棋牌大全下载安装

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                          • 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 杜威经验主义与自然、实践、生活的关系

                            杜威经验主义与自然、实践、生活的关系

                            时间:2019-02-28 14:40作者:贾媛媛 李士军
                            本文导读:这是一篇关于杜威经验主义与自然、实践、生活的关系的文章,20世纪上半叶是现代西方哲学对传统哲学进行全面反思的时代, 也是全新的哲学理论构建的时代。哲学家们一方面对传统哲学二元论以及由此带来的理性主义和独断论进行批判, 另一方面试图立足于生活和实践建构一种统一性来

                              摘    要: 约翰·杜威的经验观不同于近代英国经验论的经验观。他不是把经验理解为认识论意义上的感觉经验,而是在人类历史、文化、生活的意义上把经验理解为人类作用于自然的实践力量。在他看来,经验的基础在于人与环境的相互交融和相互作用,经验作为自然的转换力量是人类深入自然、改造自然的方法和结果。在改造自然的过程中,经验由于与经验方法的内在统一性使自身获得了增长和丰富。因而,经验就是人的生活和实践,经验的丰富就是人生活的拓展和深入。在这种经验自然主义的基础上,杜威批判了传统哲学的二元论和理智主义,认为真正的哲学研究必须回归于生活经验,承担起促进经验生长、丰富人生意义的新的使命。

                              关键词: 约翰·杜威; 自然; 经验; 经验自然主义;

                              Abstract:棋牌大全下载安装 John Dewey's view of experience is different from that of modern British empiricism. He did not take experience as sense experience in epistemology, but as the practical force of human action on nature in the sense of human history, culture, and life. In his opinion, the foundation of experience lies in the mutual blending and interaction between man and the environment, and experience as the transforming force of nature is the method and result of human beings going deep into nature and transforming nature. In the process of transforming nature, experience itself gains growth and enrichment due to its inherent unity with empirical methods. Therefore, experience is people's life and practice, and rich experience is the expansion and deepening of people's life. On the basis of empirical naturalism, Dewey criticized the dualism and rationalism of traditional philosophy. He believed that true philosophical research must return to life experience, and assume the new mission of promoting the growth of experience and enriching the meaning of life.

                              Keyword:棋牌大全下载安装 John Dewey; nature; experience; empirical naturalism;

                            棋牌大全下载安装   20SHIJISHANGBANYESHIXIANDAIXIFANGZHEXUEDUICHUANTONGZHEXUEJINXINGQUANMIANFANSIDESHIDAI, YESHIQUANXINDEZHEXUELILUNGOUJIANDESHIDAI。ZHEXUEJIAMENYIFANGMIANDUICHUANTONGZHEXUEERYUANLUNYIJIYOUCIDAILAIDELIXINGZHUYIHEDUDUANLUNJINXINGPIPAN, LINGYIFANGMIANSHITULIZUYUSHENGHUOHESHIJIANJIANGOUYIZHONGTONGYIXINGLAICHAOYUEERYUANLUN。YUEHAN·DUWEISHIQIZHONGZUIJUDIANXINGXINGDESIXIANGJIAZHIYI, TABADUICHUANTONGZHEXUEDEGAIZAODANGZUOZIJIDESHIMING。

                              ZAIDUWEIKANLAI, YAOXIANGGAIBIANCHUANTONGZHEXUETANJIUCUNZAIDEFANGSHI, SHOUXIANYAOGAIBIANCHUANTONGZHEXUEJIANGGUANZHUDIANFANGZHIYUCHAOYANLINGYUDEYIGUANXINTIAO, SHIZHEXUENEIZAIYURENMENDESHENGHUOJINGYANZHIZHONG。DANSHI, JINDAIZHEXUEDEJINGYANLILUNBINGMEIYOUGAIBIANCHUANTONGZHEXUEDETANJIUFANGSHI。ZONGDELAISHUO, JINDAIZHEXUEDEJINGYANGAINIANYOUZHEIYANGJIGETEZHENG:DIYI, JINGYANBEIJUXIANYURENSHILUNZHIZHONG, ZHISHIZHUTIRENZHIKETIDEZHONGJIEHENIUDAI;DIER, JINGYANBEIJUXIANYUXINLIXUEZHIZHONG, SHITONGGUOZHUTIFASHENGDEGEZHONGXINLIYAOSUDEJIHE;DISAN, JINGYANBEIJUXIANYUGUOQUDESHIJIANZHONG, SHIYIJINGFASHENGDESHIQINGDEJILU;DISI, JINGYANBEIJUXIANYUOURANXINGDESHIJIANZHONG;DIWU, JINGYANBEIJUXIANYUZHIJUEZHIZHONG, TAYUSIXIANGGENBENBUTONG。1ZHEIZHONGDUIJINGYANDERENZHIXIANZHILEJINGYANDEFANWEI, JIANGJINGYANZHIZUOWEIRENSHIDETUJING。DUWEIRENWEI, ZHENZHENGDEJINGYANYUZIRAN、SHIJIAN、SHENGHUOSHIJINMILIANXIZAIYIQIDE。

