棋牌大全下载安装

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          • 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 技术与资本和权力的关系及其思考

            技术与资本和权力的关系及其思考

            时间:2019-03-05 11:38作者:高山奎
            本文导读:这是一篇关于技术与资本和权力的关系及其思考的文章,正是有着现代国家和资本的双重助力,现代技术的发展才得以如此迅猛和肆无忌惮。人类发展离不开技术,古代社会亦然。然而,与现代社会的量(资本)的统治逻辑不同,古代技艺有着谦逊的节制,它受到善的目的、道的德性或

              摘    要: 与以往时代相比,我们身处在一个技术的时代,一个技术的意识形态弥漫横行的时代。要了解现代技术的本质及其风险,我们首先要了解技术的由所从来,而这一点与科学的古今嬗变脱不开关系。在哲人海德格尔看来,古今科学观在标准(严格性、精确性),对象(自然观)和运作方式上存在着绝然的分野。这种分野直接导致现代技术(作为订造着的解蔽)与古代技艺(自身涌现的解蔽)存在重大不同。在海德格尔看来,现代技术作为促逼的解蔽,不仅将自然作为可计算的能量之源,而且对人的自然进行促逼和订造,从而导致了现代人受到技术的宰制和霸占性主导。海德格尔的技术之思并非通常意义上的属加种差式定义方式,而是试图通过概念流转呈现实事的现身方式。不过,应该看到,海德格尔的追问限囿在形而上学层面,缺少必要的政治哲学和资本分析的眼光。借助现代国家、资本和现代技术复杂关联的分析,我们可以更好地理解现代技术的发生及其可能风险,这为我们的自我救渡提供了必要的思之准备。

              关键词: 技术; 海德格尔; 科学; 解蔽; 权力; 资本;

              Abstract: In this age of technology,the correct understanding of the nature and risks of modern technology relies on the understanding of the origin of technology which is closely related to the historical development of science. This paper argues that according to Heidegger,scientific views between the ancient and the modern have a clear distinction among assessment criteria,research objects,and modes of operation. This division directly leads to a significant difference between modern technology and ancient technique. In Heidegger's view,modern technology as a demasking of order not only takes nature as a calculable source of energy,but also promotes and customizes human nature,which has resulted in the fact that modern people are dominated by technology. Heidegger's thinking on technique is not a definition of genus plus species difference,but an attempt to present the actual situation through etymological analysis. However,it should be seen that this Heidegger's thought is limited to the field of metaphysics and lacks the necessary analysis of political philosophy and capital critique. With the analysis of the complex correlation among modern countries,capital and modern technology,we can better understand the origin and risks of modern technology,which provides the necessary preparations for our self-salvation.

              Keyword: 棋牌大全下载安装technology; Heidegger; science; demasking; power; capital;

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              一、科技观的古今嬗变

              显而易见,技术在现时代的狂飙突进和全面宰制是以科学的不断突破作为前提,准确地讲,是以对古代科技观的抛弃和决裂作为前提。因此,要想了解技术的本质含义及其具体支配方式,就需要对科技观的古今嬗变有所了解。概括地讲,古今科技观的根本分期主要体现在标准(是否具有严格性、精确性)、自然观(主客交互VS主客分立的对象化)和运作方式(个体性沉思VS企业化的组织方式)三个层面。
             

            技术与资本和权力的关系及其思考
             

              1. 严格性问题。

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              2. 自然观的差异。

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              3. 沉思的个体性VS企业化的运行方式。

            棋牌大全下载安装   GUJINKEXUEGUANDEDISANDIANQUBIEBIAOXIANZAIYUNXINGFANGSHISHANG:GUDAIKEXUEDEYUNZUOFANGSHIGENGDUOBIAOXIANWEIZHIMIANSHISHIBENSHENDEGETIXINGCHENSI,ERXIANDAIKEXUEYUELAIYUEBIAOXIANCHUKEXUEYANJIUDEQIYEHUODONGTEDIAN。18SUOWEIYANJIUDEQIYEHUODONG,SHIZHIYIMENKEXUE,“WULUNSHIYIMENZIRANKEXUEHAISHIYIMENJINGSHENKEXUE,ZHISHIDANGTAJINTIANYIJINGCHENGWEINENGJINXINGXUEYUANYANJIUDEKEXUE,TACAIHUODELEYIMENKEXUEDEZHENZHENGYANGMAO。”19LIRU,WULIXUEYANJIU,RUJINXINGYUANZILIEBIAN,XUYAOZAIZHUANGYOUJINGQUEJIXIEZHUANGZHIDESHIYANSHINEIJINXING;TONGYANGDE,LISHIXUEYANJIUZHONG,SHILIAOKUCUNDEZUOYONGBIANDEYUJIAZHONGYAO,“YIZHONGYIYANJIUSUOFANGSHIHUODONGDELISHIXUEHUOKAOGUXUEDEYANJIU,BENZHISHANGBITAZIJIDEHAICHUYUDANCHUNBOXUEZHONGDEJINGSHENKEXUEYUANXILIDEXUEKE,GENGJIEJINYUXIANGYINGDIJIANLIQILAIDEWULIXUEYANJIU。”20ZHEIZHONGXIANDAIKEXUEQIYEYANJIUDETEDIANSHIDEDAXUEJIAOYUYUELAIYUEXIANGYIGEGONGCHANG,CONGZHAOSHENGRUXUE、DAOKETANGJIAOXUE、XUEFENHUOQU、XUELIJINJIE、BAGUWENSHILUNWENXIEZUO,DOUBIAOXIANCHUGAODUCHENGSHIHUADEQIANPIANYILV。GONGCHANGHUADEJISHIZHONGBIAO,PILIANGHUADEJIAOXUEHEKAOPINGFANGSHI,QIYEHUADEBIAOZHUNHUACHENGXUXUNLIAN,SHIDEJINGGUOJIAOYUHEWEIJINGGUOJIAOYUDELIANGGEQUNTIJUERANERFEN。WOMENZAIYEBUHUIXIANGXINMEIYOUJINGGUOXUEXIAOJIAOYUDEZIXUECHENGCAIDOUKEYICHENGWEIKEXUEJIA、ZHEXUEJIA,JINGUANTAMENYOUZHEZHENZHENGDEWENTIYISHIHENONGHOUDEQIUZHENYISHI,QUEBEIGUANYIMINZHE(YIQUBIEYUXUEYUANPAIZHEREN)、MINKEDEBIAOQIAN,QISIXIANGYANLUNYEBEIBIANCHUZAIDAIYOUXINGHUADEGONGGONGTAOLUN(TONGGUOHUIYIHEQIKANFABIAO)ZHIWAI。

