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                                  1. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 固定资本对工人生命政治的统治及其哲学价值

                                    固定资本对工人生命政治的统治及其哲学价值

                                    时间:2019-03-17 15:45作者:徐丹
                                    本文导读:这是一篇关于固定资本对工人生命政治的统治及其哲学价值的文章,在国内学术界,一些学者开始从马克思的概念去探讨马克思哲学的深层内涵,比如说关注商品概念、使用价值概念等等。但是国内学者还没有关注到生产过程中的一个重要概念,那就是固定资本。

                                      摘    要: 马克思的固定资本概念不仅是一个经济学概念,更是一个历史唯物主义哲学概念。从历史唯物主义视角去理解固定资本,它不仅是作为物的固定资本,还体现了资本主义的社会关系,即资本家对工人的剥削关系。这种剥削关系存在于资本主义生产过程中,体现了资本对工人生命政治的统治,蕴含着资本主义社会的内在矛盾。固定资本概念体现了马克思的唯物史观和政治经济学批判的有机统一,全面理解固定资本有助于深化马克思的资本批判理论研究。哈特、奈格里等西方学者无法从历史唯物主义的深层视角去理解固定资本,因而无论是在客体向度还是在主体向度都弱化了固定资本的深层内涵。

                                      关键词: 马克思; 固定资本; 资本批判; 唯物史观;

                                      Abstract: Marx's concept of“fixed capital”is not only an economic concept,but also a concept of philosophy of historical materialism.To understand this from the perspective of historical materialism,it is not only a fixed capital as one substance,but it also expresses a social relationship of capitalism,that is,the capitalist's exploitation of workers.This kind of exploitation relationship exists in the capitalist production process and contains the inherent contradiction of capitalist society.The concept of“fixed capital”embodies the organic unity of Marx's historical materialism and political economics.A comprehensive understanding of“fixed capital”could help deepen the research of Marx's theory of capital criticism.Western scholars such as Hardt and Negri could not understand “fixed capital”from the deep perspective of historical materialism,and thus distorted the deep connotation of“fixed capital”in both object orientation and subject orientation.

                                      Keyword: Marx; Fixed Capital; Capital Criticism; Historical Materialism;

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                                      一、固定资本的原初语境

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                                      厘清固定资本概念首先要厘清固定资本存在的问题域。之所以提出这个问题是因为,在马克思之前很多古典政治经济学家,比如斯密、李嘉图等人,他们没有区分生产过程与流通过程,如果不能够区分这两者就会混淆生产与交换之间的关系,无法发现资本主义的内在矛盾是在生产过程中产生的。同样,哈维也没有能够厘清固定资本的问题域,导致他曲解了马克思的固定资本概念。
                                     

                                    固定资本对工人生命政治的统治及其哲学价值
                                     

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                                      ZAIQIANZIBENZHUYISHIDAISHIMEIYOUGUDINGZIBENDE,YOUDEZHISHIGONGJU。ZAIZIBENZHUYISHOUGONGYESHIDAIYIJINGCHUXIANLEJIQI,DANSHIHAIMEIYOUXINGCHENGWANZHENGDEJIQITIXI。NENGGOUBEICHENGWEIGUDINGZIBENDESHIJIQIJIQIJIQITIXI,YINCIGUDINGZIBENZHICUNZAIYUJIQIDAGONGYESHIDAI。ZHEILIZOUCHULEYITIAOLILUNMAILUO:GONGJU———JIQI———JIQIJIQIJIQITIXI———GUDINGZIBEN。TOUGUOGUDINGZIBENKEYIKANDAOZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANLUOJIDEZHUANHUAN。ZHEIGENMAKESIDUIGONGYIXUEDERENSHIJINCHENGSHIYIZHIDE。MAKESISHOUDAOYOUERDENGRENDEQIFA,CONGGONGYIXUEDEJIAODUZHENZHENGRENSHIDAOYIJIQIHEJIQITIXIWEIDAIBIAODESHENGCHANZILIAOCAISHIZIBENZHUYIJIQIDAGONGYEDEBENZHITEZHENG。“YINCI,ZHIYOUDANGLAODONGZILIAOBUJINZAIXINGSHISHANGBEIGUIDINGWEIGUDINGZIBEN,ERQIEYANGQILEZIJIDEZHIJIEXINGSHI,CONGER,GUDINGZIBENZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGNEIBUZUOWEIJIQILAITONGLAODONGXIANGDUILIDESHIHOU,ERZHENGGESHENGCHANGUOCHENGBUSHICONGSHUYUGONGRENDEZHIJIEJIQIAO,ERSHIBIAOXIANWEIKEXUEZAIGONGYISHANGDEYINGYONGDESHIHOU,ZHIYOUDAOZHEIGESHIHOU,ZIBENCAIHUODELECHONGFENDEFAZHAN,HUOZHESHUO,ZIBENCAIZAOCHENGLEYUZIJIXIANGSHIHEDESHENGCHANFANGSHI。KEJIAN,ZIBENDEQUSHISHIFUYUSHENGCHANYIKEXUEDEXINGZHI,ERZHIJIELAODONGZEBEIBIANDIWEIZHISHISHENGCHANGUOCHENGDEYIGEYAOSU。”[1]93-94

