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                      • 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 维特根斯坦哲学形态学思想的重构与反思

                        维特根斯坦哲学形态学思想的重构与反思

                        时间:2019-03-05 12:09作者:蒋世强
                        本文导读:这是一篇关于维特根斯坦哲学形态学思想的重构与反思的文章,维特根斯坦曾在1946年明确把自己做哲学的方式归结为形态学(Morphology),他说:“我提供的是关于表达式用法的形态学。”这意味着要真正理解后期维特根斯坦的哲学思想有必要研究他的形态学。

                          摘    要: 后期维特根斯坦曾表明他的哲学旨在提供关于表达式用法的形态学。本文分别讨论了他对歌德、布劳德、斯宾格勒的形态学的批判,进而从元哲学、哲学方法、语用显示层面重构了维特根斯坦的形态学思想。鉴于这种形态学是纯粹哲学的,理应称之为哲学形态学。而且后期维特根斯坦的哲学形态学思想对当代哲学发展也具有现实意义。

                          关键词: 元哲学; 哲学方法; 语用显示; 哲学形态学;

                          Abstract:棋牌大全下载安装 The later Wittgenstein remarks that his philosophy aims to provide the morphological idea on the use of expressions.This paper discusses his critique of Goethe,Broad,and Spengler's morphology,and reconstructs Wittgenstein's morphological ideas from metaphilosophy,philosophical methods,and pragmatic expression. Given that this morphology is purely philosophical,it should be appropriately called philosophical morphology. In addition,Wittgenstein's later philosophical idea has much practical significance for the development of contemporary philosophy.

                          Keyword:棋牌大全下载安装 metaphilosophy; philosophical method; pragmatic expression; philosophical morphology;

                          WEITEGENSITANCENGZAI1946NIANMINGQUEBAZIJIZUOZHEXUEDEFANGSHIGUIJIEWEIXINGTAIXUE(Morphology),TASHUO:“WOTIGONGDESHIGUANYUBIAODASHIYONGFADEXINGTAIXUE。”1ZHEIYIWEIZHEYAOZHENZHENGLIJIEHOUQIWEITEGENSITANDEZHEXUESIXIANGYOUBIYAOYANJIUTADEXINGTAIXUE。DANSHIWEITEGENSITANDEXINGTAIXUEHAIMEIYINQIXUEJIETAIDUODEGUANZHU,YUANYINZAIYUTADEMEICIPINGLUNZHENDUIDEDOUSHIBUTONGDEXINGTAIXUEJIA,SHEJIBUTONGDEXUEKELINGYUHELUNTI,ERQIEXIANGGUANPINGLUNYIPIPANWEIZHU,ZHENGMIANLUNSHUJIAOSHAO。WEITEGENSITANDEXINGTAIXUEYUQITAXINGTAIXUEYOUHEQUBIEHELIANXI?ZAISIXIANGYIZHIXINGSHANG,WEITEGENSITANSHIFOUYOUYIZHONGXINGTAIXUEZHEXUESIXIANG?ZHEIZHONGXINGTAIXUERUHEHUIYINGDANGDAIZHEXUEFAZHANZHONGSUOMIANLINDEXIANGGUANWENTI?ZHEIXIEWENTIDOUZHIDEYANJIU。

                          WEITEGENSITANDEXINGTAIXUEZHEXUESIXIANGJIZHONGTIXIANZAITADUIYUEHAN·GEDE(Johann Goethe)、AOSIWAERDE·SIBINGELE(Oswald Spengler)HECHALI·BULAODE(Charlie Broad)DEXINGTAIXUEDEPIPANSHANG。WEITEGENSITANCONGKEXUEYUZHEXUEDEGUANXISHANGPIPANLEGEDEDEYANSEXINGTAIXUE,CONGYUANXINGHEYUCEFANGMIANPIPANLESIBINGELEDEWENMINGXINGTAIXUE,CONGFENLEIYULEIBIFANGMIANPIPANLEBULAODEDELUNLIXINGTAIXUE。JIYUDUIZHEISANZHONGXINGTAIXUEDEPIPAN,ZAIJIEHEHOUQIWEITEGENSITANDEXIANGGUANZHEXUEPINGLUN,WOMENWANQUANYOUKENENGZHONGGOUWEITEGENSITANDEDUTEDEZHEXUEXINGTAIXUE,JINERFANSIWEITEGENSITANDEZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEZAIDANGDAIZHEXUEZHONGDEXIANSHIYIYI。

