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                            当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 西方实用主义实践观哲学及其影响

                            西方实用主义实践观哲学及其影响

                            时间:2019-03-10 14:23作者:亢珍
                            本文导读:这是一篇关于西方实用主义实践观哲学及其影响的文章,随着时代的发展以及观念的进步,对西方实用主义哲学的研究逐渐客观深入,多元化价值观的碰撞使得实用主义对于中国社会的影响在逐渐地加深。

                              摘    要: 本文通过引入实用主义实践观哲学的基本内容,分析其与马克思主义哲学之间的差异与联系,指出实用主义与中国社会的深层联系,探讨实用主义对中国社会如科技、商业与教育行业等的影响,找出西方实用主义的积极因素,并以此为路径找到中国在转型期所面临的问题和解决问题的关键。

                              关键词: 实用主义; 实践观; 马克思主义;

                            棋牌大全下载安装   ZAI20SHIJI,SHIYONGZHUYIZHEXUESHIXIFANGSHEHUIDEZHULIUZHEXUEGUANNIAN,YINCI,NEIGESHIDAIDEZHONGGUOZHEXUEJIEDOUDAIZHECHONGMANZHENGZHIYINJIDEPIPANMUGUANGDUISHIYONGZHUYIZHEXUEJINXINGYANJIU。SUIZHESHIDAIDEFAZHANYIJIGUANNIANDEJINBU,DUIXIFANGSHIYONGZHUYIZHEXUEDEYANJIUZHUJIANKEGUANSHENRU,DUOYUANHUAJIAZHIGUANDEPENGZHUANGSHIDESHIYONGZHUYIDUIYUZHONGGUOSHEHUIDEYINGXIANGZAIZHUJIANDIJIASHEN。MUQIANZHONGGUOZHENGCHUYUSHEHUIZHUANXINGDEGUANJIANSHIQI,TONGGUODUISHIYONGZHUYIJINXINGBIANZHENGDEXUEXI,FENXILEJIESHIYONGZHUYISHIJIANGUANDEHEXINGUANNIAN,HUOXUKEYIWEIZHONGGUOSHEHUIDEFAZHANLINIANDAILAIXINDESILU。

                              一、实用主义的效果论和实践观

                              (一)实用主义哲学之效果

                              XIFANGSHIYONGZHUYIZHEXUETAOLUNDESHIGUANYURENSHILUNYUZHENLIGUANDEWENTI。GUANCHUANSHIYONGZHUYIFAZHANLISHIDESANGERENWU,PIERSHI、WEILIAN·ZHANMUSIYUDUWEIDOUDUISHIYONGZHUYIYOUZHEBUTAIXIANGTONGDEDINGYI。ZAISHIYONGZHUYIFAZHANCHUQI,PIERSHIZHEIYANGSHUODAO:“SHEXIANGYIXIA,WOMENGUANYUGAINIANDEXIANSHIWUTI,HUIYOUSHENMEKEYIXIANGXIANGDAODEGUANYUSHIJIYIYIDEYINGXIANG。”ERHOUTAYOUBUCHONGDAO:“YIGEGAINIAN,HUOZHESHUOYIGECIHUOQITABIAODASHIDEHANYI,ZHICUNZAIYUTADUIYUSHENGHUOXINGWEIDEKEYIXIANGXIANGDEXIAOGUOSHANG。YINCIHENMINGXIAN,ZHIYOULAIZIZHENSHIDESHIYANDEDONGXICAIHUIDUIXINGWEIYOUZHIJIEDEXIAOGUO。RUGUORENMENNENGGOUJINGQUEDIQUEDINGHUOFOURENYIGEGAINIANDESUOYOUKEYIXIANGXIANGDEJIEGUO,NEIMETABIANDUIYUZHEIGEGAINIANYOULEYIGEWANQUANDEDINGYI。JUEDUIMEIYOURENHEDUOYUZHEIYIDIANDEDONGXI。”HOULAI,YUPIERSHIYITONGJIANLISHIYONGZHUYIDEWEILIAN·ZHANMUSIDUIQIYOULEXINDEJIESHI:“WOMENSIKAOSHIWUSHI,RUYAOBATAWANQUANNONGMINGBAI,ZHIXUKAOLVTAKENENGYOUSHENMEYANGDESHIJIXIAOGUO。WOMENDUIYUZHEIXIEXIAOGUOSUOJUYOUDEGAINIAN,JIUSHIWOMENDUIZHEIYISHIWUSUOJUYOUDEGAINIAN。”