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   NEIMEMAKESIWEISHENMEBUSHIYONGJIQIHEJIQITIXI,ERYAOYONGGUDINGZIBENNI?YINWEI,ZHIYOUGUDINGZIBENZHEIGEGAINIANCAINENGBIAOZHENGJIQIJIQIJIQITIXIDEBENZHI。JIQIJIQIJIQITIXISHICONGWUDEJIAODU,YIJISHENGCHANDEYIBANZUOYONGLAISHUOMINGDE。MAKESIZHISUOYISHIYONGGUDINGZIBENGAINIANERBUSHIYONGLAODONGGONGJUHUOZHEJIQISHIYINWEIGUDINGZIBENGAINIANCONGLISHIWEIWUZHUYISHIJIAOJIESHILEZIBENZHUYIDENEIZAIJILI,ZHEISHIYONGJIQIZHEIXIEGAINIANSUOWUFACHENGXIANDE。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   JIQIJIJIQITIXISHIGUDINGZIBENDEDIANXINGDAIBIAO,YAORENQINGGUDINGZIBENDEMIANMAOJIUYAOLIQINGLIANGGEWENTI:YISHIZIBENJIAZAISHENMEQINGKUANGXIASHIYONGJIQI;ERSHIZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGWEISHENMEYAOSHIYONGJIQI。ZIBENJIAZAISHENMEQINGKUANGXIASHIYONGJIQINI?“RUGUOZHIBAJIQIKANZUOSHICHANPINBIANYIDESHOUDUAN,NEIMESHIYONGJIQIDEJIEXIANJIUZAIYU:SHENGCHANJIQISUOFEIDELAODONGYAOSHAOYUSHIYONGJIQISUODAITIDELAODONG。KESHIDUIZIBENSHUOLAI,ZHEIGEJIEXIANBIAOXIANDEGENGWEIXIAZHAI。YINWEIZIBENZHIFUDEBUSHISUOSHIYONGDELAODONG,ERSHISUOSHIYONGDELAODONGLIDEJIAZHI,SUOYI,DUIZIBENSHUOLAI,ZHIYOUZAIJIQIDEJIAZHIHETASUODAITIDELAODONGLIDEJIAZHIZHIJIANCUNZAICHAEDEQINGKUANGXIA,JIQICAIHUIBEISHIYONG。”[4]451YUZIBENJIAERYAN,JIQIBUSHISUIBIANSHIYONGDE,ZHIYOUZAISHIYONGJIQINENGGOUJITADAILAIGENGDUODESHENGYUJIAZHISHI,TACAIHUISHIYONGJIQI。NEIME,ZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGWEISHENMEYAOSHIYONGJIQINI?“TIGAOLAODONGSHENGCHANLIHEZUIDAXIANDUFOUDINGBIYAOLAODONG,ZHENGRUWOMENYIJINGKANDAODE,SHIZIBENDEBIRANQUSHI。LAODONGZILIAOZHUANBIANWEIJIQITIXI,JIUSHIZHEIYIQUSHIDESHIXIAN。”[1]92SHIYONGJIQIDEMUDEBENSHENZAIYUTIGAOLAODONGSHENGCHANLIHEFOUDINGBIYAOLAODONG。