            棋牌大全下载安装   KEJIAN,KEXUEYANJIUDEQIYEHUODONGTEDIANDAOZHILEKEXUEYANJIUDEZHIDUHUAHEZHUANYEHUA,“YINWEISUOYOUDEYANJIUDOUBIXUYIGUANCEDUIXIANGWEIZHONGXIN,ERGUANCEDUIXIANGZEDUISUOYOUGUANXINTADERENGONGKAI。YUSHI,YANJIUJIUBIANCHENGLEYIZHONGTUANDUIHEZUOHUOLIANHEXINGDONG”。KEXUECHENGLEZHUANZHIHUODONG,CHENGLERENHEDIFANGKEYIJIAOLIU、KONGZHIHEBIJIAODEJITIHUODONG,ERFEI“ZHENZHENGWEIDADEGUDUTIANCAIDEZHIJUE”HESIKAO。YIDANKEXUEBIANCHENGLEWEIJIAOLIUERCUNZAIDEGONGGONGSHICHANG,FABIAODEXINGZHIYEJIUSUIZHIERBIAN:TABUZAISHICHUANDADONGJIAN、ZHANSHIZHENZHIDESIXIANGSHIJIAN,ERCHENGLEMOUZHONGQUEDINGSHENFEN、BIAOMINGDIWEIDEGONGGONGPINGTAI,FABIAOCHONGBAISUIZHIERZHI。21DUIYUSHANGSHUQINGKUANG,HAIDEGEERYOUYIDUANJINGDANGDEBIAOSHU:“KEXUEDEXIANDAIDEQIYEHUODONGTEXINGDEJUEDINGXINGZHANKAIYEZAOJIULELINGYILEIREN。XUEZHEXIAOSHILE,TAMENBEIBUDUANCONGSHIYANJIUHUODONGDEYANJIUZHEQUERDAIZHI。SHIYANJIUHUODONG,ERBUSHIPEIYANGGUANGBOXUESHI,JITADEGONGZUOYIXINXIANKONGQI。YANJIUZHEJIALIBUXUYAOTUSHUGUAN。TAFANZHENGBUDUANZAITUZHONG,TAZAIHUIYISHANGCUOSHANGHELEJIEQINGKUANG。TASHOUZHIYUCHUBANSHANGDEDINGHUO。CHUBANSHANGXIANZAIYEYIDAOLAIJUEDINGRENMENBIXULAIXIENAYIXIESHU。”22

              ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,GUJINKEXUEZHIJIANCUNZAIZHEZHONGYAODEFENYE:QIANZHEJIANGZIRANDEZIXINGJIEBIYUGETIDEJUEZHIYISHIYIDEFANGSHIJIAYILIANJIE;HOUZHEYISHIYANHUOSHUXUEDEFANGSHIJIANGZIRANBIANCHENGYIGEFENGBIDEXITONG,YIKEJISUAN、KEZHANGKONGDEFANGSHIJIANGZIRANWUBAIZHIDAOZUOWEIZHUTIDERENMIANQIAN,CONGERSHIQIYANJIUDEMEIYIJINCHENGDOUDAIYOUYANGEXINGHEZHUNQUEXINGDETEDIAN。QIANZHEJIANGZIRANSHIWEIBUDUANYONGXIAN、ZIXINGKAIQIDECUNZAIZHE,JIANGRENLIJIEWEIZIRANCHANGKAIZISHENDEBEIDONGJIESHOUFANGHUOJIANZHENGZHE;HOUZHEJIANGZIRANLIJIEWEIDUIXIANGYIYISHANGDECUNZAIZHE,ERRENZUOWEIZHUTIHUODELEDUIZIRANCUNZAIZHEDECHIDUHEZHONGXINDIWEI。QIANZHEYIGETIXINGDECHENSI、CHUANGZAOXINGDEZHUIWENBIJINZIRANBENSHEN,LIGUANZIRANZHIXIANG,JIUWENBIANHUAZHIYIN;HOUZHEYIQIYEHUODONGDEFANGSHIJIANGKEXUEBIANCHENGYIZHONGXIANGMUYANJIU,GONGGONGSHICHANGHEZHUANYEHUADEJITIGANCHANGHUODONG。ZHENGSHIYOUYUBIAOZHUNSHANGDEYANGEXING,ZIRANGUANSHANGDEDUIXIANGXINGHEYUNZUOFANGSHISHANGDEQIYETEDIAN,FUYUXIANDAIYITEYOUBENZHI:SHIJIEBIANCHENGLETUXIANG(SHIJIEGUAN),ERRENCHENGLEZHUTI(RENLEIZHONGXINZHUYI),ERKEXUEBIANXIANZHIZAIJISHUYINGYONGDEJINGQUELINGYUZHINEI,KEXUE(QIUZHEN)—JISHU(YINGYONG)DELIANYINBIANDEYUJIAJINMI。YOULESHANGSHUDUIKEJIGUANGUJINSHANBIANDEYUANTOUXINGQINGLI,XIAMIANWOMENZAIDUIJISHUDEBENZHIJIAYIGOULEHEMIAOSHU。

              二、现代技术的本质界说

              SHANGMIAN,WOMENCONGCUNZAILUN(XINGERSHANGXUE)DESHIJIAOFENBIANLEGUJINKEXUEGUANZHIJIANDEGENBENFENQI,ZHEIWEIFUQUJISHUZHIBENZHIDESHENMIMIANSHATIGONGLEKENENG。KEXUEHEJISHUCUNZAIHEZHONGGUANLIAN?ZAIGUDAIZHERENNEILI,LIANGZHESIHUMEIYOUSHENMEGUANXI:23KEXUEGUANQIEBUBIANLINGYU,“BUBIAN”JIAOZHI“KEBIAN”GENGJIASHENSHENG,YINCI,YOUXIANZHIRENDUIBUBIANLINGYUDECHENSI,JIUSHIQUJINSHENDEXINGDONG,CIWEI“GUANSHENZHEDESHENGHUOFANGSHI”;ERJISHUSHIYIZHONGCHUANGZHIHUODONG,TASHOUMUDEYINDEQUSHI,TOUSHENYUMOUZHONGTEDINGMUBIAODEXINGDONGHUOSHENGCHAN,GUKECHENGZHIWEI“SHIJIANDESHENGHUOFANGSHI”。DUIYUGUXILARENLAISHUO,GUANSHENZHEDESHENGHUOFANGSHISHI“RENLEICIZAIDEWANSHANZHUANGTAI”,YINERJIAOZHIXINGDONGDE、SHIJIANDESHENGHUOFANGSHIERYAN,SHIKECHANGDAODE、GENGGAODESHENGHUOFANGSHI。24

            棋牌大全下载安装   RANER,XIANDAIRENDEQUWEIYIRANFASHENGLEZHUANHUAN,WOMENBUZAIREZHONGGETIXINGDEYANGWANGXINGKONG,ZHUANERTOUSHENYUSHIJIANDESHENGHUOFANGSHIDANGZHONG,ZHEIYANG,KEXUEYUJISHUZHIJIANDEGUANLIANJIUBIANDEYOUWEIJINMI。RANER,ZHEIJIUJINGSHIYIZHONGSHENMEYANGDEGUANXI?QUEMOZHONGYISHI。GENJULISHIXUEDEKANFA,XIANDAIJISHUYAOBIGUOWANGJIYIGENGJIAYANGLAI“XIANDAIJINGMIDEZIRANKEXUE”,HUOZHEFANGUOLAISHUO,“ZUOWEISHIYANKEXUE,XIANDAIWULIXUEYILAIJISHUZHUANGZHI,YILAIJISHUZHUANGBEIDEJINBU”25。ANZHAOSHISHIDEFASHENGSHUNXU,SHUXUEZIRANKEXUE(FADUANYU17SHIJICHU)ZAOYUXIANDAIJISHU(CHANSHENGYU18SHIJIHOUBANYE)JINLIANGGESHIJI,ERXIANDAIWULIXUEDEZIRANGUANWEI“XIANDAIJISHUDEBENZHIZHANKAIPUPINGLEDAOLU”。26NEIME,SHUOXIANDAIKEXUEDEFASHENGZAIXIAN、BINGWEIXIANDAIJISHUDECHUXIANZHUNBEILETIAOJIAN、TIGONGLEZHULI,JIUWUKEHOUFEI。RANER,HAIDEGEERQUEBUZHEIYANGKAN。DUITAERYAN,“CONGLISHINIANDAIXUEJIAODUSHIZHIHOUCHUDEXIANDAIJISHU,CONGQIZHIPEIZUOYONGDEBENZHILAIKAN,QUESHISHIJIANSHANG(historically)ZAIXIANDECUNZAI。”27ZHEIJIUXIANGYIKEXIANGSHU,SUIRANTASHIYOUXIANGSHUZHONGZIZAISHIYIDETIAOJIANXIAYIDIANDIANSHENGZHANGFAYUERLAI,DANZHIPEIXINGDEZHUDAOYINSU(ZHANGCHENGXIANGSHU),QUEZAIXIANGSHUZHONGZIKAISHIYUNYUSHENGZHANGZHIQIANBIANZUOWEIZHIPEIXINGDEMUDEYINXIANZAIDIZAICHANGLE,ERJISHUJIUSHIZHEIZHONGHOUZHIDEXIANZAIZHIPEIYINSU。JIAOZHIXIANDAIKEXUE,XIANDAIJISHUCAISHIZHENZHENGSHIJIANZAIXIANDEDONGXI。ZHEIZHONGMINGXIANDAIYOUNONGHOUYALISHIDUODESECAIDESHIJIANZAIXIANLILUNNENGFOUTONGDAHAIDEGEERDEKE—JIGUANXILILUN,28ZHEIYAOZAIKUOQINGHAIDEGEERDEJISHUZHIBENZHIDEHANYIZHIHOUCAINENGZHIXIAO。