                              一、经验是深入自然的方法

                            棋牌大全下载安装   DUWEISHOUXIANDUIJINDAIZHEXUERENSHILUNJIANGJINGYANYUZIRANJIERANFENKAIDEGUANDIANJINXINGLEPIPAN。CONGPEIGEN、DIKAERKAISHI, XINWUERYUANLUNJIUCHENGWEIRENSHILUNDEQIANTIHEJICHU, RENDERENSHIJIUSHIYIJINGYANWEITONGDAOGANSHOUWAIWUZAIJINYIBUJINXINGLIXINGSIKAODEGUOCHENG, ERJINGYANJIUSHIRENDEGANGUANDUIWAIWUCIJIDEZHIJIEGANSHOU。YOUQISHIZAIJINDAIYINGGUOJINGYANLUNNEILI, JINGYANCHENGWEIYIQIEZHISHIDELAIYUANYUJICHU, “WOMENDEYIQIEZHISHIDOUSHIJIANLIZAIJINGYANSHANGDE, ERQIEZUIHOUSHIDAOYUANYUJINGYANDE”。2LUOKEJINYIBUJIANGJINGYANQUFENWEIWAIZAIJINGYANHENEIZAIJINGYAN, WAIZAIJINGYANZHUYAOSHIGANJUE, SHIGUANYULENG、RE、KU、TIANDENGGUANNIANDELAIYUAN, NEIZAIJINGYANZHUYAOSHIFANSHENG, SHIZHIJUE、SIKAO、RENSHI、TUILIDENGGUANNIANDELAIYUAN。3DANSHI, WULUNSHIGANJUEHAISHIFANSHENG, DOUSHIBAJINGYANZUOWEIZHUYAOGUANSHEZHUGUANDE、XINLIDEDONGXI, ZHEIZHONGGUANNIANYUERYUANLUNJIEHEZAIYIQI, SHIJINGYANYUZIRANGEJUEQILAI, WUFAHUOZHIGUANYUZIRANHEWAIWUDEPUBIANBIRANXINGDEZHISHI。BEIKELAIDE“CUNZAIJIUSHIBEIGANZHI”、XIUMODE“HUAIYILUN”JIUSHIDUIZIRANZHISHIKEGUANYOUXIAOXINGDEFOUDING。KANGDEZHEXUESUIRANZAIXIANXIANGFANWEINEIJIEJUELEZHISHIYOUXIAOXINGWENTI, DANSHIJINGYANSUOCHUJIDEFANWEIRENGRANZHIXIANYUGANJUEDEXIANYUZHINEI, YAOXIANGRENSHIGANJUEZHIWAIDEZIZAIZHIWU, BIXUYIKAOCHAOYUEJINGYANZHISHANGDEQITATUJINGCAINENGDAODA。ZAIDUWEIKANLAI, ZHEIZHONGJIANLIZAIXINWUERYUANLUNJICHUSHANGDEJINGYANGUANYANMEILEJINGYANBENSHENDENEIHANYUJIAZHI, GELIELEJINGYANYUZIRANDETIANRANLIANXUXING, JINGYANSHENZHICHENGWEIZHEBIZIRANBENLAIMIANMAODEPINGZHANG。TADEJINGYANZIRANZHUYIDESHOUYAORENWUJIUSHIHUIFUJINGYANYUZIRANDELIANXUXING, SHIJINGYANCHENGWEIRENGAIZAOZIRAN、XIANGSHOUZIRANDEYOULIGONGJU。

                              在杜威看来, 人与自然的关系并不像笛卡儿以来的近代哲学所认为的那样是主体与客体、精神与物质、心与物的两条永不汇合的平行线关系, 而是水乳交融、相互塑造的关系, 经验就是它们之间统一性的有机协调。杜威将达尔文的有机体理论和物种连续性的观点应用于他对人与自然关系的研究之中, 用“有机体与环境” (而不是主体与客体或者心与物的范畴) 来表述人与自然的统一性。在他看来, 正如达尔文所理解的那样, 无机的自然界与人类社会并不存在绝对的对立, 它们具有连续性, 人和人类社会是自然界发展进化的结果, 人与自然关系的最基本事实是“有机体生存于环境中”。
                             

                            杜威经验主义与自然、实践、生活的关系
                             

                              DUWEIRENWEI, SHENGMINGSHENGCUNYUHUANJINGZHIZHONG, DANSHIZHEIBINGBUSHIXIANGJIANGMOUWUZHIYUYIGEKONGDERONGQIZHONGNEIYANG, SIHUERZHEYONGYUANCHUYUGEZIDULIDE、JINGZHIDEZHUANGTAI, ERSHIYIWEIZHESHENGMINGYUHUANJINGDEBUKEFENGE, JISHENGMINGSHIHUANJINGDEYIBUFEN, SHENGMINGHUODONGDEZHANKAISHIYIGEYUHUANJINGXIANGHUZUOYONG、XIANGHUGOUZAODEGUOCHENG。“SHENGMINGSHIZAIYIGEHUANJINGZHONGJINXINGDE;BUJINJINSHIZAIQIZHONG, ERQIESHIYOUYUTA, BINGYUTAXIANGHUZUOYONG。SHENGWUDESHENGMINGHUODONGBINGBUZHISHIYITADEPIFUWEIJIE;TAPIXIADEQIGUANSHIYUCHUYUTASHENTIZHIWAIDEDONGXILIANXIDESHOUDUAN, BINGQIE, TAWEILESHENGCUN, YAOTONGGUODIAOJIE、FANGWEIYIJIZHENGFULAISHIZISHENSHIYINGZHEIXIEWAIZAIDEDONGXI。ZAIRENHESHIKE, HUODESHENGWUDOUMIANLINLAIZIYUZHOUWEIHUANJINGDEWEIXIAN, TONGSHIZAIRENHESHIKE, TAYOUBIXUCONGZHOUWEIHUANJINGZHONGXIQUMOUWULAIMANZUZIJIDEXUYAO。YIGESHENGMINGTIDEJINGLIYUSUMINGJIUZHUDINGSHIYAOYUQIZHOUWEIDEHUANJING, BUSHIYIWAIZAIDE, ERSHIYIZUIWEINEIZAIDEFANGSHIZUOJIAOHUAN。”4YEJIUSHISHUO, HUANJINGBINGBUSHIWAIZAIYUSHENGMINGDESHIZAI, SHENGMINGBENSHENSHIHUANJINGBUKEFENGEDEYIBUFEN, PIFUBINGBUSHIBARENHEHUANJINGGELIKAILAIDEPINGZHANG, PIFUYIJIRENSHENSHANGDERENHEQIGUANDOUSHIHUANJINGDEYIZHONGYANXU。RENSHENGCUN、SHENGHUOYUHUANJINGZHIZHONGYIWEIZHERENZHEIGEYOUJITIYAOYUHUANJINGZHONGDEQITAYAOSU (YANGGUANG、KONGQI、SHUI、ZHIWU、DONGWUDENGDENG) JINXINGZHECHIXUDEJIAOHUAN, ZHEIZHONGJIAOHUANSHIYIKAORENDEXINGWEIJIANLIQILAIDE, ZAIZHEIZHONGYIYISHANG, RENZAIHUANJINGZHIZHONG, HUANJINGYEZAIRENZHIZHONG。

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                              二、经验向生活的拓展