                              (二)实用主义哲学之实践

                            棋牌大全下载安装   TONGGUODUIPIERSHI、WEILIAN·ZHANMUSHILILUNJICHUDEFAZHAN,DUWEIHOULAIXITONGDITICHULESHIYONGZHUYIDERENSHILUNHEFANGFALUN,JINYIBUFAZHANLESHIYONGZHUYIXUESHUO。TARENWEISHIYONGZHUYISHIXINGDONGDEZHEXUE,SUOYOUDEGAINIANDOUZHISHIQIDIAN,ERLILUNZESHIYANJIUSHIWUDEGONGJUERFEIDAAN,BINGJIANGQIYINGYONGYUJIAOYUXUE、LISHIXUEDENGLINGYU。DUWEIRENWEI,RENLEIZHIYOUTONGGUOKEXUEHEJISHUDEFAZHAN,CAINENGHUODEZHENZHENGDEXINGFU。DUWEIFANDUIZIDIKAERYILAITICHUDEXINWUERYUANLUN,QIANGDIAORENMENMEITIANMIANDUIDE、SUOLEJIEDESHIJIESHIGERENSUOLIJIEDESHIJIE,SHIJINGGUORENDEZUOYONGHEGAIZAO(RENHUA)DESHIJIE,ERBUSHIRENYIWAIDESHIJIEBENSHEN。TADUIRENYIWAIDESHIJIEDEZIRANDICUNZAIBINGBUFOUREN,ZHISHIRENWEITAYIDANCHENGWEIRENDESHENGHUOHEJINGYANDEDUIXIANG,JIUBIRANWEIGERENDESHENGHUOYUJINGYANSUOYINGXIANG,SHIQULEQIBENLAIMIANMU。YINCI,SHIYONGZHUYIZHESUOZHUZHANGDESHI,ZHEXUESUOYINGGUANZHUDEYINGGAISHIREN(ZHUTI)YUSHIJIE(KETI)ZHIJIANDEXIANGHUYICUNHEXIANGHUZUOYONGDEGUANXI,ERBUZHISHIDANCHUNDIQULUNZHENGWEIWUZHUYISUORENWEIDEWUZHISHIJIE,HUOZHEWEIXINZHUYISUORENWEIDEJINGSHENSHIJIESHIRUHECUNZAIDE。

                              二、实用主义与马克思主义

                              (一)实用主义与马克思主义的对比

                              实用主义与马克思主义表面上是唯心主义与唯物主义的对立,其更本质的层面是资本主义与社会主义的对立。从实践观的角度来谈实用主义与马克思主义的区别,最主要的便是对于实践的理解。在马克思主义体系中,实践是检验真理的唯一标准,是人与自然之间物质与能量的变换活动,是社会历史的进程。而实用主义实践观认为是个人的认知赋予了实践“意义”,并且仅仅把人看作单纯的生物机体,从而忽略了实践背后的社会含义。同时,马克思主义真理观认为真理是客观的,是对于客观现象本质的反映,是不会随着人的意志而转移的客观部分,所以我们要在尊重客观规律的基础上与发挥主观能动性相结合。而西方实用主义哲学认识论则更强调真理的相对性。实用主义真理观认为真理不是客观事物,因为真理的认知只有与主体(人)相结合才有意义。同时,实用主义认为没有在任何情况下都可以对主体行为起到指导作用的普遍真理,切断了绝对真理与相对真理之间的联系。
                             

                            西方实用主义实践观哲学及其影响
                             

                              (二)实用主义实践观与马克思主义的结合

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                              三、实用主义实践观的中国效应

                              (一)对于中国科学研究的影响

                            棋牌大全下载安装   SHIYONGZHUYIDEZHEXUEJINGSHENSHIJINXIANDAIDONGXIFANGGUOJIAKEJIKUAISUFAZHANYUCHUANGXINDEGUANJIAN,TASUOTICHUDEGUANYURENZHIDELINIANYIRANFUHEDANGJINKEJIYANFADEXUYAO,JIEHESHIJITICHUKEGUANCHA、KETANJIUDEKEYANLILUN,BINGTONGGUOSHIYANDECHENGGUOLAIDUIKEYANLILUNYOUZHEZIJIDEPANDUAN——NENGGOUJINGQUEDIQUEDINGHUOFOURENYIGEGAINIANDESUOYOUKEYIXIANGXIANGDEJIEGUO。ZIGAIGEKAIFANGHOU,CONGWEIXINGDAOGAOXINGNENGJISUANJI,ZHONGGUOSHEHUIDEKEJIYANJIUHUODUOHUOSHAODOUYOUZHESHIYONGZHUYIFANGFALUNDEYINGZI,HUANJUHUASHUO,DOUSHIBENZHEFUWURENMIN、FAZHANSHENGCHANDEMUDE。SHIYONGZHUYIFANGFALUNDUIYUZHONGGUOKEYANZUIDADEGONGXIAN,YEXUSHIJIANGZHONGGUOKEYANGONGZUOZHECONGGUDINGDESIWEIZHONGJIEFANGCHULAI,SHIQIKEYIGENGDUODIGUANZHUCONGSHIJICHUFATICHUDEGAINIANBINGYANZHENGQIYIYI,ZHEIYIDIANDUIYUYANJIURENYUANJISHUJUDADEZHONGGUOYIYIGENGWEIZHONGDA。