                          一、歌德、斯宾格勒和布劳德的形态学:维特根斯坦的批判

                          (一)维特根斯坦对歌德的形态学的批判:科学与哲学

                        棋牌大全下载安装   GEDEZUIZAOYANJIUXINGTAIXUE,TAYONGDEYU“Morphologie”BIAOSHISHIWUXINGTAIDEYANJIU,GEDECAIYONGDEXINGTAI“Morph-”,CONGCIYUANLAIKANBUSHILAIZIDEYU,LAIZIGUXILAYU“μορń(morphē)”,ERZAIDEYULI“XINGTAI”SHI“Gestalt”。WEITEGENSITANZAIBIAODAXINGTAIXUEDESHIHOUYOUSHIYONG“Morphologie”,YOUSHIYONG“Gestalt”HUOZHIJIEYONGGENGNENGTIXIANWEITEGENSITANZHEXUESIXIANGDE“Vielgestalt”,JIGUANYUDUOZHONGXINGTAIDEYANJIU。XINGTAIXUEYANJIUYUANZIGEDEDEZHIWUXINGTAIXUE、YANSEXINGTAIXUE,HOULAIYOUCICHANSHENGLEBUTONGDEXINGTAIXUE,RUSHENGWUXINGTAIXUE、SHUXUEXINGTAIXUE、WENHUAXINGTAIXUE、LUNLIXINGTAIXUE、WENXUEXINGTAIXUE、YISHUXINGTAIXUEDENG。

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                          歌德自以为颜色形态学完全可以击败牛顿的颜色理论,但是维特根斯坦认为歌德并不知道自己工作的性质,“在颜色理论中所讲述的大部分东西都非常混乱”。3在维特根斯坦看来,歌德的研究属于哲学研究,是一种经验反思和概念思辨,而牛顿的研究是自然科学研究,建立在精确的实验的基础上。歌德的颜色研究却反对“走进实验室,让光线穿过纸张上的裂缝”,他建议:“如果你想要看见颜色是什么,就走到户外去,在那里你可以看见天空、牧场和花朵。”4维特根斯坦还把哲学与科学的区分类比为摩托车手与摩托车公司的关系,摩托车手考虑的是在赛场上骑车的速度而摩托车公司考虑的如何制造优良的车型,他们有不同的分工。这种区别在于“哲学是沉思性的,而科学则不是。哲学关心的是指出其他的可能性,可以完成它的某种方式,即“多样态/多形态(Vielgestalt)研究。”5在这种区分下,歌德的颜色形态学是以哲学的方式做着科学的工作,这就可以理解为什么他的颜色理论不被大多数科学家理解和接受。甚至可以说,歌德的颜色形态学理论根本就不是科学理论,而是颜色的哲学现象学分析,“现象学分析是概念分析,它既不与物理学一致也不与物理学相矛盾”。6科学家注重精确的测量和自然因果关系的解释,歌德的颜色形态学本来属于一种概念考察和思辨推理却不自然地混入了对颜色研究的测量精确性要求和企图寻求一种自然因果性的解释。维特根斯坦说:“歌德的兴趣在于找到精确的语词去描述颜色。他的研究本是一种与测量的精确性不同的精确性,前者是科学家所关心的。如果他不关注(自然)因果性的话,他可能会做得更好。”7总之,歌德的形态学思想运用于哲学是合适的,运用于科学则是学科方法论上的错误,也是理智思维混乱的结果。
                         

                        维特根斯坦哲学形态学思想的重构与反思
                         

                          (二)维特根斯坦对斯宾格勒形态学的批判:原型和预测

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                          (三)维特根斯坦对布劳德形态学的批判:分类与类比

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                          二、维特根斯坦哲学形态学思想的重构

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                          (一)哲学形态学:基于一种独特的元哲学