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                              ZAIDUWEIKANLAI, RENBUSHIGULIDICUNZAIYUSHIJIEZHONGDE, YUQITASHENGWUYIYANG, RENYESHISHIJIEZHONGDE“HUODESHENGWU” (creature) , 12“HUODESHENGWU” (YOUJITI) YUSHIJIE (HUANJING) DEXIANGHUYILAIGUANXIGOUCHENGLESHENGWUDESHENGCUNHEZIRANFAZHANDEJICHU, JINGYANJIUSHIZAIRENYUHUANJINGXIANGHUZUOYONGDEGUOCHENGZHONGFASHENGDE, TAYIFANGMIANYUSHENGMINGGAIZAOHUANJINGDEHUODONGLIANXIZAIYIQI, LINGYIFANGMIANYEYUHUANJINGDUISHENGMINGDEZUOYONGLIANXIZAIYIQI。DUWEIQIANGDIAO, RENHESHENGMINGDEHUODONG, JISHISHIDUIHUANJINGDESHIYINGHUODONGYENEIZAIDIBAOHANZHEGAIZAOHUANJINGDEXINGWEI, ZHEIZHONGXINGWEIDEFASHENGSHIYINWEIRENFAXIANTAZIJISHENGHUOZAIYIGEBUANDING、BUWENDINGDESHIJIEZHONG, GOUCHENGHUANJINGDEYAOSUSHIDONGTAIDE、FUZADE, YINERHUANJINGZISHENYESHIDONGTAIDE、YIBIANDE。HUANJINGDEGAIBIANPOSHISHENGMINGTIBUDUANDIAOZHENGZIJIDECUNZAIFANGSHIHEGAIZAOSHOUDUAN, ZAIZHEIZHONGXIANGHUZUOYONGDEGUOCHENGZHONG, SHENGMINGGAIZAOLEHUANJING, HUANJINGSUZAOLESHENGMING, ZHEIYIGUOCHENGDUWEIBIAOSHUWEIZUO (doing) YUSHOU (undergoing) DETONGYI:“HUODESHENGWU”ANZHAOZIJIDESHENGMINGTIGOUZAOZAIHUANJINGZHONGXINGDONG, ZHEIXIEXINGDONGGAIBIANLEHUANJINGTONGSHIYESHIZIJIBIXUCHENGSHOUZHEIXIEXINGDONGSUOCHANSHENGDEHOUGUO, HUANJINGDEBIANHUAYOUPOSHISHENGMINGTIDIAOZHENGZIJIDEXINGDONG, ZHEIZHONG“ZUOYUJINGLIHUOCHENGSHOUDEMIQIEGUANXIJIUGOUCHENGLEWOMENSUOSHUODEJINGYAN”。13ZHENGSHIZAIZUOYUSHOUDEJIAOZHIZHONG, RENLEIKAIQIHESHIJIANLEZISHENDEQUANBUSHENGHUOHELISHI。YINCI, JINGYANJIUSHIZAISHENGMINGYUHUANJINGDEXIANGHUYILAI、XIANGHUZUOYONGDEJICHUSHANGZHANKAIDESHENGMINGHUODONGHESHENGMINGYANGTAI。ZAIJINGYANDEGUOCHENGZHONG, RENMENJIYAOXINGDONG, YEYAOCHENGSHOU, ZAIZUOYUCHENGSHOUZHONGYOUBAOHANLEGEZHONGQINGXUHEQINGGAN。

                            棋牌大全下载安装   SUIRANJINGYANBAOHANLEZUOYUSHOULIANGGEFANGMIAN, DANBINGBUYIWEIZHEDUWEIDEJINGYANLUNYUYINGGUODEJINGYANLUNYIYANGSHIYIERYUANLUNZUOWEIZIJIDEZHEXUEFANSHIDE。ZAIDUWEIZHEILI, RENYUHUANJINGDEXIANGHUZUOYONGSHIYIZHONGYUANCHUDE、HUNDUNWEIKAIDEZHUANGTAI, JIZAIRENNENGGOURENSHISHIJIEZHIQIANDEZHUANGTAI。ZAIWOMENRENSHISHIJIEZHIQIAN, RENLEIDESHENGCUNHUODONG (SHENGHUO) JIUYIJINGFASHENGLE。ZHEIZHONGDUIJINGYANDELIJIESHOUDAOWEILIAN·ZHANMUSHIDEYINGXIANG, ZAIZHANMUSHINEILI, ZHENGGESHIJIESHIYIGETONGYIDE“CHUNCUIJINGYAN”SHIJIE, ZHEIGEJINGYANBUSHILUOKE、XIUMODENGRENDENEIZHONGJIANLIZAIERYUANLUNJICHUSHANGDE、ZHUGUANDE、QUEFALIANXUXINGDEJINGYAN, ERSHIZHIBAORONGLESUOYOUCHUYUHUODONG、LIUBIANZHUANGTAIDEYISHIZHONGDESHIWUJIQIGUANXIDEJINGYANZHENGTI, ZHUTIYUKETI、WULIYUXINLIZHISHICHUNCUIJINGYANDELIANGGEFANGMIAN, “TADEYIDUANBIANCHENGZHISHIDEZHUTIHUODANFUZHE, ZHIZHE, LINGYIDUANBIANCHENGSUOZHIDEKETI”。14ZHEIYANGDEJINGYANZHISHIYIGEMOHUDE、HUNDUNDESHIJIEZONGTI, ZHANMUSHICHENGZHIWEI“YISHILIU”HUO“ZHUGUANSHENGHUOZHILIU”。ZAICIJICHUSHANG, DUWEISHUO:“‘JINGYAN’SHIYIGEZHANMUSHISUOWEIJUYOULIANGTAOYIYIDEZIYAN。HAOXIANGTADETONGLEIYU‘SHENGHUO’HE‘LISHI’YIYANG……”15JINGYANSUOSHEJIDEFANWEIHANGAILERENLEIDEQUANBUSHENGHUOHELISHILINGYU, TAJISHIRENMENSHIYINGHEGAIZAOFENGFUDUOCAIDEZIRANDEYOUXIAOSHOUDUAN, YESHIRENMENZAITONGZIRANDAJIAODAOGUOCHENGZHONGQINGGAN、DAODE、RENSHIHUODONGDETIXIAN。“JINGYANZHIKAIKENGUODETUDI, ZHONGXIADEZHONGZI, SHOUHUODECHENGGUOYIJIRIYE、CHUNQIU、GANSHI、LENGREDENGDENGBIANHUA, ZHEIXIEWEIRENMENSUOGUANCHA、WEIJU、KEWANGDEDONGXI;TAYEZHIZHEIGEZHONGZHIHESHOUGE、GONGZUOHEXINKUAI、XIWANG、WEIJU、JIHUA、QIUZHUYUMOSHUHUOHUAXUE、CHUITOUSANGQIHUOHUANXINGUWUDEREN。”16YIJUHUA, JINGYANJIUSHIWOMENDESHENGHUOYIJIWOMENSUOCHUANGZAODEWENHUA。