            棋牌大全下载安装   GAIKUODIJIANG,HAIDEGEERYONGGONGJU—JIEBI—DINGZAO—JIZHISIGEGUANJIANCILAIJIESHIJISHUDEBENZHISHUXING,CONGERWEIWOMENTIGONGLERUXIASIZUGUANYUJISHUZHIBENZHIDELIJIE。

              SHOUXIAN,JISHUSHIYIZHONGDACHENGMOUYIMUDEDESHOUDUANHERENDEXINGWEI,HAIDEGEERJIANGQICHENGZHIWEI“GONGJULUNDEHUORENLEIXUEDEJISHUGUIDING”。29HAOWUYIWEN,ZHEISHILIUXINGZUIGUANGDE、ZUIWEISHENRURENXINDEJISHUDINGYI。BIAOMIANSHANGKAN,ZHEIYIGUIDINGJIAZHIZHONGLI、KEGUANZHONGXING,TAYIRENMENTANLUNJISHUSHISUOKANDAODEDONGXIWEISHIDIANZHANKAI,GUKESHIWEIXIANDAIKEXUEYIYISHANGJUYOUDIANFANYIYIDE、ZHENGQUEDEJISHUDINGYI。BUGUO,HUAFENGYIZHUAN,HAIDEGEERQIANGDIAORENWEI,“DANGWOMENBAJISHUDANGZUOMOUZHONGZHONGXINGDEDONGXISHI,WOMENJIUZUIELIEDITINGRENJISHUBAIBULE”。30LIRU,DANGXIAWOMENSUOYOUDAZHEJISHUJINBUQIHAOGANDESHIQING,DOUSHIYIZAOFURENLEIHUOSHIXIANMEIHAOSHENGHUODEMINGYIJINXINGDE,ZAIXIANDAIRENKANLAI,ZHIYAOWOMENDEMUDESHIHAODE,NEIMEJISHUZUOWEISHIXIANMEIHAOMUDEDEGONGJUSHOUDUAN,DANGRANYESHIHAODE。ZHEIYANG,WOMENJIUHUIDUIJISHUDEKENENGWEIXIANFANGXIALEJIEBEIZHIXIN。ERJISHUDEFAZHANJIUXIANGXUNQIUZENGZHIDEZIBENYIYANG,PINGJIEWUHAIDEZHONGXINGDINGYI,LIYONGRENMENDUIWEILAIDEMEIHAOQIXU,YIRENLEIDEXINGWEIZUOWEIZHONGJIESHOUDUAN,YUYIFAZHANWANSHANQILAI,DENGRENMENHUITOUFAXIANMOUZHONGJISHUFAZHANSUODAILAIDEZHONGZHONGWEIHAISHI,QUEXIANGJIUSHIYAPIANDEBINGREN、NANYILIKAIJISHU(RUSHOUJI、DIANNAO)ERANRANZICHULE。YINCI,HAIDEGEERQIANGDIAO,ZHEIZHONGWOMENJINTIANTEBIEYUANYIJIENADE“GONGJULUNDEHUORENLEIXUEDEJISHUDINGYI”,QISHIBINGMEIYOUXIANGWOMENXIANMINGJISHUDEZHENZHENGBENZHI,XIANGFAN,ZHEIYI“DANCHUNGONGJUXING,DANCHUNRENLEIXUE”DEJISHUGUIDINGZHISHICHANGKAILEGUANYUJISHUDE“ZHIZUOHECAOZUO”HUOGONGJUSHIYONGDEFANGMIAN,ERZHEBILEGUANYUJISHUBENZHIDEJUEDINGXINGFANGMIAN,CONGER“SHIDEWOMENDUIJISHUDEBENZHIQUANRANMANGRANWUZHI”。31NEIME,SHENMECAISHIJISHUDEZHENZHENGBENZHINI?HAIDEGEERWEIWOMENTIGONGLEDIERGELIJIEJISHUZHIBENZHIDEGUANJIANCI———das Entbergen(JIEBI)。HAIDEGEERQIANGDIAO:DAOMUQIANWEIZHI,“DANCHUNGONGJUXING、DANCHUNRENLEIXUEDEJISHUDINGYIYIRANZHANBUZHUJIAO”,YINWEI“XIANDAIJISHUBUJINJINSHIYIZHONGRENLEIXINGWEI,YEBUZHISHIZHEIZHONGRENLEIXINGWEIFANWEINEIDEYIGEDANCHUNDESHOUDUAN”,“ERSHIYIZHONGJIEBIFANGSHI”,ERQIESHIXIANDAIJUEDINGXINGDEJIEBIFANGSHI。32NEIME,SHENMESHIJIEBI?JISHUYOUSHIHEZHONGYIYISHANGDEJIEBIFANGSHI?ZHEIJIUSHEJIRUXIAHAIDEGEERDUIJISHUZHIBENZHIDEDIERGEDINGYI。