                                      ZAIJIQIDAGONGYESHIDAI,SHENGCHANLIWANCHENGLECONGGERENSHENGCHANLIXIANGSHEHUISHENGCHANLIDEZHUANHUA,ZAIZHEIYANGDEQINGKUANGXIA,SHIFOUSHIYONGXINCHUXIANDEXINJIQIBUZAISHIYOUGEBIEZIBENJIADESHENGYUJIAZHILAIJUEDING,ERSHIYOUGEBIEZIBENJIADESHENGCHANLISHIFOUFUHESHEHUISHENGCHANLILAIJUEDING。YOUYUZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIBUDUANBIANGE,ZIBENZHUYISHEHUISHENGCHANLIBUDUANTIGAO,YIJIQITIXIWEIHEXINDESHENGCHANZILIAOZAIKEJIDETUIDONGXIAYIYUELAIYUEKUAIDEGENGXINSUDUCHUXIANZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHEIZHONGWUXINGSUNHAODESUDUZAIJIASUJINXING,ZHEICHENGWEIZIBENZHUYISHEHUIBUKEKEFUDENEIZAIMAODUN。NEIMEZIBENJIANENGFOUXUANZEBUSHIYONGXINCHUXIANDEGUDINGZIBENNI?ZIBENZHUYISHEHUIJINRUJIQIDAGONGYEJIEDUAN,ZIBENJIABIEWUXUANZE,ZHINENGXUANZEXINCHUXIANDEGUDINGZIBEN,YINWEICISHIDESHENGCHANLIYIJINGBUSHIGERENDESHENGCHANLI,ERSHIZHENGGESHEHUIDESHENGCHANLI,GEBIEZIBENJIADESHENGCHANLIRUGUOLUOHOUYUSHEHUISHENGCHANLI,JIUHUIZAIJINGZHENGZHONGBEITAOTAI。YOUCIKEJIAN,GUDINGZIBENCHENGZAIDESHISHEHUISHENGCHANLIDEFAZHAN。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   GUDINGZIBENTIXIANLEZIBENDEWEILAIZOUXIANG,ZOUCHULEYITIAOZUOJIANZIFUDELUJING。GUDINGZIBENBUDUANZENGDA,KEBIANZIBENBUDUANJIANSHAO,LIANGZHEDEMAODUNSHIZIBENZHUYINEIZAIDEBUKEDIAOHEDEMAODUN。CONGGUDINGZIBENKEYIKANDAOZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIDELISHIQUSHIJIQINEIZAIJIEXIAN。TONGGUODUIGUDINGZIBENDEFENXI,MAKESIFENXIQINGCHULEZIBENZHUYIDENEIZAIMAODUNJIUJINGSHISHENME,DUIKETIXIANSUODESIKAOBUDUANCHENGSHU,ZOUCHUZHEIYANGYITIAOLUJING:SHENGYUJIAZHIDEBOXUE———ZIBENYOUJIGOUCHENGTIGAO———YIBANLIRUNLVXIAJIANG———ZIBENNEIZAIMAODUNDEBENGKUI。“ZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIDEXIANZHIBIAOXIANZAI:1.LAODONGSHENGCHANLIDEFAZHANSHILIRUNLVDEXIAJIANGCHENGWEIYIGEGUILV,ZHEIGEGUILVZAIMOUYIDIANSHANGHELAODONGSHENGCHANLIBENSHENDEFAZHANFASHENGZUIQIANGLIEDEDUIKANG,YINERBIXUBUDUANDITONGGUOWEIJILAIKEFU。2.SHENGCHANDEKUODAHUOSUOXIAO,BUSHIQUJUEYUSHENGCHANHESHEHUIXUYAOJISHEHUIDIFAZHANLEDERENDEXUYAOZHIJIANDEGUANXI,ERSHIQUJUEYUWUCHOULAODONGDEZHANYOUYIJIZHEIGEWUCHOULAODONGHEDUIXIANGHUALAODONGZHIBI,HUOZHEANZHAOZIBENZHUYIDESHUOFA,QUJUEYULIRUNYIJIZHEIGELIRUNHESUOSHIYONGDEZIBENZHIBI,JIYIDINGSHUIPINGDELIRUNLV。YINCI,DANGSHENGCHANKUODADAOZAILINGYIGEQIANTIXIAHAIXIANDEYUANWEIBUZUDECHENGDUSHI,DUIZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANDEXIANZHIYIJINGCHUXIANLE。ZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANBUSHIZAIXUYAODEMANZUYAOQIUTINGDUNSHITINGDUN,ERSHIZAILIRUNDESHENGCHANHESHIXIANYAOQIUTINGDUNSHITINGDUN。”[5]287-288CONGLISHIWEIWUZHUYIZHEXUELAIKAN,MAKESIDUIZIBENZHUYISHEHUINEIZAIMAODUNDEFENXIBUDUANCHENGSHU,TAJIANGZIBENZHUYISHEHUIMIEWANGDEJICHUZHIFANGZAIZIBENZHUYISHEHUIDENEIZAIMAODUNZHONG。ZAIJIQIDAGONGYEXIA,ZIBENZHUYISHEHUIDENEIZAIMAODUNLAIZIYUZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIBENSHENSUOJIANGOUDEMAODUN。