                            棋牌大全下载安装   DUWEIDEJINGYANGAINIANHENDACHENGDUSHANGSHIDUIGUXILAJINGYANGAINIANDEFAYANG。ZAIGUXILA, JINGYANGAINIANYURENDEQINSHENJINGLIHESHENGCUNSHIJIANYOUMIQIEGUANXI, YALISHIDUODEZAI《XINGERSHANGXUE》ZHONGYOUZHEIYANGDEBIAOSHU:RENDERENSHICONGGANJUEJIYIKAISHI, “CONGJIYIJILEIJINGYAN;TONGYISHIWUDELVCIJIYIZUIHOUCHANSHENGZHEIYIJINGYANDEQIANNENG……CONGJINGYANSUODEXUDUOYAODIANSHIRENCHANSHENGDUIYILEISHIWUDEPUBIANPANDUAN, ERJISHUJIUYOUCIXINGQI”。17YALISHIDUODEMEIYOUBAGANJUEYUJINGYANDENGTONG, GANJUESHIRENSHIDEQIDIAN, ERJINGYANSHIGEBIEZHISHI, TONGGUOJINGYANDEJILEI, GEBIEZHISHINENGGOUSHANGSHENGDAOZUOWEIPUBIANZHISHIDEJISHU。JINGYANZUOWEIGEBIEZHISHI, TAJIUBUNENGSHICONGSHUBENHUODEDE, ERZHINENGSHICONGGERENDEQINSHENSHIJIANHUODONGZHONGHUODEDE。LINGWAI, CONGLADINGWEN (experientia) CIYUANSHANGLAIKAN, JINGYANJUYOUYANZHENG、CHANGSHI、TIYANZHIYI, TAJIBAOKUORENJINGYANDUIXIANGSHIDEYIXILIEDEDONGTAIXINGWEI, TONGSHIYEBAOKUOZHEIXIEXINGWEIFASHENGSHIRENDEGEZHONGXINLIGANSHOU。HENMINGXIAN, GUXILADEJINGYANGUANYUJINDAIYINGGUODEJINGYANLUNWANQUANBUTONG, JINGYANBUSHIGANGUANYUDUIXIANGXIANGJIECHUSHICHANSHENGDEGANJUEYINXIANG, ERSHIRENDESHENGHUOJINGLIYIJIYOUCISUOHUODEDEZHISHI。YINGGUOJINGYANLUNZHENGSHIYINWEIBUSHIBAJINGYANZUOWEISHENGHUOHEJINGLI, ERSHIZAIERYUANLUNDEJICHUSHANGJIANGQISHIWEIGANXINGRENSHI, YINERZHEBILEJINGYANBENLAIDEFENGFUFUZADENEIHAN。

                              YINGGAISHUO, GUXILADEJINGYANGUANHEDUWEIDUIJINGYANDELIJIEGENGJIEJINYUWOMENRICHANGSUOSHUODEJINGYAN, DANGWOMENTANLUNGONGZUOJINGYAN、XUEXIJINGYAN、ZONGJIAOJINGYANDENGDESHIHOUSUOZHIDEBINGFEIYINGGUOJINGYANLUNSUOSHUODEGANJUEJINGYAN, ERSHIYUWOMENDESHIJIANHEHUODONGXIANGLIANXIDESHENGCUNSHIJIAN。ZAIRENSHIHUODONGZHONG, ZHUTIYUKETISHOUXIANYAOBEISHEDINGWEIERYUANDE、FENLIEDE, ERJINGYANJIUSHIZHUTIRENSHIKETIDEZHONGJIE, SHIZHUTIXIAOJIDIJIESHOUKETIXINXIDEFANYINGYANGSHI, TAJIESHILERENSHIHUODONGHEYIKENENG。ERZAIRICHANGSHENGHUOZHONG, ZHUTIBINGBUSHIXIANRENSHIKETI, ZHUTIYUKETISHIXIANGHUJIANGOU、BICIBUKEFENDEGUANXI。DUWEIDUIJINGYANDELIJIEJIESHILEZHUKETIWEIFENLIEZHIQIANDEJINGYANMOSHI, TABUSHILILUNHUODONG, ERSHISHIJIANHUODONG, TABUSHISIWEIZHONGDEYIXILIETUXIANG, ERSHIJUTIHUANJINGXIARENDESHENGCUNHUODONG。

                              YIGEJIANDANDELIZIKEYISHUOMINGDUWEIDEJINGYANGAINIAN:SHENGHUOZAIMOUGECHENGSHIDEJUMINHEZHEIGECHENGSHIDEYOUKESHEIGENGJUYOUGUANYUZHEIGECHENGSHIDEJINGYANNI?DANGRANSHIZHEIGECHENGSHIDEJUMIN, ZHEIBINGBUSHISHUOTAYOULANDEDIFANGBIJIAODUOHUOZHETAYOUHENDUOGUANYUZHEIGECHENGSHIDETUXIANG, ERSHIYINWEITASHENGHUOZAIZHEIGECHENGSHIZHIZHONG, TAYUZHEIGECHENGSHIXIANGHUYICUN、XIANGHUZUOYONG, JIANGZIJIRONGRUZHEIGECHENGSHISHENZHIYUQICHENGWEISHUIRUJIAORONGDEYITI。ERYOUKEYEXUYOULANLEGENGDUODEZHEIGECHENGSHIDEMEIJING, KANLEGENGDUODEGUANYUZHEIGECHENGSHIDETUXIANG, DANWOMENRENGRANZHINENGSHUOTASUOYONGYOUDEZHISHIGUANYUZHEIGECHENGSHIDEYINXIANG。DUWEIDEJINGYANGUANYUJINDAIYINGGUOJINGYANLUNDEJINGYANGUANDECHABIEJIUZAIZHEILI, JINDAIYINGGUOJINGYANLUNJIANGJINGYANDENGTONGYUZHUTIDUIKETIDEYINXIANG, ERDUWEIJIANGJINGYANDENGTONGYUZHUTIYUKETIDEJIAOHUZUOYONG。ZHENZHENGDEJINGYANSHISHENGHUO, SHISHIJIAN, SHIZUOYUCHENGSHOUDEBUDUANJIAORONGYUZHUANHUAN。

                              三、经验方法与哲学的改造

                            棋牌大全下载安装   DUWEIRENWEI, DANGJINGYANXIANGSHENGHUOTUOZHANSHI, ZHEXUEYANJIUYEJUYOULEXINDEQIJI, JI“JIEZHUYUZHEXUEDEDUISHENGHUOJINGYANDEYANJIU”, 18ZHEIZHONGXINDEZHEXUEYANJIUTONGYANGXUYAOXINDEYANJIUFANGFA, JIJINGYANFANGFA。