                          WEITEGENSITANDEYUANZHEXUEZHUZHANG,ZHEXUEBUSHIGOUJIANLILUNERSHILIZHIHUODONG。TAMINGQUEBIAOMINGZHEXUE“BUHUITICHURENHEYIZHONGLILUN,WOMENDEKAOCHAYEBUSHIKEXUEKAOCHA”17。ZHEXUESHIGAINIANKAOCHAHUODONG,GAINIANJINGYOUYUYANBIAODA,GAINIANYUYANYOUBUNENGTUOLIRICHANGSHENGHUOSHIJIAN,FOUZEJIUSHI“YUYANDEKONGZHUAN”,YINERGAINIANKAOCHASHIJISHANGSHIYUFAKAOCHA,JIYUYANRUHESHIYONGDEKAOCHA。YUYANSHIYONGDEHUNLUANTIXIANLELIZHIDEBUQINGXI,“ZHEXUESHIYICHANGFANDUIWOMENDEYUYANSHOUDUANJIWOMENDELIZHISUOZAOCHENGDEZHEMOZHUANGTAIDEZHANDOU”。18WEITEGENSITANDEXINGTAIXUEZHENGSHIJIYUZHEIYIYUANZHEXUESIXIANG,TARENWEIXINGTAIXUEZHIDESHIZUOZHEXUE(doing philosophy)DE“ZHEXUEGUOCHENG(philosophical procedure)”,19YIJIXINGTAIXUEBINGFEILILUNERSHIZHEXUEHUODONG。ERZHIWUXINGTAIXUEDENGQITAKEXUEXINGTAIXUESHISHIYANKAOCHAHELILUNJIANGOU,YUWEITEGENSITANDEZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEYOUZHEGENBENDEQUBIE。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   WULUNSHIGEDEHAISHISIBINGELE,YIHUOSHIBULAODEDEXINGTAIXUEZAIZHEXUEHEKEXUEDEQUBIESHANGDOUSHIHUNLUANDE,ZHEIZHONGHUNLUANGUIGENDAODISHIBUMINGBAIXINGTAIXUESHIGAINIANKAOCHA,GAINIANKAOCHAYUWOMENYUYANDESHIYONGYOUGUANXI,YEYUWOMENDELIZHISIWEIYOUGUANXI。KEXUEKAOCHAJIANLIZAISHIYANDEJICHUSHANG,JIYUJINGYANSHUJUDEGUINADECHUJIELUN,ZAIJINXINGLILUNTIXIGOUZAOYIJIESHIXIANXIANG。XIANXIANGZETIXIANWEICUOZONGFUZADEXINGTAI,XINGTAIBIAOXIANWEIBUTONGDEGUANXI,XINGTAIXUEJINKENENGDIRANGZHEIXIEBUTONGGUANXIDEDAOQINGXIXIANSHI,ZHEISHIYIBANXINGTAIXUEDEGONGZUO。RUGUOXIANSHIDESHIGAINIANDEGUANXIJIUSHISHUYUZHEXUEXINGTAIXUE。TIXIHUADELILUNGONGZUOHEZIRANYINGUOGUANXIDEJIESHIKEYIWEIKEXUEGONGZUODAILAIYICHU,DANSHITIXIHUADELILUNHEZIRANYINGUOJIESHIDEKEXUEXINGTAIXUEZONGCUNZAIQITADEKENENGXING,LILUNHUOJIESHIFANSHIZONGYOUBEIDAPODESHIHOU,WEITEGENSITANRENWEIZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEDEGONGZUOJIUSHIXUNQIUQITAKENENGXING,ERQIEXUYAOCONGYUYANBIAODARUSHOU,TAMINGQUESHUOZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEZHIZAIZHICHU“ZHUZHONGNIBUCENGMENGXIANGDAODEYONGFA。ZAIZHEXUEZHONG,RENMENZONGSHIBEIPOYONGMOUZHONGTEDINGDEFANGSHIKANDAIYIGEGAINIAN,WOSUOZUODESHI,JIANYISHENHUOCHUANGZAOQITADEKANDAIFANGSHI,WOJIANYIQITAZHIQIANNIMENMEIYOUXIANGDAODEQITAKENENGXING。NIRENWEIZHIYOUYIZHONGKENENGXINGHUODINGDUOLIANGZHONGKENENGXING。DANSHIWORANGNIXIANGDAOQITADE。JINYIBUJIANG,WORANGNIMENKANDAOXIWANGYIGEGAINIANYUXIAAIDEKENENGXIANGYIZHISHIHUANGTANGDE。ZHEIYANG,NIDEJINGSHENJINGLUANXIAOCHULE,JIUHUIZIYOUDIHUANSHIYIGEBIAODASHISHIYONGLINGYUDEZHOUWEI,BINGMIAOSHUTADEBUTONGZHONGLEIDEYONGFA”。20YINCI,WEITEGENSITANDEZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEBUXIANYUYIGEFENGBIDETIXIZHONG,ZAIYUBUDUANTANJIUGEZHONGKENENGXING,TEBIESHIGAINIANJIANLIANXIDEGEZHONGKENENGXING,ZHEIZHONGXINGTAIXUEGENGDUODESHILIZHIHUODONGERFEILILUNTIXI。

                          (二)哲学形态学作为哲学方法:哲学描述

                          ZAIWEITEGENSITANKANLAI,ZHEXUEXINGTAIXUESIXIANGZUIZHONGYAODESHIZHEXUEYINGYOUDEFANGFA,YIZHONGYUJIESHIDEFANGFAXIANGDUIZHAODEZHEXUEFANGFA,JIMIAOSHU。ZHEILIDEJIESHIYUMIAOSHUDOUSHIZHEXUESHANGDE,BINGFEIRICHANGDESHUOFA。YOUYUWEITEGENSITANSUOZHONGSHIDEMIAOSHUSHICHUNCUIZHEXUESHANGDE,BENWENTEBIECHENGZHIWEIZHEXUEMIAOSHU。ZHEXUEMIAOSHUSHOUXIANTONGGUOGEZHONGXINGTAIBIJIAOHEFENLEIDEFANGFA(WEITEGENSITANTIDAODEPAILIEHUOZHENGLIDEFANGFAYEKEKANZUOCILEI)JINERTONGGUO“ZONGGUANBIAOXIAN”,DADAODUIZHEXUEGAINIANDEQINGXIRENSHI。