                                      二、固定资本实现了对工人生命政治的统治

                                      CONGGUDINGZIBENZHEIGEGAINIANKEYIKANCHUGUDINGZIBENYESHIYIZHONGZIBEN,MAKESIQINGCHUDIZHICHU,ZIBENBUSHIWUERSHIYIZHONGSHEHUIGUANXI。“DANZIBENBUSHIWU,ERSHIYIDINGDE、SHEHUIDE、SHUYUYIDINGLISHISHEHUIXINGTAIDESHENGCHANGUANXI,HOUZHETIXIANZAIYIGEWUSHANG,BINGFUYUZHEIGEWUYIDUTEDESHEHUIXINGZHI。”[5]922DANGZIBENYIGUDINGZIBENDEXINGSHICHENGXIANSHI,CONGLISHIWEIWUZHUYIDESHIJIAOFENXI,TASHENSHANGCHENGZAIDESHIZIBENJIADUIGONGRENDEBOXUEYUBEIBOXUEDEGUANXI,YUNHANDESHIZIBENZHUYIDENEIZAIMAODUN。SUIRANGUDINGZIBENZAIXIANXIANGCENGMIANBIAOXIANWEIJIQIDENGGUDINGXIALAIDEWUDEZIBEN,SHIWUDESHENGCHANZILIAODEXINGSHI,DANQIBENZHISHANGSHISHEHUIGUANXI。ZAIZHEIYANGDESHEHUIGUANXIXIA,GUDINGZIBENSHIXIANLEDUIGONGRENDESHENGMINGZHENGZHIDETONGZHI。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   GUDINGZIBENGAINIANYANGAILEZIBENJIADUIGONGRENDEBOXUE。ZIBENJIATOURULEHENDUOHUOBIZAIGUDINGZIBENSHANG,BINGQIEGUDINGZIBENDEGUIMOBUDUANKUODA,LAODONGSHENGCHANLIYUELAIYUEGAO。BUCONGSHENCENGLIJIEGUDINGZIBENJIUHUICHANSHENGYIZHONGCUOJUE,SIHUZIBENZENGZHIDEYUANQUANSHIZHEIXIEGUDINGZIBEN。MAKESIHOULAIQUFENLEBUBIANZIBENYUKEBIANZIBEN,TONGGUOZHEILIANGZHEDEQUFEN,SHENKESHUOMINGLEZIBENJIABOXUEGONGRENDENEIZAIJILI。ZIBENZENGZHIDEYUANQUANSHIKEBIANZIBEN,YEJIUSHILAIZIYUGONGRENDELAODONGLIZIBEN。ERSIMI、LIJIATUDENGRENZHENGSHIYINWEIMEIYOULIQINGZHEIXIEWENTI,SUOYIWUFAJIESHIZIBENJIABOXUEGONGRENDEMIMI。