                              QIANMIANWOMENYIJINGCHANSHULEJINGYANYUJINGYANFANGFADENEIZAITONGYI, JINGYANFANGFAZUOWEIMIMANZAIZHENGGEJINGYANGUOCHENGDE“ZHONGJIE”19SHIJINGYANJUYOUSHENGZHANGXINGDELILIANG。ZHEIZHONGFANGFASHIZIRANKEXUEZHONGCHANGYONGDEFANGFA, DUWEIRENWEI, JINGYANFANGFAJUTIBAOHANZHEZHEIYANGDECHENGXU:SHOUXIAN, CHENGRENZAIQUEDINGMOUYIDUIXIANGZHIQIANJUYOUXUANZEDEXINGDONG;QICI, JIANGHUODEGUANYUZHEIYIDUIXIANGJIELUNDEJINCHENGBAIFANGCHULAIYIQIHUODEBIERENDEYANZHENG;ZUIHOU, JIANGJIELUNFANHUIDAORICHANGSHENGHUOZHONGLAIZHENGSHIJIELUNDEYOUXIAOXING。20JINGYANFANGFAYINGYONGYUZHEXUEZHONGJIANGHUISHIZHEXUEYIYIZHONGKAIFANGDEZITAIJIENARENHEYOUYIDEJINGYANHUOGUANDIANCONGERPAICHUZHEXUEDEDUDUANLUN。

                              DANSHI, CONGGUXILADAOJINDAIYILAIDECHUANTONGZHEXUEYANJIUQUEBUSHICONGJINGYANBENSHENCHUFA, ERSHICONGRENZHIZHONGXUANZEYIGEDUIXIANGZUOWEISHIJIEDEJICHUHUOBENYUANLAIGOUJIANZHEXUESIKAO。CHUANTONGZHEXUEDEZHEIZHONGSIKAOFANGSHI, DUWEICHENGZHIWEIFEIJINGYANFANGFA。SUOWEIFEIJINGYANFANGFA, SHIZHIBUSHICONGZHIJIEJINGYANCHUFA, ERSHICONGYIGEFANSIDEJIEGUOCHUFALAISIKAOZHEXUEWENTI。CHUANTONGZHEXUEDEJINGSHENYUWUZHI、XINYUWU、ZHUTIYUKETIZHIFENDOUSHIFANSIDEJIEGUO, CHUANTONGZHEXUEJIANGZHEIYANGYIGEFANSIDEJIEGUOZUOWEIZHEXUEDEQIANTIJIESHOUXIALAI, JIANGHUOZHESHIXINLINGHUOZHESHIWUZHIZUOWEISHIJIEDEBENYUAN, CONGERDAOZHIERYUANLUNZHEXUEYONGHENGDEZHENGLUN。ZAIDUWEIKANLAI, ZHIYAOCHUANTONGZHEXUEJIANGFANSIZHIWUZUOWEIZHEXUEDEYIZHONGQIANTIXINGYUSHE, NEIMEERYUANLUNZHEXUEDEZHENGLUNJIANGYONGWUXIUZHI, YINWEITADEFANSISHIFANGFAYOUYURENSHILUNXIANYUERWUFACHUJIRENLEIDESHENGHUOSHIJIAN。DUWEIJUTIZHICHULECHUANTONGZHEXUEDEBIDUAN: (1) YINWEITUOLILERICHANGJINGYAN, CHUANTONGZHEXUEDEJIELUNWUFADEDAOYANZHENG; (2) YOUYUSHIYONGFEIJINGYANFANGFA, CHUANTONGZHEXUEWUFAXIANGZIRANKEXUENEIYANGSHIQIJIELUNDEYIYIHUODEYANSHENHEFENGFU; (3) GENGZHONGYAODESHI, YOUYUZHEXUEJIAFOURENQIQUEDINGDEBENYUANHUOJICHUSHIXUANZEHUOFANSIDEJIEGUO, CHUANTONGZHEXUEWUYIBUXIANRUDUDUANLUNDEKEJIU, JIWUDUANDE“LIZHIZHUYI”。21YINCI, YAOXIANGGAIZAOCHUANTONGZHEXUE, BUJINYAOGAIZAOCHUANTONGZHEXUEDEJINGYANGUAN, JIANGJINGYANDIANJIZAISHENGCUNSHIJIANDEJICHUZHISHANG, ERQIEYAOZAIZHEXUEYANJIUZHONGYINGYONGJINGYANFANGFA。“JINGYANFASHINENGGOUGONGZHENGDIDUIDAI‘JINGYAN’ZHEIGEJIANSHOUBINGXUDETONGYITIDEWEIYIFANGFA, ZHIYOUTACAIBAZHEIGETONGYIDEZHENGTIDANGZUOSHIZHEXUESIXIANGDECHUFADIAN。QITADEFANGFASHICONGFANSHENGDEJIEGUOKAISHIDE, ERFANSHENGQUEYEYIBAJINGYANDEDUIXIANGHENENGJINGYANDEHUODONGYUZHUANGTAIFENLIEWEIER。”22JINGYANFANGFABUJINNENGCONGGENBENSHANGGAIZAOCHUANTONGZHEXUEDEERYUANLUN, ERQIENENGZAIGUANGDUHESHENDUSHANGKUOZHANJINGYANDENEIRONG, SHIZHEXUEYANJIULIZUYUYIGEGENGWEIGUANGKUODESHIYU。