                          GEDE、SIBINGELEHEBULAODECAIYONGDEGEZHONGXINGTAIBIJIAOHEFENLEIFANGFADECUOWUBUZAIYUFANGFABENSHENERZAIYUBIJIAOHEFENLEIDEJIANHUA、JIANGHUA,SHENZHIDAOZHICUOWUDELEIBI。BIJIAOHEFENLEIWANQUANKEYISHIZHEXUESHANGSHIYIDEJUTICAOZUOFANGFA,JISHUYUZHEXUEMIAOSHUDEGENGJUTIDEFANGFA。ZAIWEITEGENSITANKANLAI,ZHEXUEMIAOSHUXUYAOFENLEI,DANZHEIZHONGFENLEIGENGDUODESHIBUDUANLIEJUHUOLIEBIAO、FANFUMIAOSHU。LIRUYUYANYOUXIYUANZESHANGYOUWUXIANDUO,JIUXUYAOWUSHUDUODEMIAOSHU,TADEMIAOSHUFAZHIYIJIUSHILIEJU,“XIADAYIGEMINGLING,ZUOYICIBAOGAO,BAODAOYIGESHIJIAN,QINGQIU、GANXIE、MANMA、WENHOU、QIDAO”DENGDENGDOUSHIMIAOSHU。21ZHEXUEJIAKEYIFENLEI、YEKEYIBIJIAO,DANSHIDUIXINGTAIDEMIAOSHUBUNENGXIANDINGMOUYIZHONGFENLEILEIXINGHEBIAOZHUN。BIJIAO、PAILIEZAIYUKANDAOBICIZHIJIANDELIANXI。RUGUOJINYIBUCONGGAINIANSHANGQINGXIDIZHANSHIZHEIZHONGGUANXI,JIUSHICAIYONGLEZONGGUANBIAOXIANDEZHEXUEMIAOSHU。YUANXINGHUOGUILVYUYUCEDESHIYONGZAIZHEXUESHANGQIAQIASHIFANZHEXUEMIAOSHUDE,YINWEIZHEXUEMIAOSHUSHIKAIFANGDE,BINGBUYUSHEQIANTIHEDECHUWEIYIQUEDINGDEJIEGUO。CONGQIANYIJIEYEBUNANKANCHU,WEITEGENSITANFANDUISIBINGELEBAYUANXINGHUOGUILVYUYUCEDENGSHOUDUANDANGZUOXINGTAIXUEDEJUTIFANGFA,ZHENGSHIFANXIANGDIBIAOMINGTADEZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEZUOWEIZHEXUEFANGFAZHUYAOSHIYIZHEXUEMIAOSHUDEXINGSHI。

                          DANGRAN,TONGGUOZHEXUEMIAOSHUHAIYAOTONGGUO“ZONGGUANBIAOXIAN”CAINENGXINGCHENGZHEXUERENSHI。“ZHEXUEMIAOSHU”YU“ZONGGUANBIAOXIAN”ZAIWEITEGENSITANDESHIYONGSHANGSHIXIANGHUHUYINGDE,SHIZHEXUEFANGFADEBUTONGCEZHONGDEBIAODAERYI。ZHEXUEMIAOSHUJIUSHIRANGGEZHONGXINGTAIZHIJIANDEGUANXIDEYIXIANXIAN,“ZONGGUANBIAOXIAN”SHI“KANDAOSHIWUJIANDEGUANXI”,WEITEGENSITANYEMINGQUEDISHUO,“ZHEXUEFANGFA:ZONGGUANBIAOXIAN”。22“ZONGGUANBIAOXIAN”ZHENGSHIZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEZUOWEIZHEXUEFANGFADEYIZHONGTIXIAN。HAKEHEBEIKE(Baker&Hacker)YEKANDAOLE“ZONGGUANBIAOXIAN”YUXINGTAIXUEDEGUANLIAN,RENWEI,“WEITEGENSITANDE‘ZONGGUANBIAOXIAN’SHISHUYUGEDECHUANTONGHESIBINGELESHENGZANDEXINGTAIXUEFANGFA”23。HAKEHEBEIKEXUYAOJINYIBUZHICHUWEITEGENSITANDE“ZONGGUANBIAOXIAN”SHICHUNCUIZHEXUEDE,JIGAINIANKAOCHAYIYISHANGDE,YUSHENGWUHUOWENHUAZUOWEIKEXUEKAOCHADUIXIANGDEXINGTAIXUEFANGFASHIBUTONGDE,ERQIE“ZONGGUANBIAOXIAN”ZUOWEIZHEXUEFANGFAZHISHIZHEXUEMIAOSHUDELINGYIZHONGXINGSHI,BINGFEIZHEXUEFANGFADEQUANBU。“ZONGGUANBIAOXIAN”DACHENGDESHIGAINIANXINGTAIDEQINGXI,SHIDE“BUMINGXIANDEHUSHUOJIUXIANSHIWEIMINGXIANDEHUSHUO”。24