              QICI,“JISHUSHIYIZHONGJIEBIFANGSHI,TASHIZAIJIEBIHEWUBIZHUANGTAIDEFASHENGLINGYUZHONG,ZAIWUBIJIZHENLIDEFASHENGLINGYUZHONGCHENGWEIQIBENZHIDE”。33SHENMEJIAOJIEBI?TAJISHIJIESHI、CHANGKAI,YESHIZHAOZHI、CHANCHU。TABAZAICHANGZHEDAIRUXIANLUHUOJIANGBUZAICHANGZHEDAIDAOYANQIANLAI,CONGERJIANG“NEIZHONGBINGFEIZIJICHANCHUZIJI,ERQIEYANQIANSHANGWEICUNZAIDEDONGXICHENGXIANCHULAI”34。“BINGFEIZIJICHANCHUZIJI”,SHIYINWEIJISHUCHANPINDEYUANYINBUZAIZISHEN,ERZAIZISHENZHIWAIDEREN(GONGJIANG,DONGLIYIN)ZHEILI。“YANQIANSHANGWEICUNZAI”SHIYINWEIJISHUZUOPINSHICONGWUDAOYOU,CONGTOUNAOZHONGDAIDAOXIANSHI。XUYAOZHUYIDESHI,ZHEIZHONGJISHUDEJIEBIYIHANFENGFU:BUJINBAOKUOGONGJUXINGDESHOUGONGZHIZUO,MEIDEYISHUCHUANGZUO,ERQIEYUZHENLIDESHANXIAN(RENSHI)JIAOZHIZAIYIQI。ZHENGSHIZHEIDUOZHONGDEJIEBI,ERFEIDANCHUNGONGJUXINGDEZHIZUOSHOUDUAN,SHIDEJISHUBAOCHIWEIYIZHONGCHANCHU(bringing-forth)。35WENTISHI,JISHUZUOWEIYIZHONGJIEBIFANGSHIDEGUIDINGNENGBAXIANDAIJISHUHEGUDAIJISHUQUFENKAIMA?GUDAIJIYIYESHIYIZHONGJIEBI,ERQIEJIAOZHIXIANDAIJISHU,SHIYUYISHUHEZHENLIBUCENGFENLIDEZISHENYONGXIANDEJIEBIHUODONG。YINCI,DANDANZAIJIEBIDEYIYISHANGTANLUNJISHUSIHUBUNENGJIESHIXIANDAIJISHUDEDUTEZHICHU。YAOXIANGJIESHIXIANDAIJISHUDEBENZHIHANYI,WOMENBIXUDUIJIEBIDEYIHANJIAYIXIANDING。ZAIHAIDEGEERKANLAI,ZHEIGEXIANDINGCIJIUSHIHerausfordern(CUBI):HAOWUYIWEN,“JIEBITONGZHIBINGGUANTONGZHEXIANDAIJISHU。DANZAIZHEILI,ZHEIZHONGJIEBIBINGBUBAZISHENZHANKAIYUpoiēsis(CHUANGZHI)YIYISHANGDECHANCHU。ZAIXIANDAIJISHUZHONGQIZHIPEIZUOYONGDEJIEBISHIYIZHONGCUBI。CIZHONGCUBIXIANGZIRANTICHUMANHENGYAOQIU,YAOQIUZIRANTIGONGBENSHENNENGGOUBEIKAICAIHEZHUZANGDENENGLIANG。”36JULILAISHUO,GUDAINONGMINYECONGSHITIANYEGENGZUO,DANNEISHIYIZHONGGUANXINHEZHAOLIAO,JIBA“BAZHONGZIJIAOJISHENGZHANGZHILI,SHOUHUZHEZHONGZIDEFAYU”,ERXIANZAIDEJIXIEHUANONGYESHENGCHANJIANGTIANDIDEGENGZUOZHIFANGRU“YIZHONGWANQUANBUTONGDEBAIZHIZHEZIRANDEDINGZAODEXUANWOZHONG”:NONGYEGENGZUOBIANCHENGLEJIXIEHUADESHIPINGONGYEDEYIGEHUANJIE。37SHOUHUXINGDEJINGDAIHUAKAISHIDEGUDAINONGYEYAOSHENZHUANBIANWEITIGONGYUANLIAOHEZIYUANDEXIANDAINONGYE。HAIDEGEERJIANGXIANDAIJISHUZHEIZHONG“CUBIYIYISHANGDEBAIZHIZIRAN”FUYULEYIGEXINDECHENGWEI,JIBestellen(DINGZAO),BINGYICILAIBIAOSHIXIANDAIJISHUJIAOZHIYIWANGJIYIDEDUTEXING。

            棋牌大全下载安装   DISAN,YUGUDAIJIYIZUOWEIYONGXIANZHEDEJIEBIBUTONG,XIANDAIJISHUSHIYIZHONGDINGZAOZHEDEJIEBI。ZAIZHEIZHONGDINGZAOZHEDEJIEBISHIYEXIA,YIQIEZIRANWUDOUKECHENGWEIKEDINGZAOZHIWU。LIRU,LAIYINHE,TAZUOWEIHELIUWEIFADIANCHANGTIGONGZHESHUILI,SHUILIBAIZHIZHEWOLUNJIDEYUNZHUAN,WOLUNJIDEYUNZHUANDAIDONGLEYIXIEJIQI,JIQIDEQUDONGZHUANGZHISHENGFACHUDIANLIU,ERYUANJULIDEGONGDIANCHANGHESHUSONGDIANWANGJIUSHIWEIZHEIXIEDIANLIUERDINGZAODE。ZAIZHEIYIXILIEJIAOZHIZHEDEQIANHOUGUANLIANZHIWANGZHONG,“LAIYINHEZISHENJIUBIAOXIANWEIMOUZHONGBEIDINGZAODEDONGXILE”。38ZUOWEIYITIAOHELIU,LAIYINHEYIRANLIUTANGLEJINYINIAN,RANER,ZUOWEIXIANDAIJISHUDESHUILIGONGYINGZHE,TABEILANYAOZUDUAN,CHENGWEIFADIANCHANGDEBEIDINGZAOZHE;ZUOWEIRENWENJINGGUANHEHUOZIRANFENGJINGHE,TACHENGLEXIUXIANGONGYEZHONGMOUGELVXINGTUANDEKEYUDINGDECANGUANDUIXIANG。YINCI,ZAIXIANDAIKEXUEDEZIRANGUANXIA,ZIRANBIANCHENGLEMOUZHONGCUBIYIYISHANGDEDINGZAOZHE:“ZIRANZHONGBEIZHEBIZHEDENENGLIANGBEIKAIFACHULAI,BEIKAIFADEDONGXIBEIGAIBIAN,BEIGAIBIANDEDONGXIBEIZHUZANG,BEIZHUZANGDEDONGXIBEIFENPEI,BEIFENPEIDEDONGXIBEIZHUANHUANCHENGXINDEDONGXI。KAIFA—GAIBIAN—ZHUZANG—FENPEI—ZHUANHUAN,DOUCHENGLEJIEBIDEFANGSHI……CAOKONGHEBAOZHANGCHENGWEICUBIZHEDEJIEBIDEZHUYAOTEZHENG。”39ZAIHAIDEGEERKANLAI,ZAIDINGZAOZHEDEJIEBIZHONG,ZIRANZUOWEIKEJISUANHEKECAOKONGDEBEIDINGZAOWUERXIANLUZISHEN,DINGZAOYAOQIUZHEZIRANDEZAICHANGHEBestand(CHICUN、CHIXU、ZHUCUN、KUCUN);ZAICHICUNYIYISHANGLISHENDEZIRAN,BUZAIZUOWEIZHUKERENSHISHANGDUIXIANGYUWOMENXIANGDUIERLI,ERSHIZUOWEIGONGYINGZHE、KEGAIZAOZHE、KEDINGGOUZHEYUWOMENFASHENGGUANLIAN。ZHEIJIUXIANGQINCHUCHANGCHIXUGONGYINGDEHUODAIZAIDEROUZHU、DANJIHUONAINIU,TAMENZUOWEISHENGWUDEQINGGANHUOSHEJIAOXUQIUBEICHEDIHULVE,QICUNZAIJIUSHIZUOWEISHIPINDELIANXUGONGYINGZHEERCHICUN。NEIME,ZUOWEIXIANDAIKEXUEZHONGZIRAN(KETI)DEDUILIFANG(ZHUTI),RENZAIXIANDAIJISHUZHONGDEWEIZHIYOURUHENI?ZHEIYANGDEZHUIWENJIANGWOMENYINXIANGHAIDEGEERJISHUBENZHIZHISIDEZUIHOUYIGEGUANJIANCI———das Ge-stell(JIZHI)。