                            棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIDUWEIKANLAI, JINGYANFANGFAYUFEIJINGYANFANGFAQUFENCONGLINGYIGEJIAODUKANSHIYUANSHIJINGYANYUFANSHENGJINGYANDEQUFEN。23YUANSHIJINGYANSHIZHIYIZHONGCUCAODE、HONGGUANDE、WEIJIATILIANDEJINGYAN, YEJIUSHIGUANHURENMENSHENGCUNSHIJIANDEZHIJIEDEJINGYANHUODONG, ERFANSHENGJINGYANSHIJINGLIANDE、WEIGUANDE、TUIYANCHULAIDEJINGYANHUODONG, TASHIRENSHIHUODONGZHONGDELIXINGHUODONG, BAOKUOGAINIAN、FENXI、PANDUAN、TUILIDENGLIZHIHUODONG。QIANZHESHIRENMENDERICHANGSHENGHUO, HOUZHEZESHIRENMENDELIXINGSHENGHUO。DUWEIRENWEI, YUANSHIJINGYANSHIZHIJIEDE、YUANCHUDEJINGYAN, ERFANSHENGJINGYANSHIDIERJIDE、CISHENGDEJINGYAN。DANSHI, YUANSHIJINGYANYUFANSHENGJINGYANDEQUBIEBUSHIBENZHISHANGDEQUBIE, “ZHEIGEQUBIENAISHIZAIZUOWEIZUISHAOOURANFANSHENGDEJIEGUOERWEIWOMENSUOJINGYANDAODEDONGXI, HEYOUYUJIXUYUSHOUDIAOJIEDEFANSHENGTANTAOERBEIJINGYANDAODEDONGXIZHIJIANSUOJUYOUDEQUBIE”。24YEJIUSHISHUO, TAMENZHIJIANDEQUBIEJINJINZAIYU:YUANSHIJINGYANSHIYIZHONGSHUNJIANDEFANSI, ERFANSHENGJINGYANSHIYIZHONGCHIXUERGUIFANDEFANSIHUODONG。BUJINRUCI, DUWEIRENWEI, YUANSHIJINGYANYUFANSHENGJINGYANHAIJUYOUYIZHONGLIANXUXING, YIFANGMIAN, TONGGUOYUANSHIJINGYANHUODEDESUCAIGOUCHENGLEFANSHENGJINGYANPANDUAN、TUILIHESIKAODEDUIXIANG, ZHENGSHIYIZHEIXIESUCAIWEIDUIXIANGWOMENHUODELEGUANYUDUIXIANGDERENSHI;LINGYIFANGMIAN, DUIYUFANSHENGJINGYANJIEGUODEYANZHENGHEZHENGSHIXUYAOZHONGXINHUIDAOYUANSHIJINGYANZHONG, SHIYUANSHIJINGYANZHONGDESHIWU“TONGGUODADAOZHEIGETUJINGHUOFANGFAERHUODELEYIZHONGFENGFUHEKUODADELILIANG”。25KEYIKANCHU, DUWEIDEYUANSHIJINGYANJIUSHIPUTONGRICHANGSHENGHUO, YINWEIZAIDUWEIKANLAI, YUANSHIJINGYANSUOJINGYANDEBUSHIJINGYANBENSHEN, TAJINGYANDESHIZIRAN, ERZIRANJIUSHIWOMENZAIRICHANGSHENGHUOZHONGSUOMIANDUIDESHIWU。ZAIYUANSHIJINGYANZHONG, ZIRANYIQIZUIBENRANDEMIANMAOTONGJINGYANFASHENGJIAOHUZUOYONG, ERCONGZHONGHUODEDEFANSHENGJINGYANYAOHUIDAOYUANSHIJINGYANZHONGHUODEJIANYAN。ZAIZHEIYIGUOCHENGZHONG, JINGYANBENSHENKUODALETADEYIYI。YINCI, FANSHENGJINGYANJISHIYUANSHIJINGYANFAZHANDEGAOJIJIEDUAN, TONGSHIYESHIYUANSHIJINGYANSHENGFAYIYI、ZHENGHEZISHENDEYIGEHUANJIE, TAMENSHINEIZAITONGYI、BICILIANXUDE。

                              WOMENKEYICONGYUANSHIJINGYANYUFANSHENGJINGYANDEJIAODUJINYIBUKANDAOZIRANKEXUEYANJIUHEZHEXUEYANJIUDECHABIE:ZIRANKEXUEYANJIUZHONGDEJINGYANFANGFASHICONGYUANSHIJINGYANCHUFADE, TONGGUOYUANSHIJINGYANHUODEDIERJIDEFANSHENGJINGYAN, ERFANSHENGJINGYANDEJIEGUOYAOZHONGXINHUIDAOYUANSHIJINGYANZHONGJINXINGYANZHENG。ZHEXUEYANJIUZESHICAIQUFEIJINGYANDEFANGFA, TABUSHICONGYUANSHIJINGYANCHUFA, ERSHICONGFANSHENGJINGYANCHUFA, JIANGFANSHENGJINGYANDECHANWUZUOWEIZHENGGESHIJIEDEJUEDUIJICHU, ZHEXUEZHONGSUOCHUXIANDESHIJIHUOBENYUAN, WULUNSHILINIAN、ZHUTI、YISHI、JUEDUIJINGSHEN, HAISHISHITI、CUNZAI、WUZHI、WUZITI, DOUSHIFANSIDECHANWUHUOFANSHENGJINGYANDEJIEGUO, TAMENWUFAHUIDAOYUANSHIJINGYANJINXINGYANZHENG, YEWUFA“LIYONGJINGLIANDE、DIERJIDECHANWULAIZUOWEIZHICHUHEHUISUDAOYUANSHIJINGYANZHONGMOUXIEDONGXIDEYIGETUJING”。26YUSHI, WOMENFAXIAN, ZAIZIRANKEXUEYANJIUZHONG, JINGYANDOUJUYOUSHIYANXINGZHI, TASHIRENMENTANQIUZIRANDEMOSHI, FANSIHUODONGDEDAODEJIELUNSHIKECUODE, YESHIKEJIUZHENGDE, RENHEJIELUNDOUYAOBUDUANDISHOUDAOYUANSHIJINGYANDEJIANYAN, FANSIHUODONGSUODEDAODEJIELUNHUICHENGWEIWOMENKONGZHIRICHANGSHIWU、KUODARICHANGSHIWUSHIYONGFANGFADESHOUDUANHEGONGJU。DANSHI, CHUANTONGDEZHEXUEYANJIUQUEBUJUYOUZHEIYANGDESHIYANXING, FEIJINGYANDEFANGFABAZHEXUESIKAOGUZHEYUFANSHENGJINGYAN, SHIZHEXUENEIZAIYUFANSIZHIZHONGCHENGWEICHUNCUILIXINGDERENSHI, TATONGGUOLUOJIYANYIHELENGJINGFENXISHIZHEXUEZAIZISHENZHINEICHENGWEIZHENLI, RENHESHIJIANYUQINGJINGDEOURANBIANHUADOUYUQIWUGUAN, ZHEXUEDESHIJIESHIYIGECHAOYANDESHIJIE, SHIYIGEZHEXUEJIAYONGZHEXUESHUYULAISIKAODESHIJIE, SHIYIGEBUXUYAOPUTONGRENLIJIEDESHIJIE。YUSHI, ZHEXUEYUANLILEZIRAN, YUANLILESHENGHUO, GENGTANBUSHANGZHIDAORENMENDESHENGHUOSHIJIAN。