                          (三)哲学形态学基于语言哲学:语用显示的方式

                          WEITEGENSITANDEZHEXUEXINGTAIXUETIXIANDESHIYUYANZHEXUESIXIANG,CAIYONGDESHIYUYONGXIANSHIDEFANGSHI。WEITEGENSITANRENWEITADE“XINGTAIXUESHIBIAODADEYONGFADEYANJIU”,25MINGQUEDIJIANG,SHIYUYANBIAODAYONGFADEYANJIU,ZHEIYESHIZHENGGEHOUQIWEITEGENSITANYIYIGUANZHIDESHUOFA。ZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANGJIANG,WEITEGENSITANDEZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEYANJIUXUYAOYIYUYANZHEXUEWEIJISHI。ERCONGYUYANZHEXUEKAN,ZHEXUEXINGTAIXUERUHEYANJIUYUYANBIAODADESHIYONG(YUYONG)NI?YUYONGXIANSHIZESHIWEITEGENSITANZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEDEDUTEZHICHU。YUYONGXIANSHISHIDUIBENZHIZHUYIZHUIQIUHELILUNGOUJIANDEJUCHI,SHIDUIYUYANDERICHANGXING、DONGTAIXINGHEJIAOLIUXINGDEZHONGSHI。ZAICHUANTONGXINGERSHANGXUEZHONG,ZHEXUEJIAMENSHIZHONGXIANGXUNZHAOQUEDINGDE、JICHUXINGDEDONGXIHESHIWUDEBENZHI,DANSHIHOUQIDEWEITEGENSITANRENWEI,“DANGNISHIYONGYUJUSHI,NIDANGRANSHIKANDAOLEDE,WUWUYINZANG”,26BINGMEIYOUYINZANGDEBENZHIHEZHONGJIDEJICHU。ERYUYONGXIANSHIZEWUWUYINZANG,JUTILIJIERUXIA:

                          SHOUXIAN,ZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEZAIRICHANGYUYANDESHIYONGZHONGXIANSHIYOUYIYI(sense)DESHIYONGHAISHIWUYIYI(nonsense)DESHIYONG。ZHEILIDEYOUWUYIYIBUSHIYUJUYOUWUYUYI,ERSHIYUYANDESHIYONGZAILIZHISHANGDESHIFOUSHUYUHUSHUO。CHAKANRICHANGYUYANSHIYONG,NEIXIE“BUMINGXIANDEHUSHUOJIUXIANSHIWEIMINGXIANDEHUSHUO”。27YUYONGXIANSHIYESHIYIZHONGDUIZHAO,CHAKANRICHANGYUYANSHIYONGBINGDUIZHAOFEIRICHANGYUYAN,FEIRICHANGYUYANDEBUHEYONGHUOWUYONGJIUXIANSHICHULAI。NEIXIEZHEXUESHANGDEKUNHUOQIAQIAYUFEIRICHANGYUYANCHOULISHENGHUOSHIJIANERWUYONGLEYUFAYOUGUAN。YUYANDESHIYONGSHIFOUWEIBEIYUFADOUZAIRICHANGSHIJIANZHONGDEDAOXIANSHI。

                          QICI,ZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEZAIYANYUXINGDONG(YIJIYUYONG)ZHONGXIANSHI。DONGTAIDEYUYONGXIANSHISHIJIYUXINGDONGDEYUYANYOUXI。TEBIESHINEIXIEXINLIXUECIHUI,ZHEXUESHANGYOUBUSHAOXINLIJIAXIANGSHIWUYONGLEYUYAN,XINGDONGSHINEIZAIXINLIDEYIXIANSHI,CONGERMIAOSHUDEYIKENENGERWUXURENHEJIESHI。WEITEGENSITANXIEDAO:“KONGJUSHISHENME?HAIPAYIZHISHENME?YUQISHUOWOXIANGYIYICIJIESHIQUXIANSHITA,DAOBURUSHUOWOYIXINGDONGZAIXIANSHITA。”28YINWEIXINGDONGJUYOUKEGUANCHAXINGERNEIZAIXINLIZHUANGTAIBUJUYOUKEGUANCHAXING,XINGDONGSHINEIZAIXINLIZHUANGTAIDEXIANSHIFANGSHIZHIYI。

                          ZUIHOU,ZHEXUEMIAOSHUZAIYUYANJIAOLIUZHONGXIANSHI。YUYANJIAOLIUSHIDEYUYANXIANSHIDEYIKENENG。YUYANSHIYONGZAIYANZHEHETINGZHEDEZHUTIJIANJINXING,ZAIGONGTONGDEJINGYANBEIJINGXIAJINGGUOZHUTIJIANDEHUDONGERDEYILIJIE,ZHEIYIDIANYUAPEIERDESIXIANGYIZHI,ZHIBUGUOAPEIERGUANZHUDESHIYUYANFUHAODELIJIE,JITADEYUYONGXIANSHISHIXIANYANGONGTONGTIDEYUYANFUHAODEYILIJIE,ERWEITEGENSITANDEMUDEZAIYUYUYANSHIYONGDEQINGXI、“YUYANMIWU”DEXIAOCHU,ZUIZHONGDADAOLIZHIDEQINGXI。ZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANG,YUYONGXIANSHISHIDEZHEXUEXINGTAIXUECHENGWEIKENENG。