              DISI,XIANDAIJISHUDEBENZHIGUIDINGXING———JIZHI。DAOMUQIANWEIZHI,WOMENDUIXIANDAIJISHUDEJIESHUOZHISHEJIWU(ZIRAN)DECENGMIAN,HAIWEISHEJIRENYUJISHUZHIJIANDEGUANLIAN。ZAIHAIDEGEERKANLAI,XIANDAIJISHUZUOWEIYIZHONGJIEBIFANGSHI,TADANGRANBUNENGTUOLIRENDEXINGWEI,RANER,ZUOWEIJIZHIDEJISHUJIEBI“BUJINJINSHIZAIRENZHIZHONGFASHENGDE,QUEYEFEIQUERANDITONGGUORENERFASHENG”。40YEJIUSHISHUO,RENHEXIANDAIJISHUDEGUANXIBAOHANLIANGGECENGMIAN:YIFANGMIAN,ZUOWEIJIEBIDEJIANZHENGRENHEZHIXINGZHE,XIANDAIJISHUXUYAOREN,YEYIKAORENLAIDACHENGQIYIZHI:“XIANDAIJISHUZUOWEIDINGZAOZHEDEJIEBI……TABAIZHIZHEREN,BISHIRENBAXIANSHIDANGZUOCHICUNWULAIDINGZAO。NEIZHONGCUBIBARENJUJIYUDINGZAOZHIZHONG。CIZHONGJUJISHIRENZHUANZHUYUBAXIANSHIDINGZAOWEICHICUNWU。”“WEIDANGRENBENSHENYIJINGSHOUDAOLECUBI,JINERQUKAICAIZIRANNENGLIANGERYAN,ZHEIZHONGDINGZAOZHEDEJIEBICAINENGJINXING。”41LINGYIFANGMIAN,XIANDAIJISHUZUOWEIYIZHONGWUBIDEJIEBI,BINGBUSHIDANCHUNDERENLEIXINGWEI,“WUBIZHEDEWUBIZHUANGTAIYIRANZIXINGFASHENGCHULAI”,“RUGUOSHUORENYIZIJIDEFANGSHIZAIWUBIZHUANGTAIFANWEINEIJIEBIZHETADEZAICHANG,NEIME,TAYEZHIBUGUOSHIYINGHEYUWUBIZHUANGTAIZHIHUSHENGERYI”。42ZHEIJIUXIANGWANYOUYINLIDINGLV,KANSINIUDUNTONGGUOZHUGUANNULIFAXIANLETA,BURUSHUOSHIGAIDINGLVJIEZHUNIUDUNZHEIYIDUTEGETIJIESHILEZISHEN,JISHINIUDUNMEIYOUFAXIANTA,ZHEIYIDINGLVRENGRANCUNZAIZHE,BINGYIZISHENDEYANGEXINGZHIPEIZHEHONGGUANSHIJIEDESHIWUYUNXING。GENGWEIZHONGYAODESHI,XIANDAIJISHUBUJINBUSHIDANCHUNDERENLEIXINGWEIHUORENLEIXINGWEIFANWEINEIDEDANCHUNSHOUDUAN,JIANYURENYOUZIRANXING(ROUSHEN)DEYIMIAN,XIANDAIJISHUYEBAIZHIZHEZUOWEIZIRANDEREN:RENZISHENSHOUDAOCUBI,CONGERCHENGLE“RENLIZIYUAN”“KEHUZIYUAN”ZHILEIDEBEIDINGZAOWU。43ZHENGSHIYINWEIRENHEJISHUZHIJIANCUNZAIZHESHANGSHUDEGUANLIAN,HAIDEGEERRENWEIXIANDAIJISHUDEBENZHISHIJIZHI(Gestell)。SUOWEIJIZHI,JIUSHIBAIZHI(stellen)DEJUJI(QIANZHUIGe-YIWEIZHEJUJI)。ZHEIYIMINGMINGJIANGZUOWEIJIEBIZHEDECIZAI(REN)HEZUOWEINENGLIANGDEZHUYAOZHUBEIQIDEZIRANTONGSHIHANKUOZAINEI,CHONGFENCHANGKAILEXIANDAIJISHUZUOWEIXINGXINGSESEDEBAIZHIHUODONGDEJUJIZHE,RUHECUBIZHEREN,JIANGRENJUJIYUDINGZAOZHIZHONG,“SHIZHIQUDINGZAOZUOWEICHICUNWUDEZIXINGJIEBIZHEDEYAOQIU”。44

              ZONGSHANG,HAIDEGEERCHOUSIBOJIANDIWEIWOMENCHANGKAILETAGUANYUJISHUBENZHIDEJIBENKANFA。ZHEIZHONGCHANGKAICONGWOMENSUOSHUZHIDEGUANYUJISHUDELIUSUZHIJIANCHUFA,JICONGZUOWEIGONGJUHERENLEIXINGWEIDEJISHUGUIDINGCHUFA,ZHUANHUANDAOZUOWEIJIEBIFANGSHIDEJISHULIJIE,TONGGUOBAIZHI,CUBI、DINGZAO、CHICUNDENGYIXILIECIYUDEYINRU,ZUIZHONGJIANGXIANDAIJISHUDEBENZHIYUDINGZAODEJIEBI、BAIZHIDEJUJI(JIZHI)DENGHANYIGUANLIANQILAI,WEIWOMENCHENGXIANLETAGUANYUXIANDAIJISHUZHIBENZHIDEDUTELIJIE。XIANERYIJIAN,HAIDEGEERDEJISHUDINGYI,BUSHIYUNYONGTONGCHANGDESHU+ZHONGCHAFANGSHIJINXINGDE,TABUSHIZAIMOUWUSHISHENME(was)ZHILEIDEZHONGLEIHUOBENZHIDEPUBIANXINGYIYISHANGWEIWOMENTIGONGGUANYUJISHUDEBENZHIJIEDU。XIANGFAN,TASHICONGCIYUANXUEJIAODUCHUFA,TONGGUOGAINIANZHILIUDECIDIJIEYIN,WEIWOMENJIESHIGAINIANLIUZHUANBEIHOUDESHISHIXIANSHENFANGSHI。GENGWEIZHONGYAODESHI,DANGHAIDEGEERYIXIANXIANGXUEDEFANGSHIJIANGXIANDAIJISHUJIEYINWEIJIZHIZHEIYIMINGYUNBANDEJIEBIFANGSHISHI,TAYETONGSHIXIANGWOMENZHAOSHILEZHEIYIJIEBIFANGSHIKENENGDAILAIDEFENGXIAN。ZHEIZHONGFENGXIANZAIYU:TARANGRENCHANSHENGYIZHONGHUORENDEJIAXIANG,JIJIANGRENSHIWEIZHOUZAOYIQIESHIWUDEZHIZUOZHE、ZHICHENGZHEHEJUJIZHE(JIZHUTI),SHIZIRANWANWUDECAOKONGZHEHEZHIPEIZHE(ZHUREN),YUCIXIANGYING,ZIRANJIUBIANCHENGLEKEJISUANHEKECAOKONGDENENGLIANGZHIYUANHELIDEJIHE。YIDANWOMENJIANGXIANDAIJISHUDEJIZHISHIWEIWEIYIDE、MINGYUNXINGDEJIEBIFANGSHI,NEIME,DINGZAOZHIBUKEZUDANGBIANSUIZHIERLAI,QITAKENENGDEJIEBIFANGSHIBIANZAODAOLECHIDUOHEZHEBI。ZHENGSHIZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANG,HAIDEGEERQIANGDIAO:YIDAN“JIZHIDUODUOBIRENDIBARENLACHEDAOBEIRENWEISHIWEIYIDEJIEBIFANGSHIDEDINGZAOZHIZHONG,NEIME,RENYEJIUBEITUIRUXISHENGQIZIYOUBENZHIDEWEIXIANZHIZHONGLE”45。YIHANDESHI,HAIDEGEERKANDAOLEFENGXIAN,QUEMEIYOUTIGONGJIEJUEFANGAN。TADEJISHUZHISITIGONGDEBINANZHISUOSIHUSHIYISHUDESHIXINGJIAYUAN,DANZAIYISHUPINBEIJISHUPUBIANZHIPEI、CAOKONGHEDINGGOUDEBEIJINGXIA,WOMENSIHUNANYIXIANGHAIDEGEERNEIYANGTONGGUOFANFUYINSHUHEERDELINDESHIJU———“NALIYOUWEIXIAN,NALIYESHENGJIUDU”ERDEYIWEIJIE。HAIDEGEERZHEIZHONGDUIBAITUOXIANDAIJISHUJIZHIZHIDAOLUHUOFANGLVEDE“TAIRANCHUZHI”,JIUJINGSHISHISHIDEBENXINGSHIRAN,HAISHISIZHEDEWULISUOZHI?ZHEIYIFAWENSHIBIJIANGWOMENYINXIANGDUIHAIDEGEERJISHUZHUIWENZHIXIANDUDEKAOCHA。