                            棋牌大全下载安装   DUWEIDUICHUANTONGZHEXUEDEFENXICUSHIWOMENJINYIBUSIKAOZHEXUECHANSHENGZHISHIDECHUZHONG。ZAIZHEILI, SHOUXIANXUYAOJIEJUEDESHI:ZHEXUESHIRUHEQIYUANDE。ZHEXUESHIQIYUANYUBAMENNIDEHUOBOLATUDESIKAOZHONGMA?XIANRANBUSHI, TAMENZHISHIDIANDINGLEHOULAIZHEXUESIKAODEJIBENFANGSHI。ZHEXUESHICHANSHENGYUMILIDOUXUEPAIDUISHIJIDEQUEDINGZHONGMA?YEBUSHI, TAMENZHISHIQUEDINGLEHOULAIZHEXUESIKAODEDUIXIANG。BINGQIE, WULUNSHIMILIDOUXUEPAIHAISHIBAMENNIDE、BOLATU, ZHISHIZAITEDINGDESHEHUIHEQINGJINGZHONGQUEDINGLEZHEIZHONGZHEXUESIKAO。SHISHISHANG, ZHEXUEYOUGENGGULAODEYUANTOU, TILIRENWEI, “ZAISHENHUADEGUANNIANZHONGYIJINGCHUXIANZHEXUESIXIANGDEPEIZHONG, JIZUOMOUZHONGJIESHIDEYUANWANG”。27LUOSUYERENWEI, SHENHUAYUZONGJIAODUIGUXILAZHEXUEDECHANSHENGYOUSHENKEYINGXIANG。28SHENPUXUEHECHUANGSHISHUOJIUSHIGUXILARENYONGLILUNLAISHUOMINGZIRANHESHIJIEDECHANGSHI。NEIME, RENMENWEISHENMEYAOSHUOMINGZIRANHECHANSHISHIJIENI?YINWEI“RENSHENGHUOZAIWEIXIANDESHIJIEZHIZHONG, BIANBUDEBUXUNQIUANQUAN”。29RENMENSHENGHUOZAIYIGEDONGDANGDE、BUWENDINGDESHIJIE, BIXUZHAODAOZHEIGESHIJIEDEZHIXUHEGUILVXINGYIBIANGENGHAODIKONGZHITACONGERHUODEANQUANGAN。ZAIYUANSHISHEHUI, YOUYUGONGJUHEJISHULILIANGDEQUEFA, RENMENYONGSHENHUALAIJIESHISHIJIE, BINGCAIQUQIDAOHEJISIDEFANGSHIYUCHAOZIRANDESHENLINGHEJIEYIHUODEANQUAN, YOUCICUJINLEZONGJIAODECHANSHENG。HOULAI, SUIZHERENMENJISHUSHUIPINGDETIGAO, RENMENFAXIANYONGGONGJUHEJISHULAIMIANDUIJINGYANSHIJIEGENGANQUAN, YOUCICUJINLEKEXUEHEZHISHIDEFAZHAN。ZONGJIAOHEKEXUESHIRENMENMIANDUIKUNJINGSHIHUIYINGSHIJIEDEFANGSHI, ERZHEXUESHI“LIANGZHONGYINSUDECHANWU, YIZHONGSHICHUANTONGDEZONGJIAOHELUNLIGUANNIAN, LINGYIZHONGSHIKEYICHENGZHIWEI‘KEXUEDE’NEIZHONGYANJIU”。30“ZHIYOUYILIXINGDAITIHUANXIANG, YONGZHIHUIDAITIXIANGXIANG, BINQICHAOZIRANDEDONGYINZUOWEIJIESHIDEYUANZE, ERYIJINGYANDESHISHIZUOWEITANJIUHEJIESHUODEJICHU, ZHEISHICAICHANSHENGZHEXUE。”31YINCI, ZHEXUEZAICHANSHENGZHICHUSHIYURENMENDESHIJIXUYAOJINMIDILIANXIZAIYIQIDE, SHIWEILEFENGFURENMENDEJINGYANHEZHISHI, YIBIANTIGAORENMENZAIRICHANGSHENGHUOZHONGYINGDUIXIANJING、JIEJUEKUNNANDENENGLI。DANSHI, ZAIHOULAIDEZHEXUEFAZHANZHONG, ZHEXUEJIAMENZHUJIANWANGJILEZHEXUEDEZONGZHI, ZHEXUECHENGWEIYUANLISHENGHUO、YUANLISHIJIANDELIXINGFENXIHEGAINIANYANYI, DUIRENMENJINGYANDEZENGZHANGHESHENGHUODEFENGFUHAOWUYONGCHU。

                            棋牌大全下载安装   DUWEIRENWEI, CHUANTONGZHEXUEDESIKAOFANGSHISHIRENLEISHEHUIYIDINGLISHIJIEDUANDECHANWU, TADECHANSHENGJUYOUMOUZHONGOURANXING, YINERBUYINGGAIBATADANGZUOSUOYOUZHEXUEDEQIANTIJIESHOUXIALAI。RUGUOZHEXUEYANJIUNENGGOUCAIYONGJUYOUSHIYANXINGZHIDEJINGYANFANGFA, BUZAIYIFANSIHUODONGDECHANWUZUOWEIYANJIUDUIXIANG, ERSHIYIYUANSHIJINGYANBENSHENZUOWEIYANJIUDUIXIANG, JIUHUIGAIBIANCHUANTONGZHEXUEYILIXINGZHUYIWEIJICHUDEERYUANLUNHEDUDUANLUN。JINGYANFANGFASHIZHEXUEBUZAIYOUYUJINDAIDELIXINGZHUYIHERENSHILUN, ERSHIYIYUANSHIJINGYANWEIJICHU, JIHUIDAOQIANLIXINGHEQIANRENSHIDERICHANGSHENGHUOZHONGZHONGXINSIKAOZHEXUEDECUNZAIHEYIYI。DANGZHEXUEYUYUANSHIJINGYAN、RICHANGSHENGHUOJIANLIMIQIELIANXISHI, RENHEZHEXUEDEJIELUNDOUBIXUHUISUDAOSHENGHUOJINGYANHUOJUTIDEQINGJINGZHONGHUODEJIANYAN, ZHEXUEYECHENGWEIKECUODE, CHENGWEISHIYANDE, TAZAIWEILAIHUIBEIBUDUANJIANYAN。DANZHENGSHIZAIZHEIZHONGSIKAOYUJIANYANZHONG, WOMENHUODEZAIJUTIDEQINGJINGZHONGCHULIJUTIWENTIDEFANGFA, BINGQIESUIZHEQINGJINGDEBUDUANZENGDUO, RENMENDEJINGYANHUIYUJIAFENGFU, JIEJUEWENTIDEFANGFAHUIYUJIADUOYANG, RENMENDESHENGCUNSHIJIANNENGLIJIUHUIBUDUANZENGQIANG, RENMENDESHENGHUOYEHUIGENGJIACHONGSHIERYOULILIANG, ZHEXUEDEJIAZHIHEYIYIYEYINCIERDEDAOZHANGXIAN。ZHEIYANGDEZHEXUEBUSHIYANJIUXIANYANLIXINGDEZHEXUE, ERSHIYANJIUSHENGHUOJINGYANDEZHEXUE。GENGQUEQIEDISHUO, ZHEXUESIKAOBENSHENYIBUSHIMUDE, TASHISHENGHUOJINGYANBENSHEN, TAMIANXIANGWEILAI, BUDUANZENGJIAXINDEJINGYAN, TUOZHANSHENGHUODEYIYI。