                          三、对维特根斯坦哲学形态学的反思

                          (一)维特根斯坦哲学形态学:从当代哲学与科学的关系看

                          CONGWEITEGENSITANZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEKAN,ZHEXUEYUKEXUECUNZAIJIEXIANZHIFEN,ZHEXUEJIAYUKEXUEJIAYOUBUTONGDEFENGONG。WEITEGENSITANBINGBUFANDUIKEXUE,DANFANDUIYIZHEXUEWENTIHEZHEXUEFANGFA(CHENSIHUOGAINIANBAWODEFANGSHI)QUKANDAIKEXUEWENTIHEKEXUEFANGFA,SHENZHIGANRAOKEXUEGONGZUO。

                          CONGDANGDAIZHEXUEYUKEXUEDEGUANXIKAN,BUSHAOZHEXUEJIAZHUZHANGZHEXUEYIKEXUEDEFANGSHIJINXING,LIRUWULIZHUYIZHE。JIUCIERYAN,WEITEGENSITANZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEJUYOUXIAOJIDEYIMIAN。CONGWEITEGENSITANZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEKAN,ZHEXUEYUKEXUEDEJULIJIAOYUAN,HUDONGJIAORUO。ERDANGJINFAZHANSHITOUZHENGSHENGDEZHEXUESIHUDOUZAIDALIANGSHIYONGKEXUEDEFANGSHI,LIRUSHIYANZHEXUEJIALIYONGLEDALIANGDEDIAOCHA、WENJUAN、TONGJIDENGKEXUESHOUDUAN,RENZHIKEXUEZHEXUEJIALIYONGHECIGONGZHEN、ERP(SHIJIANXIANGGUANDINGWEI)DENGYANJIUFANGSHI,YUYANZHEXUEJIAYUNYONGYUYINSHIBIEJISHUDENGKEXUEFUZHUSHOUDUAN。ZHEIXIEZHEXUEJIABINGBUFOURENZHEXUEKEYIZHIJIECUJINKEXUEHUOZHEKEXUESHOUDUANKEYIZHIJIECUJINZHEXUEFAZHAN。DANGDAIZHEXUEYUKEXUEFAZHANJINMIXIANGGUAN,JIHUKEYISHUOYOUSHENMEYANGDEKEXUEJIUYOUSHENMEYANGDEZHEXUE,ZHIXUZAIZHEIXIE“KEXUE”HOUJIASHANG“ZHEXUE”ERZIJIKE,LIRU,YOULIANGZIKEXUE、SHENJINGKEXUE、XINXIKEXUEDECUNZAI,JIUYOULIANGZIKEXUEZHEXUE、SHENJINGKEXUEZHEXUE,XINXIKEXUEZHEXUE。NEIMERUHEKANDAIZHEIXIEZHEXUEYANJIU?

                        棋牌大全下载安装   YIWEITEGENSITANZHEXUEXINGTAIXUELAIKAN,LIANGZIKEXUEZHEXUE、SHENJINGKEXUEZHEXUE,XINXIKEXUEZHEXUEDOUSHEXIANYIZHEXUEDEFANGSHIGANRAOKEXUEHUOZHEYIKEXUEDEFANGSHIGANRAOZHEXUEYANJIU。RUGUOWULIZHEXUEYIGAINIANFANGSHIQUBAWOLIZIDEZUOBIAO、DONGLIANG、NENGLIANGDENGZHEIXIEXUYAOKEXUEGUANCHAHEJINGQUECELIANGJINXINGDEYANJIU,NEIMEWULIZHEXUEJIUHUIZOURUQITU,YEBUHUISHOUDAOWULIXUEJIADERENKE,RUTONGGEDEDEYANSEYANJIUMEIYOUSHOUDAOWULIKEXUEJIADERENKEYIYANG。YIZHEXUEFANGSHIZUOKEXUEGONGZUOHEYIKEXUEFANGSHIZUOZHEXUEGONGZUODOUSHIBUKEQUDE。DANGRAN,WEITEGENSITANZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEDEXIAOJIXINGBINGBUYIWEIZHEWEITEGENSITANZHEXUESIXIANGJIUYIDINGSHICUOWUDE。MUQIANZUOCHUDUANRANPANDUANHAIWEISHISHANGZAO,XUYAOWEILAIJINYIBUKAOCHA。

                          ANQIANWENSUOSHU,WEITEGENSITANXINGTAIXUEZHIZAIZHICHUGENGDUODEKENENGXING。ZAIDANGDAIGEZHONGKEJIZHEXUESHENGXINGDENIANDAI,KEJIZHEXUEJIAYAOXIANGDUIKEXUEJIAYOUSUOBIYIDEHUA,KEXUEZHEXUEJIADERENWUZAIYUCHENGQINGKEXUEGAINIAN,ZHICHUKEXUEFAZHANDEQITAKENENGXINGFANGXIANGHETUJING。ZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANGJIANG,WEITEGENSITANZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEBUJINZAITUIDONGZHEXUEFAZHAN,YESHIZAICUJINKEXUEFAZHAN。WEITEGENSITANZHEXUEXINGTAIXUESIXIANGZAITUPOSIWEIJIANGHUA,CHENGQINGGAINIAN,ZHICHUKEXUEFAZHANDEFANGXIANG,TANMINGLUNLIDE、SHEHUIDEGUANLIANDENGFANGMIANYESHIYOUZHONGYAOXIANSHIYIYIDE。ZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANGJIANG,WEITEGENSITANDEZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEWULUNDUIDANGDAIZHEXUEHAISHIDUIKEXUEDEFAZHANRENGRANYOUHENDADEJIJIYIYI。