              三、技术—解蔽之维的限度反思

            棋牌大全下载安装   WUYONGZHIYI,HAIDEGEERDEJISHUZHISIBAOHANHENDUODERUIZHIDONGJIAN。BIRU,TABITONGSHIDAIDEZHERENGENGZAODIYISHIDAOJISHUSHIXIANDAIDEYIGEGENBENXIANXIANG,SHIXIJUANQUANQIUDEZHONGYAODEZHIPEIXINGLILIANG。HAIDEGEERSHENKEDIDONGCHADAOJISHUDUIRENSUOJUYOUDEYIHUA(BAIZHI)QINGXIANG。BIAOMIANSHANGKAN,JISHUWEIRENSUOYONG,YOULIYURENDEROUSHENANDUN,LAJINLERENYURENZHIJIANDESHIKONGJULI,DANRENYIDANYUJISHUZHANSHANGGUAGE,JIUWUKEJIUYAODISHOUDAOJISHUZHIPEIXINGDEZAIZHI。ZHEIJIUXIANGZHINENGSHOUJI,KANSIFANGBIANLERENYURENZHIJIANDEXINXIGOUTONG,DANYEBAZHANLERENDEZHUYILI,DIAOKUAILERENDESHIJIANJIEZOU,JIANGWUSHURENLUNWEIWANGLUOXINXIDEBANYUNGONG,SHIRENMENDANNIYUXUJIAHUANXIANGHEKUAICANWENHUADEKUAISHIGANSHOUZHONG。HAIDEGEERGAOJIEWOMEN,JISHUJUYOUYIZHONGCHAOCHURENLIDEMINGYUNBANDEJIEBILILIANG,TACUBIZHERENQUDINGZAO,QUBAIZHIZIRAN,SHENZHIQUBAIZHIRENDEZIRAN:WOMENZIYIWEIZAIZHUIQIUSHUYUZIJIDEXINGFUSHENGHUO,QUEZUIZHONGLUNWEIJISHUZHIWANGZHONGYINDINGGOUZAICHANGDEYIGEWUZUQINGZHONGDEHUANJIE。GENGWEIZHONGYAODESHI,HAIDEGEERGAOSUWOMEN,JIEBITONGSHIYIWEIZHEZHEBI,JISHUDEJIEBIZUOWEIXIANDAITEYOUDEYIZHONGDINGZAOZHEDEJIEBIFANGSHI,QUECUBAODICHIDUOLEQITAKENENGDEJIEBIFANGSHI,RUZHIZAO(Her-stellen)DEJIEBI,YONGXIANDEJIEBI,SHIYIDEJIEBI,DENGDENG。YIDANXIANDAIJISHUBEIRENDINGWEIWEIYIDE、MINGYUNXINGDEJIEBILILIANG,NEIMEWOMENJIUDUDEKENENGHEZAI?KEYIKANCHU,HAIDEGEERHOUQIRUCIHUISEDESHIXINGDAOSHUO,JIUSHIWEILEBAITUOXIANDAIJISHUDEZHEIZHONGCUBIDE、DINGZAOXINGDEJIEBIFANGSHI,CONGERWEIRENBENZHENDEJIEBIFANGSHICHANGKAIKENENGDEFENGXI。

            棋牌大全下载安装   BUGUO,HAIDEGEERDEJISHUZHUIWEN,SHENSHENDIYOUYUXINGERSHANGXUEDECHENSIZHIZHONG,BINGMEIYOUCHAOCHUJICHUCUNZAILUNDESHIJIAOQUKAOCHAYINGXIANGXIANDAIJISHUTONGZHIDEJUTIHUANJIEHEYAOSU。DANGHAIDEGEERRUSHIZUOSHI,TAJIUWUFASHUOMING,JISHUZUOWEIYIZHONGZAIZHIXINGDELILIANGWEIHEYOURUSHENZHU,ZAIJINTIANDADAOLESIHUNANYINIZHUANDECAOKONGXINGYINGXIANG?46YAOMIBUHAIDEGEERDEZHEIYIQUEXIAN,WOMENXUYAOBAJISHUFANGDAOXIANDAIGUOJIAHEZIBENZHIJIANDEGUANLIANZHONGJIAYIKAOCHA。

              SHOUXIAN,CONGZHENGZHIZHEXUEJIAODUKAN,JISHUSHIYIZHONGpower(QUANLI),YINCI,JISHUDEWENTISHIYIGEZHENGZHIZHEXUEWENTI。HAIDEGEERMEIYOUZHUIWEN;WEISHENMEXIANDAIGUOJIAHUIRUCIREZHONGYUJISHU?WOMENZHIDAO,XIANDAIGUOJIADEBENZHIZAIYUZHUQUANWENTI,YIGEGUOJIAYAOBAOCHIZHUQUANWANZHENG、ZHUQUANJUYOUZHENGDANGXING,JIUYAOSHIXINGDUIWAIYUDI,DUINEISHUOFUJIAOYU。ERZAIZHEIMEZUOSHI,JISHUBIANSHIZUIHAOYONGDEMEIJIE。JULILAISHUO,HEJISHUDEQIANGRUODAIBIAOLEYIGEGUOJIADEJUNSHISHILI。JINGUANHEWUQIDEWEIHAIHENDA,DANMEIYOUHEWUQIBIANYIWEIZHEDUIWAIMEIYOUHUAYUQUAN,SHENZHIDAOZHIRENRENQILING、GUOJIANGBUBAODEXIACHANG。YINCI,JINGUANYULUNSHANG,GEGUOCONGRENDAOZHUYILICHANGFENFENQIANZETAGUOKAIZHANHESHIYAN,DANBEIDILIDOUBUXITOURUJUDARENLIWULIFAZHANBENGUOHEJISHU。ERZAIGUONEIFANGMIAN,HULIANWANGJISHUSHIXIANDAIGUOJIAZUIWEIREZHONGTUIDONGDEYIXIANGXIANDAIJISHU。YINWEI,ZUOWEIYIBASHUANGRENJIAN,HULIANWANGJISHURUOSHIYUNYONGDEDANG,YIFANGMIANKEYICAOKONGXINXILAIYUAN,RANGWANGLUOCHUXIANZHUQUANZHELEYUMINZHONGZHIXIAODEXINXI,PINGBINEIXIEDUIWEIHUBENGUOZHUQUANBULIDEGEZHONGBAODAO,ZHEIYANGDEJIEGUO,JIUDADAOLEKONGZHIYUQING,CAOKONGXUANMINSIXIANGDEMUDE;LINGYIFANGMIAN,HULIANWANGCHANSHENGDEDASHUJU,KEYIYONGLAIFENXIZHENGLICHUYIGERENDESHENGHUOGUIJIHESIXIANGBODONG,ZHEIYOULIYUZHUQUANZHEGENGHAODIZHIJIZHIBI、HUODEXIANFAZHIREN、PAICHUYIJIDEZHUDONGQUAN。YIBANDIJIANG,ZHIYAODUIZHENGZHITONGZHIYOULI,XIANDAIGUOJIAJIANGZHICHIFAZHANMEIYIZHONGXIANDAIJISHU。NAPAZHEIXIANGJISHUKENENGCHUJIRENLUNDEDIXIAN,SHENZHIWEIXIERENLEIDEZIWOSHENGCUN。

