESHANGCHEXIADEGONGFU,SHENZHIJIANGZHITIDAOLE“SHENGMENDIYIYI”DEGAODU[6]。KEYISHUO,GUZHISHENGXIANZHUDUO“BIANHUAQIZHI”DEGONGFULUN,ZAIZHUXIZHEILI,ZUIHOUDOULUOZAIYIGE“JING”ZISHANG。ZHUXIJIANG“ZHUJING”YIGONGFENWEISANGECENGCI:YIWEIWEIFASHIZHUJING,ERWEIYIFASHIHANYANG,SANWEIGUANCHUANWEIFAYIFADECHIJING。WEIFASHIDE“JING”,ZHIDESHISHOULIANERBUFANGZONG,JISHIXINBUFANGCHILUANXIANG,DUIRENYUDEGANRAOSHIKEBAOCHIJINZHANGQINGXINGDETOUNAO[5]382,SHIWEIFASHIDEXINSHIKECHUYUYIZHONGZHONGDEZHUANGTAI。ZHEILIDE“JING”,WEI“BIANHUAQIZHI”TIGONGLEYIGELIANGHAODEJICHU。YIFASHIDE“JING”,ZHIDESHI“ZHUYIWUSHI”,JIZHUANYIJIZHONGYUSIKAOHUOYINGJIESHIWUSHANG。ZHEISHIDEJING,ZUOYONGYURIYONGZHIJIAN,YOUCHENGZHIWEIHANYANG,ZHUYAOSHIDUIYIZHIYILIDEHANYANG。YINQIZHIJIEZUOYONGYUYIZHIYILI,ZAIZHUXIZHEILIYOUBEILIJIEWEIXING,QIHEGEWUZHIZHIDEGUANXI,ZAIZHEILIJIUCHENGLEZHIXINGHUFA,“HANYANGQIONGSUOERZHEBUKEFEIYI,RUCHELIANGLUN,RUNIAOLIANGYI”[1]150,HANYANGWEIZHIZHITIGONGLEJICHU,ZHIZHIFANGUOLAIYOUSHIXINGENGJIAZHUANYI,CUJINLEHANYANG。ZHEIYANGDE“JING”,SHITONGGUODUIYILIDEHANYANGLAISHIXIAN“BIANHUAQIZHI”DE。GUANCHUANYUWEIFAYIFAZHENGGEGEWUGUOCHENGSHIZHONGDE“JING”,ZESHIZUOWEIYIZHONG“CHENG”DEJINGSHENZHUANGTAIERCUNZAI,“SHENDU”,“FANQIUZHUJI”。ZAIZHEIGEGUOCHENGZHONG,“JING”SHIZHONGQIZHEYIZHONGSHENGCHATISIDEZUOYONG,ZHEIYANGDE“JING”,DUI“BIANHUAQIZHI”YOUZHEZHIJIEDEZUOYONG,RANGRENZAIRIYONGZHIJIANDEYIXIUYANGBENXIN,“BIANHUAQIZHI”。