                          (二)哲学形态学本身的方法论问题

                          LUODIRENWEIZHEXUEJIAWULUNZENMEZUO,ZAIFANGFALUNSHANGDOUHENNANTAOLILIANGGEWENTIDEZHUIWEN:YISHIQIANTIXINGDEZHUIWEN;ERSHIXUNHUANLUNZHENGDEZENAN。“MEIYICIZHEXUESHANGDEFANPANDOUSHITUCHENGWEI“WUYUSHE”DE,DANQUEMEIYOUYICIHUODECHENGGONG。ZHEIBINGBULINGRENJINGQI,YINWEIDANGBUZHIDAOZHEXUEJIADETICAIDEXINGZHIHERENLEIZHISHIDEXINGZHISHI,YAONONGQINGYIWEIZHEXUEJIAYINGGAICAIYONGSHENMEFANGFA,DEQUESHIHENKUNNANDE。WEILEGAOQINGYINGGAICAIYONGSHENMEFANGFA,YIGERENBIXUYIJINGDECHUYIXIEXINGERSHANGXUEDEHERENSHILUNDEJIELUN。RUGUOYIGERENSHITUYUNYONGQIXUANZEDEFANGFAHANWEIZHEIXIEJIELUN,TAJIURONGYISHOUDAOXUNHUANLUNZHENGDEZHIKONG。”29NEIMEWEITEGENSITANZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEBENSHENDEFANGFALUNSHIFOUYEMIANLINZHEIYIWENTINI?

                          WEITEGENSITANDEXINGTAIXUEDEZHEXUEDONGJIDEQUEYEXIANGBIMIANZHEIYANGDEWENTI,ZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEZHUYAOTIXIANWEIZHEXUEFANGFALUN,JIZHEXUEMIAOSHU,JUCHIFANGFASHANGDEZHEXUEJIESHI,BIMIANLEQIANTIZHUIWENHEXUNHUANLUNZHENG。GEZHILEBENTILUNHERENSHILUNDEZAIYUANZHEXUECENGMIANDEGANGA,CONGZHEXUEFANGFASHANGTANQIUZHEXUEWENTI,TADEFANGFABINGBUWEIYI,FANGFAJUYOUDUOYANG、KAIFANGXING。ZHENGRUKEXUEXINGTAIXUEZHUZHONGBENTISHANGDEGEXINGTAI,YANJIUKEXUEDUIXIANGDEYOUJIXING、DONGTAIXINGHETIXIXING,WEITEGENSITANDEZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEZHONGZAIFANGFASHANG,YANJIUGAINIANXINGTAI(XINGSHI)DELIANTONGXING、BIANHUAXING、ZHENGTIXING,JIANGUBENDIXING(local)YUQUANJUXING(global)SHIJIAO。CONGFANGFALUNBENSHENLAISHUO,WEITEGENSITANDEXINGTAIXUESIHUHENNANSHUOWANQUANBAITUOLUODISUOSHUODEZHEXUEFANGFALUNGANGA,DANSHIXIANGJIAOYUCHUANTONGDEZHEXUEFANGFALUNERYANQIYOUSHIMINGXIAN。

                          WEITEGENSITANZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEZAIFANGFASHANGYEXUHAIYOURANGZHEXUEJIAMENBINGBUMANYIDEDIFANG。MIANDUIDANGDAIZHEXUEWENTI,ZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEBUHUIJICHUTEBIEJUTIDEXIJIEXINGCAOZUOFANGFA,ERHENDUOBUMENZHEXUE(RU,YANJIUMOUZIRANKEXUEDEZHEXUE)QIAQIAXUYAODEJIUSHITEBIEJUTIDEXIJIEXINGCAOZUOFANGFA,SHENZHISHICHENGXUSHIDEFANGFALAIJIEJUEJUTIWENTI。JIUCIERYAN,WEITEGENSITANZHEXUEXINGTAIXUEBUTIGONGTEBIEJUTIDEFANGFA,YEBUTIGONGYIZHONGFANGFA,ZHUNQUEDISHUO,YIZHONGJIYUYUANZHEXUEDEYIBANZHEXUEFANGFALUNSIXIANG。YINCI,BUNENGYIJUTIDEFANGFAQUYAOQIUWEITEGENSITANDEZHEXUEXINGTAIXUE。