              DUIYUJISHUERYAN,XIANDAIGUOJIASHIZUIDADEMUHOUTUISHOU。DANXUYAOZHUYIDESHI,GUOJIAZHICHIJISHUBINGBUSHIXIANGLAIRUCI,XIANGFAN,TAYUZHENGZHIZHEXUEGUJINZHIBIANJUYOUZHEZHONGYAODEYINGUOGUANLIAN。WOMENZHIDAO,GUDAIGUOJIADUIJISHUFAZHANDEXINGQUYUANBURUXIANDAIGUOJIA。YINWEI,GUDIANZHENGZHIZHEXUECHANGDAODEXINGTONGZHI,YIHUOQIANGDIAOSHENSHENGZHIXUDEQUANWEIXING,ZAIDAOTONGDEZHIPEIXIA,ZHENGZHISHOUDAODEXINGDEYUESHU,JISHUYEDAIZHEDAODESHENCHADEJINGUZHOU。ZHISHISUIZHESHENXUEDESHIWEIHEXIANDAIZHENGZHIZHEXUEDECHUXIAN,DANGREZHONGDAOYIHEZHIXUDEWANGDAORANGWEIYUWUSUOBUYONGQIJIDEBADAO,XIANDAIGUOJIAHEXIANDAIJISHUCAIYOULELIANYINDEKENENG。BUGUO,DUIYUZHENGZHIZHEXUEDEGUJINZHIBIAN,YIJIZHEIZHONGBIANHUADUIJISHUFAZHANDEYINGXIANG,HAIDEGEERDEJISHUZHISIZHONGWEIZHIYICI。GEZHONGYUANYIN,HUOXUSHISHOUDAONICAISHANGDIZHISIDEYINGXIANG,HUOXUSHIYUANYUDUIYALISHIDUODEMUDEYINDEPAOQI,YIHUOSHIHAIDEGEERZUOWEIYIGEDIDIDAODAODEXIANDAIREN,WANQUANRENTONGYUANZIHUAGERENDEXIANDAIZHENGCHENG。GUERZAITADEBIXIA,WUJIAKEGUIDEYUANZIHUAGERENDEQINGXUHEQUBIZHISIDEDAOZHANGXIAN,ERGUDAIREZHONGDEGONGTONGTIDEQINGGANGUISHU、JIAZHIRENTONGHEZHIXUZHISIWANQUANQUESHI。WULUNRUHE,DUIXIANDAIJISHUZHIZHENGZHIMIANXIANGDECHENMOSHIHAIDEGEERJISHUZHISIDEYIGEWEIJIZHICHU,ZHEIYESHITAJISHUZHUIWENDEDIYIGEQUESHIZHISUOZAI。

              QICI,CHULEXIANDAIGUOJIA,ZIBENKEYIKANZUOXIANDAIJISHUGAOGEMENGJINDEYOUYIGEZHONGYAOTUISHOU。XIANDAISHEHUISHIZIBENYINMITONGZHIDESHEHUI。ZIBENZHIWEIZIBEN,JIUSHIYAOXUNQIULIRUNZUIDAHUAHEZISHENZENGZHI。WEILEDACHENGMUDE,TAXIANGYIGEYONGYUANBUZHIMANZUDEYOULING,YOUDANGZAIXIANDAISHEHUIGEGEFENGXI,XUNZHAOYIQIEKEYILIYONGDEZIYUAN,DADAOQIWEIDAMUDEBUZESHOUDUANDEZHUIQIU。YUCITONGSHI,JISHUYEZAIDAOCHUXUNQIUTADEZUIJIAPAIDANG,ERZHEIGEPAIDANGJIUSHIZIBEN。YINWEIJISHUDEMEIYIXIANGGEXINDOUXUYAOGAOEDETOURU,ZHEIGETOURU,YIFANGMIANLAIZIGUOJIADEZHICHI,DANYEXUYAOSHICHANGDEGONGJI。JINGUANTOUZIJISHUMIANLINZHEGAOFENGXIAN,ZHEIZHONGFENGXIANBUJINLAIZIQIANQIDEDALIANGSHIYANHEKEXUEZHUNBEI,ERQIEYOUZHESHIBAIDEKENENG。RANER,GAOTOURU、GAOFENGXIAN,TONGSHIYIWEIZHEGAOHUIBAO。YUGUOJIADEBAOSHOUBUTONG,ZIBENJIAJUYOUGENGDADEMAOXIANJINGSHEN。WEILEGAOEDEZENGZHIHUIBAO,ZIBENJIUXIANGDUTUYIYANGCHUANSUOYUGAOXINJISHULINGYU。ZHEIYANG,LIANGGERUJISIKEDEYOULINGZAIZENGZHIYUKUOZHANGYUWANGDEQUSHIXIAJINJINYONGBAOZAIYIQI,BINGZAISHICHANGJINGJIDEQUANQIUHUALANGCHAOZHONGFANYUNFUYU、ZHIZHANGQIANKUN。SHIZHIJINRI,GAOXINJISHUXINGYEYIRANZHUANBIANWEIZIBENZENGZHIDEZUIDAZHENDI。NONGYESHENGCHANGEMING、GONGYEJISHUGEMING、XINXICHANYEGEMINGWEIRENLEIDAILAILENANYIXIANGXIANGDESHANGPIN。WEILEXIAOHAODIAOZHEIXIECHANPIN,RENMENKAISHIBAMUGUANGTOUXIANGRENLEIZISHENDEYUWANG,BAIJINZHUYI、XIAOFEIZHUYIKAISHIYINGYUNERSHENG。DANGLIANGBIANCHENGLETEDINGDEZHI,SHULIANGBUJINJINBIAOSHIDAXIAODUOSHAO,GENGSHIDAIBIAOLESHANHAOHEJINBU。ZHEIZHONGGUANNIANDUIRENDETOUNAOJINXINGCIJI,ZUIZHONGDAOZHILESHULIANGHUAYUANZEHEJISHUZHUYIDECHUXIAN。YILIANGWEIZUNDEYUANZECHENGWEIBIAOZHUN,JISHUJINBUCHENGLEHAOHEZHENGQUEDEDAIMINGCI:GEZHONGSHOUSHILV,PIAOFANG、DIANJILV、PAIXINGBANG、GOUMAILI、GDP,DENGDENG,BIANCHENGLEPINGJIAYINGSHI、YINLE、YISHU、ZHENGFU、GAOXIAO,DENGDENGJIHUSUOYOULINGYUHAOHUAIDEBUERZHUNZE。ZONGERYANZHI,ZAIZIBENDEGUWUHEZHULIXIA,XIANDAIJISHUDECHUANGXINFAZHANKEWEIYIRIQIANLI。ZHEIZHONGZIBENYUJISHUKUANGBIAOTUJIN,SHENZHIBUXIDAPORENLUNDIXIANDEMORIKUANGHUANTUJING,QUESHIHAIDEGEERJISHUZHUIWENSHISUOSHILIAOWEIJIDE。

              ZONGSHANGKEJIAN,ZHENGSHIYOUZHEXIANDAIGUOJIAHEZIBENDESHUANGZHONGZHULI,XIANDAIJISHUDEFAZHANCAIDEYIRUCIXUNMENGHESIWUJIDAN。RENLEIFAZHANLIBUKAIJISHU,GUDAISHEHUIYIRAN。RANER,YUXIANDAISHEHUIDELIANG(ZIBEN)DETONGZHILUOJIBUTONG,GUDAIJIYIYOUZHEQIANXUNDEJIEZHI,TASHOUDAOSHANDEMUDE、DAODEDEXINGHUOSHENSHENGZHIXUDEGUIYUE。MIANDUIXIANDAIJISHUDEGAOGEMENGJIN,HAIDEGEERZOUXIANGSHIYIDEYISHUQUBI,XIWANGJIEZHUGETICHENSISUOKAIQIDEJUEXING,KAIJUECHURENLEIBENZHENSHENGHUODEXINDEKENENGXING。DUIYUWOMENZISHENERYAN,CHULEGETICHENSIDAILAIDEZIJINGZISHENGZHIWAI,WOMENHAIKEYICONGCHUANTONGQINQINGSHEHUILUNLIZHONGQIUQUZIYUAN,LAIWEIJISHUDEWUSUOWEIJUDAISHANGXIUZHIDEJINGSHIPAI。DANGRAN,ZHEIHUOXUBUSHIMOUGERENPINGJIEYIJIZHILIBIANNENGWANCHENGDERENWU,DANZHEILI,WOMENHAISHIYAOGANXIEHAIDEGEERDEJISHUZHISISUODAILAIDEJUYOUQISIXINGDEZHUNBEIGONGZUO。