                              (二)对于中国商业发展的影响

                              SHIYONGZHUYIYOUJIJIDEFANGMIAN,ZIRANYEYOUXIAOJIDEYINGXIANG。JINJINIANREDUBUJIANDEGONGXIANGDANCHEZUIJINYEQUYUPINGJING,ZI2015NIAN“ofoXIAOHUANGCHE”BAOHONGZHIHOU,YIZHONGQUANXINDESHANGYEMOSHICHENGXIANZAIRENMENYANQIAN,YIYEZHIJIANGONGXIANGDANCHEZAIGEGECHENGSHIJIANKAISHIJINGPEN,DAOLE2016NIAN,ZHISHAOYOU25GEPINPAIJIARULEGONGXIANGDANCHEDEZIBENYOUXIZHIZHONG,QIZHONGSHENZHIBUFADIANDONGCHEPINPAI。MANGMUDIGUANZHUYANQIANDELIYISHIDERENMENKANBUJIANHUOREDEXINGYEBEIHOUDEJUDAPAOMO,SHIYONGZHUYIDEJUXIANXINGBAOLUWUYI。JINJINLIANGNIANDESHIJIAN,GONGXIANGDANCHEDEPINPAIYIJINGDAOBILEYIBANYISHANG,ZUIZAORUJUDE“ofoXIAOHUANGCHE”YEYISHENXIANTUIYAJINDEFENGBOZHIZHONGWUFATUOSHEN。ZAIKUAIJIEZOUDESHANGYEGEJUXIA,SHIYONGZHUYIDEYINGXIANGYIRANSHIFENMINGXIAN。XIANGBIYUSUDU,XIANRUJINZHONGGUOSHEHUIDEJINGJIFAZHANGENGXUYAODESHIFANSI,GENGYINGGAISIKAOZAISHIYONGDEBEIHOU,CUNZAIZHENAXIEZHONGYAODE、XIANRUJINQUEBEIHUSHIDEDONGXI,BIRUSHUOCHENWENFAZHANDENAIXIN,HUOSHIYANJINWUSHIDEJIANGXIN。

                              (三)对于中国教育的影响

                              SHIYONGZHUYIDEDAIBIAORENWUZHIYIJIANJIAOYUJIADUWEISUOTIDAODEJIAOYULINIANZHONG,SHIYONGZHUYISHIJIANGUANYEYOUHENHAODETIXIAN,ERZHEIYESHIZHONGGUOJIAOYUFANGSHIDEYIZHONGXINSILU。DUWEISHUO:“SHENGZHANGSHISHENGHUODETEZHENG,SUOYIJIAOYUJIUSHISHENGZHANG。”ZAITAKANLAI,JIAOYUZHISHITIGONGJIERTONGBAOZHENGQICHENGZHANGDETIAOJIAN,JIYUQIKEYICHONGFENSHENGHUODEQIANTI,ERBUSHIQIANGPOERTONGQUXISHOUHUOJIESHOUYIXIEWAILAIDEDONGXI。DUWEIDESHIYONGZHUYIJIAOYUGUANZHUYAOTANTAODESHIZHONGXIAOXUEJIAOYU。ZAIWOGUODEZHONGXIAOXUEJIAOYUZHONG,JIAOYUBENSHENBIANCHENGMUDE,JIAOYUZHUYAOSHIYINGSHIJIAOYU,TUOLIJIAOYUDELIXINGMUBIAO,SHUBENJIAOYUCHENGWEIJIAOYUDEHEXIN,JIAOYUTUOLISHENGHUOSHIJI。YINCIJIANGDUWEIDESHIYONGZHUYIJIAOYUGUANPUJIDAOWOGUOJICHUJIAOYUZHIZHONGJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI。

                              参考文献

                              [1][美]查理斯·皮尔士,查尔斯·桑德斯.皮尔士论文全集[C].哈佛大学出版社,1931:402.
                              [2][美]威廉·詹姆士.实用主义:一些旧思想方法的新名称[M].陈羽纶、孙瑞禾,译.商务印书馆,1997:226.

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