                          WEITEGENSITANDEXINGTAIXUESHIJISHANGSHIWEITEGENSITANDUTEDEZHEXUESIXIANG,SHICHUNCUIZHEXUEYIYISHANGDE,GULIYINGCHENGWEIZHEXUEXINGTAIXUE。WEITEGENSITANZHEXUEXINGTAIXUETIXIANZAITADUIGEDEDEZHIWUHUOYANSEXINGTAIXUE、SIBINGELEDELISHIWENMINGXINGTAIXUEHEBULAODEDELUNLIXINGTAIXUEDEPIPANSHANG。ZHEIXIEPIPANBIAOMINGWEITEGENSITANZHEXUEXINGTAIXUESHIGAINIANXINGTAIDEKAOCHA,KAOCHAGEGAINIANXINGTAI(XINGSHI)DEGUANLIANXING、BIANHUAXING、ZHENGTIXING,ZHUZHONGZHEXUEFANGFA,JIMIAOSHU。ZHEIZHONGMIAOSHUSHIYIZHONGZHEXUEMIAOSHU,TONGGUOGEZHONGXINGTAIBIJIAOHEFENLEIFANGFA(PAILIEHUOZHENGLIFANGFA)HE“ZONGGUANBIAOXIAN”,DADAODUIZHEXUEGAINIANDEQINGXICHENGQING。WEITEGENSITANZHEXUEXINGTAIXUESIXIANGDUIZHEXUEHEKEXUEDEFAZHANDEJIJIYIYIZHIDEYANJIUZHEZHONGSHI。

                          注释

                          1Malcolm,N.,Ludwig Wittgenstein:A Memoir(with a biographical sketch of Wittgenstein by G.H.von Wright),Oxford University Press,2001,p.43.
                          2Goethe,J.,The metamorphosis of plants,Introduction and photography by Gordon Miller,MIT.Press,2009,p.6.
                          3Wittgenstein,L.,Wittgenstein's Philosophical Conversations with Rush Rhees:From the Notes of Rush Rhees,Mind 124(493),2015,p.37.
                          4Wittgenstein,L.,Wittgenstein's Philosophical Conversations with Rush Rhees:From the Notes of Rush Rhees,p.37.
                          5Wittgenstein,L.,Wittgenstein's Philosophical Conversations with Rush Rhees:from the Notes of Rush Rhees,p.36.
                          6Wittgenstein,L.,Remarks on Colour,edited by Elizabeth Anscombe and Georg von Wright,Blackwell,1978,p.16.
                          7Wittgenstein,L.,Wittgenstein's Philosophical Conversations with Rush Rhees:From the Notes of Rush Rhees,p.38.
                          8Spengler.O.,The Decline of theWest,Trans.Charles F.Atkinson,Alfred A.Knopt press,1926,p.18.
                          9Wittgenstein,L.,Culture and Value,University of Chicago Press,1977,p.21.
                          10Wittgenstein,L.,Culture and Value,University of Chicago Press,1977,p.21.
                          11Wittgenstein,L.,Culture and Value,University of Chicago Press,1977,p.11.
                          12Wittgenstein,L.,Wittgenstein's Philosophical Conversations with Rush Rhees:from the Notes of Rush Rhees,p.46.
                          13Wittgenstein,L.,Wittgenstein's Philosophical Conversations with Rush Rhees:from the Notes of Rush Rhees,p.47.
                          14Wittgenstein,L.,Wittgenstein's Philosophical Conversations with Rush Rhees:from the Notes of Rush Rhees,p.48.
                          15Wittgenstein,L.,Culture and Value,University of Chicago Press,1977,p.16.
                          16Wittgenstein,L.,Wittgenstein's Philosophical Conversations with Rush Rhees:from the Notes of Rush Rhees,p.46.
                          17Wittgenstein,L.,Philosophical Investigations,4th Edition,Wiley-Blackwell,2009,p.52.
                          18Wittgenstein,L.,Philosophical Investigations,4th Edition,Wiley-Blackwell,2009,p.52.
                          19Malcolm,N.,Ludwig Wittgenstein:A Memoir(with a biographical sketch of Wittgenstein by G.H.von Wright),p.43.
                          20Malcolm,N.,Ludwig Wittgenstein:A Memoir(with a biographical sketch of Wittgenstein by G.H.von Wright),Oxford University Press,2001,p.43.
                          21Wittgenstein,L.,Philosophical Investigations,4th Edition,Wiley-Blackwell,2009,p.15.
                          22Wittgenstein,L.,The Big Typescript TS 213,the Trustees of the Wittgenstein Estate,2005,p.414.
                          23Wittgenstein,L.,The Big Typescript TS 213,the Trustees of the Wittgenstein Estate,2005,p.260.
                          24Wittgenstein,L.,Philosophical Investigations,4th Edition,Wiley-Blackwell,2009,p.141.
                          25Malcolm,N.,Ludwig Wittgenstein:A Memoir(with a biographical sketch of Wittgenstein by G.H.von Wright),p.43.
                          26Wittgenstein,L.,Philosophical Investigations,4th Edition,Wiley-Blackwell,2009,p.136.
                          27Wittgenstein,L.,Philosophical Investigations,4th Edition,Wiley-Blackwell,2009,p.141.
                          28Wittgenstein,L.,Philosophical Investigations,4th Edition,Wiley-Blackwell,2009,p.40.
                        棋牌大全下载安装   29罗蒂:《罗蒂文选》,孙伟平译,北京:社会科学文献出版社,2007年,第31页.

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