                              结语

                              DUWEIJIANGZIJIJINGYANZHEXUECHENGWEI“JINGYANZIRANZHUYI”, ZHEIYICHENGWEIZHIZAIGAIBIANCHUANTONGJINGYANGUANDEZHUGUANXINGHERENSHILUNTEZHENG。ZAIDUWEIKANLAI, “JINGYANHELISHI、SHENGHUO、WENHUAZHEIXIESHIQINGYOUTONGYANGDEYIYI”。32YEJIUSHISHUO, JINGYANDELICHENGYESHISHENGHUOBENSHENDELICHENG。TONGSHI, TONGGUODUIJINGYANGAINIANYUJINGYANFANGFAYIJIYUANSHIJINGYANYUFANSHENGJINGYANDEFENXI, DUWEIJIESHILEJINGYANNEIBUDEDONGTAIJIEGOU, YIFANGMIAN, JINGYANFANGFAHEJINGYANDENEIZAITONGYISHIJINGYANCHENGWEIZISHENDECHUANGZAOXINGLILIANG, JINGYANCHENGWEIYIZHONGHUOSHENGSHENGDETANJIUGUOCHENG;LINGYIFANGMIAN, YUANSHIJINGYANHEFANSHENGJINGYANDENEIZAITONGYITONGYANGTIXIANLEJINGYANDEBUDUANSHENGZHANGDEGUOCHENG, JINGYANZHENGSHIZAIZHEIXIEXIANGHUGUANXIZHONGZHANXIANCHUZISHENHUOLIDE。ZONGZHI, DUWEIDEJINGYANZIRANZHUYIJUYOUSHENGCUNLUNDEYIYI, TIXIANLEYIZHONGSHENGMINGDETANQIUHUODONG, BINGQIETONGGUOZHEIZHONGTANQIU, SHENGHUOCHENGWEICHONGMANYIYIBINGBUDUANCHUANGZAOGEZHONGKENENGXINGDEJINGYANLICHENG。DUWEIDUIZHEXUEDEGAIZAOSHIYITADEJINGYANZIRANZHUYIWEIJICHUDUIZHENGGEXIFANGZHEXUETIXIDEZHONGJIAN, ZHEXUEBIXUGAIBIANCHUANTONGDESIKAOFANGSHI, HUIGUIDAOSHENGHUOJINGYANZHONG, CHENGDANQIZIJIGUANZHUSHIDAIWENTI、ZHIDAOSHENGHUOSHIJIAN、FENGFURENSHENGYIYIDESHIMING。

                              注释

                              1 Cornel West, The American Evasion of Philosophy, Palgrave Macmillan UK, 1989, p.88.
                              2 洛克:《人类理解论》,关文运译,北京:商务印书馆,1983年,第68页。译文根据现代语法将“底”改为“的”。
                              3 洛克:《人类理解论》,关文运译,第68页。
                              4 杜威:《艺术即经验》,高建平译,北京:商务印书馆,2005年,第12页。
                              5 杜威:《经验与自然》,傅统先译,南京:江苏教育出版社,2005年,第3页。
                              6 杜威:《经验与自然》,傅统先译,第12页。
                              7 杜威:《经验与自然》,傅统先译,第3-4页。
                              8 杜威:《经验与自然》,傅统先译,第1页。
                              9 黑格尔:《小逻辑》,贺麟译,北京:商务印书馆,1995年,第427页。
                              10 黑格尔:《小逻辑》,贺麟译,第422页。
                              11 John Dewey, Reconstruction in Philosophy, New York:Henry Holt and Company, 1920, p.95.--38
                              12 杜威:《艺术即经验》,高建平译,第3页。
                              13 John Dewey, Reconstruction in Philosophy, p.86.
                              14 威廉·詹姆士:《彻底的经验主义》,庞景仁译,上海:上海人民出版社,1987年,第2-3页。
                              15 杜威:《经验与自然》,傅统先译,第8页。
                              16 杜威:《经验与自然》,傅统先译,第8页。
                              17 亚里士多德:《形而上学》,吴寿彭译,北京:商务印书馆,1959年,第1-2页。
                              18 杜威:《经验与自然》,傅统先译,第26页。
                              19 “中介”是黑格尔《精神现象学》中的概念,是指真理在充分展开自身时所经历的中间环节。黑格尔认为这些中介不是无意义的,是绝对真理不可缺少的环节。这里用来指经验方法在整个经验过程所起的作用。
                              20 杜威:《经验与自然》,傅统先译,第21-23页。
                              21 杜威:《经验与自然》,傅统先译,第7-16页。
                              22 杜威:《经验与自然》,傅统先译,第9页。
                              23 杜威原始经验与反省经验的区分来自于威廉·詹姆士知觉性经验与概念性经验的区分,杜威将其进一步系统化了,并将其分别应用于实践和认识领域中。
                              24 杜威:《经验与自然》,傅统先译,第5页。
                              25 杜威:《经验与自然》,傅统先译,第6页。
                              26 杜威:《经验与自然》,傅统先译,第6-7页。--41
                              27 梯利:《西方哲学史》(上册),葛力译,北京:商务印书馆,1975年,第20页。
                              28 罗素:《西方哲学史》,何兆武、李约瑟译,北京:商务印书馆,2007年,第36-38页。
                              29 约翰·杜威:《确定性的寻求》,傅统先译,上海:上海人民出版社,2004年,第1页。
                              30 罗素:《西方哲学史》,何兆武、李约瑟译,绪论第1页。
                              31 梯利:《西方哲学史》(上册),葛力译,第20页。
                              32 杜威:《经验与自然》,傅统先译,第28页。

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