              注释

              1海德格尔:《林中路》,孙周兴译,北京:商务印书馆,2015,第83-84页。
              2例如,20世纪50年代,海德格尔对技术反思的范例“不再是工厂和机械工程”,而是“核电站和电子工业”(参见海德格尔:《演讲与论文集》,孙周兴译,北京:生活·读书·新知三联书店,2005年,第13-14、55-57页,同时参见多罗西亚·弗雷德:《海德格尔论艺术作品与技术作品》,见《柏拉图的〈蒂迈欧〉:宇宙论、理性与政治》,北京:北京大学出版社,2014年,第163页)。不难试想,如果海德格尔活到今天仍在进行技术的反思和批判,那么,他的范例将是人工智能和生物(基因)工程。这种范例的转移,不应归于海德格尔的短视,而是因为我们身处在现代性的生发流转当中。
              3参见海德格尔1938年的一篇演讲---《形而上学对现代世界图像的奠基》,后以《世界图像的时代》的标题复收入《林中路》,孙周兴中译,北京:商务印书馆,2015年,第83-125页。
              4此处科学的提法不够准确,因为与现代的研究性科学相比,古希腊称为(知识),中世纪称为doctrina(学说),下文为了便于行文,统称古代科学。另外,现代科学也不是铁板一块,以物理学为例,既包括宏观物理学,也包括原子物理学、天体物理学,等等。这些物理学分支之间差异也很大,如古典物理学的对象是几何学上的质点力学,它充满空间,而微观物理学则指向核与场;前者可以根据位置和运动量做出明确而完整的对预测象,后者对研究对象的确保则只具有统计学上的特征。因此,这里将差别如此巨大(但本质上又都受到理论科学所实行的追踪性确保的摆置)的诸门学科统称为现代科学,只是一种论述上的方便。否则,如果深入到具体科学的细节差异的考辨之中,我们将无法在整全的意义上展开对堪性的古今科学对比论述。参见海德格尔:《林中路》,第84-85页。同时参见海德格尔:《演讲与论文集》,第40,52,55、56页
              5海德格尔:《林中路》,第85页。
              6海德格尔:《林中路》,第87、88页。
              7这里的数学不应在狭义的意义上理解,即将其理解为数字运算意义上的为了某种确定数量结果的测算活动,相反,自然科学上的数学指的是“这样一种计算,它往往通过方程式来期待秩序关系的平衡,并且因此先行‘预计到’一个对所有仅仅可能的秩序而言的基本方程式”。期待,是有所追踪、有所确保意义上的期待,预计,是有所预期的操控和测算。因此,这里的数学和测算实为对象化的行为方式。参见海德格尔:《演讲与论文集》,第53-54页。
              8海德格尔:《林中路》,第85页。
              9海德格尔:《林中路》,第99页。
              10海德格尔:《林中路》,第99页。
              11正是在这个意义上,我们才能理解柏拉图《蒂迈欧》的宇宙论表述为何包裹在《理想国》和《克里蒂亚》的政治哲学语境中展开。参见Plato,Timaeus,Translated by Benjamin Jowett,In The Collected Dialogues of Plato,Edited by Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns,New York:Bolingen Foundation,1961,pp.1151-1211.
              12“运动即位置变化。没有一种运动和运动方向优先于其他运动和运动方向。任何位置都是相同的。没有一个时间点优先于其他一个时间点。……在这一关于自然的基本轮廓中,任何事情都必然被看透了。”参见海德格尔:《林中路》,第87页。
              13海德格尔:《林中路》,2015年,第87页。
              14这里的历史学是现代历史科学,而不是经史不分意义上的古典历史。现代史学本质上是史料之学,它“把历史看作一个对象,某个事件就在其中进行,同时由于其可变性而消失”。参见海德格尔:《演讲与论文集》,第41页。
              15海德格尔:《演讲与论文集》,第53页。
              16海德格尔:《林中路》,第89-90页。
              17海德格尔:《林中路》,第90-91页。
              18海德格尔:《林中路》,第94-95页。
              19这里的现代科学主要指自然科学,人文学者群体中当然存在例外,但近年来人文学界愈加强调的学院化的体制化建设、大师加团队模式,学位点和研究方向凝练,以及项目申请和学术会议等取向,凸显了企业化运作方式在人文知识领域的渐趋增强的支配性影响。
              20海德格尔:《林中路》,第92页。
              21海德格尔:《林中路》,第93页。
              22多罗西亚·弗雷德:《海德格尔论艺术作品与技术作品》,见《柏拉图的〈蒂迈欧〉:宇宙论、理性与政治》,第159-160页。
              23海德格尔:《林中路》,第93页。
              24“沉思的理智同实践和制作没有关系。它的状态的好坏只在于它所获得的东西是真是假。”参见亚里士多德:《尼各马可伦理学》,廖申白译注,北京:商务印书馆,2003年,第168页。
              25参见亚里士多德:《尼各马可伦理学》,第165-177页。同时参见海德格尔:《演讲与论文集》,第47-48页。
              26Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),Edited by David Farrell Krell,New York,Hagerstown,San Francisco,Lodon:Harper&Row,Publishers,Inc.1977,pp.295-196.
              27在海德格尔看来,“现代物理学之所以是实验的物理学,不是因为它使用了探究自然的装置”,而是由于现代物理学的自然观:“它摆置着自然,把自然当作一个先行可计算的力之关联体来加以呈现。”正是在这样的自然观支配下,实验作为向自然不断索取的订造才得以可能,物理学才呈现为实验物理学。Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),pp.302-303.
              28Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),p.304.
              29海德格尔:《演讲与论文集》,第44页。同时参见海德格尔:《巴门尼德》,朱清华译,北京:商务印书馆,2018年,第1-2页。
              30Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),p.288.
              31Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),pp.287-288.
              32Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),pp.288,289,302,295.
              33Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),pp.302,294.同时参见海德格尔:《演讲与论文集》,第10页注释1。
              34Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),p.295.
              35Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),p.294.
              36Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),pp.294-295.
              37Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),p.296.
              38Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),p.296.
              39Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),p.297.
              40Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),pp.297-298.
              41Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),p.305.
              42Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),pp.300,299.
              43Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),p.300.
              44这境况就像一个护林人,看似与前人一样,以同样的步态行走在林间空地上,实则受到了木材加工工业的订造,不管他是否意识到这一点,“他已然被纳入纤维素的可订造性中去了。纤维素被纸张的需求所促逼,纸张则被送交给报纸和画刊。而报纸和画刊摆置着公众意见,使之去挥霍印刷品,以便能够为一种被订造的意见安排所订造”。Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),p.299.
              45参见Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),pp.300-302.
              46Martin Heidegger,Basic Writing:from Being and Time(1927)to the Task of Thinking(1964),pp.314.
              47而且作为一种筹划的世界观,海德格尔的技术批判仍然包含有某种人类中心论的因素,这在其弟子洛维特的反思性的批判中得到呈现。参见沃林:《海德格尔的弟子:阿伦特、勒维特、约纳斯和马尔库塞》,张国清、王大林译,南京:江苏教育出版社,2005年,第84页。不过,洛维特的反思或许只对早期《存在与时间》时期的海德格尔有效,这也是海德格尔从早期此在之思转向后期存在追问的重要原因。

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