                                棋牌大全下载安装   ZHIHEXING,CONGLAIQUEYIBUKE,ZHIERBUXING,WUYIYUBUZHI,ZHIYOUZHIQIEXING,FANGNENGSHIXIAN“BIANHUAQIZHI”。ZAIZHUXIKANLAI,YI“LIXING”SHIXIAN“BIANHUAQIZHI”,YIGONGYOUSANDIANYAOQIU。QIYI,“XINGQISUOZHI”。ZHUXIDUI“LIXING”DEDINGYISHIXINGQISUOZHI,TASUOSHUODE“LIXING”,BUSHIYIWEIMANGMUDIQUXING,ERSHIXINGQISUOZHI,SUOXINGDEZHI,BIRANSHIYIZHIDEZHENGQUEDEYILI,ZHIYOUXINGZHIZHENGQUE,CAINENG“BIANHUAQIZHI”,MANGMUDEXINGMEIYOURENHEYIYI,SUOYI,BIRANYAOQIUXIANZHI,RANHOUXINGQISUOZHI。QIER,“ZHIERBIXING,XINGZHONGYUZHI”。JIZHISUOZHIZHENGQUE,BIYAOLIXING,“DANGWUZHIJI,BUQIUSUONANZHI;LIXINGSUOZHI,BUDANSUONANWEI”[2]87,“JUNZIYUNEYUYANERMINYUXING”,ZHIYOUSHISHIZIMIAN,BIXINGQISUOZHI,CAINENGSHI“BIANHUAQIZHI”BUZAISHIYIGEKONGTAN。QISAN,“ZHIXINGBINGJIN”。ZHUXIDEZHIYUXINGBINGFEISHIHUBUXIANGGANDELIANGZHE,YEBINGFEISHIJINGTAIDEZHIYUXING,TADEZHIYUXING,SHIYIGEJIAOXIANGHUYIDEGUOCHENG,ZHIWEIXINGZUOJICHU,XINGSHIYUANBENSUOZHIGENGJIASHENRUGUANGKUO,BINGFANGUOLAIZAICUJINXING,CONGERXINGCHENGLEYIGEZHI—XING—ZHI—XINGDEXUNHUANLIAN。ZAIZHEIGEGUOCHENGZHONG,SUOZHIZHILIYUQIONGYUSHIWANGJIZHIZOU,ZHIZHIZUIHOU,DADAORONGHUIGUANTONG,SHIXIAN“BIANHUAQIZHI”。

                                  YISHANGSANZHE,ZAIZHUXIDEGONGFULUNTIXILIDOUSHIHUXIANGCUJINDEGUANXI,ZHIYOUSANGUANQIXIA,GEWU、CHIJING、LIXINGTONGSHIERWEIZHI,CAINENGZHENZHENGSHIXIAN“BIANHUAQIZHI”。

                                  ZHUXI“BIANHUAQIZHI”DESIXIANG,ZHUYAOXISHOULECHUANTONGRUXUEYIJIZHANGZAI、ERCHENGDENGDESIXIANG,RENWEI“BIANHUAQIZHI”JIUSHITONGGUOWEIXUESHIRENBEIQIZHISUOZHEBIDEQIZHIZHIXINGHUIFUDAOQUANWUBUSHANDEBENRANZHIXING;TONGGUOWEIXUESHIRENBEIQIZHISUOZHEBIDEQIZHIZHIXINHUIFUDAOCHUNCUIQINGMINGDEBENRANZHIXIN。ZHEIYISIXIANGGUANCHUANZHUXISIXIANGTIXIDESHIZHONG,JIANGQIBENTILUNHEJIAZHILUNRONGHEZAIYIQI,SHIXIANLEZHUTIHEKETI、BENTIHEXIANSHIDETONGYI。ERYOUCITICHUDEGONGFULUN,GENGSHITIGONGLEYIZHENGTAOJUYOUPUBIANXINGHEKESHISHIXINGDEWEIDEZHIFANG,SHIDE“BIANHUAQIZHI”DEYISHIXIAN,YUCHUANTONGRUXUEZHONGDECAIJIANBEIDEJUNZILIXIANGRENGEBUMOUERHE。ZHUXI“BIANHUAQIZHI”SIXIANGBUGUANZAIDANGSHIHAISHIDUIDANGQIANDEDAODEJIAOYUDOUYOUZHEZHONGYAODEYIYI。

                                  参考文献

                                  [1] 黎靖德.朱子语类[M].北京:中华书局,1986.
                                  [2] 朱熹.四书章句集注[M].北京:中华书局,2011.
                                  [3] 张载.张载集[M].北京:中华书局,1978.
                                  [4] 程颢,程颐.二程遗书[M].北京:中华书局,1981.
                                  [5] 陈来.朱子哲学研究[M].北京:生活·读书·新知三联书店,2010.
                                  [6] 吴震.格物诚意不是两事:关于朱熹工夫论思想的若干问题[J].杭州师范大学学报(社会科学版),2014(6):23.

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