                                      SHIJISHANG,GUDINGZIBENBENSHENLAIYUANYUDUIGONGRENLAODONGDEZHIMIN。GUDINGZIBENCONGBIAOMIANKANLAIHAOXIANGSHILAODONGZILIAO,SHIZIBENJIASHOUXIANYONGHUOBIGOUMAIDESHENGCHANZILIAO,SHIZIBENJIABENLAIJIUYONGYOUDE。DANSHIJISHANG,GUDINGZIBENBENSHENYESHICONGGONGRENNEILICHANSHENGDE,MAKESIJIANGTACHENGZHIWEISILAODONG,SILAODONGBEIZIBENJIAZHUQUANHUAJIUCHENGLEGUDINGZIBEN,GUDINGZIBENSHIZHISHANGJIUSHISILAODONG,SHISILAODONGYANSHENGCHUDEZIBENGUANXIXIADEWUDEGUANXI。ZHISUOYIBAJIQICHENGZUOSILAODONGSHIYINWEIJIQIBENSHENYESHIGONGRENLAODONGCHUANGZAOCHULAIDE,SHIGONGRENYIJINGSIQUDELAODONG。YINCI,ZAIZHENGGESHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONG,SHIGONGRENSIQUDELAODONGZAIBOXUEGONGRENXIANYOUDEHUOLAODONG。ZHEIZHENGSHIGONGRENZUIBEICANDEDIFANG。DANGGUDINGZIBENYIJIQIDEXINGSHICHENGXIANCHULAISHIMEIYOURENHEGONGRENLAODONGCHENGGUODEHENJI,YINWEIDANGGONGRENDELAODONGCHENGGUOZHUANHUAWEIJIQISHI,TAZISHENDEZHENSHINEIRONGBEIYANGAILE。YINCIYONGGUDINGZIBENZHEIGEGAINIAN,KEYIJIESHICHUQIZHENZHENGDELAIYUAN。ZHENGSHIYINWEIGUDINGZIBENDEBENZHIBEIYANGAI,GONGRENKANBUQINGGUDINGZIBENDEZHENZHENGLAIYUAN,YINCI,GONGRENZAIFANKANGZIBENJIADESHIHOU,WANGWANGSHIYONGDAZAJIQIDENGFANGSHI,TAMENYINYUEGANJUEDAOSHIZHEIXIEXINCHUXIANDEJIQIJIQIJIQITIXIZAIBOXUETAMEN,DANSHITAMENWUFAKANDAODESHI,JISHIDAZAJIQI,YEBUNENGGAIBIANGUDINGZIBENTONGZHITAMENDESHISHI,XIANGFAN,ZIBENJIAHUIYONGGENGXIANJINDEJIQILAIDAITIJIUDEJIQI,SHIXIANDUIGONGRENGENGJIANSHIDETONGZHI。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   GUDINGZIBENBUJINJINCHENGZAIZHEZIBENJIAYUGONGRENZHIJIANBOXUEYUBEIBOXUEDEGUANXI,GENGZHONGYAODESHITOUGUOGUDINGZIBENZHEIYIFUYOUSHENKENEIHANDEGAINIANKEYIKUIJIANMAKESIDUIZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIDESHENKEPOUXI。CONGLISHIWEIWUZHUYISHIJIAOFENXIGUDINGZIBENKEYIKANDAOGUDINGZIBENRUHESHENGFACHUZIBENDUIGONGRENSHENGMINGZHENGZHIDETONGZHI。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   CONGLISHIFASHENGXUELAIKAN,GUDINGZIBENSHIXIANDUIGONGRENDESHENGMINGZHENGZHIDEKONGZHISHIZAIZIBENZHUYIJIQIDAGONGYESHIQIWANCHENGDE。CONGQIANMIANDEFENXIKEYIKANDAO,GUDINGZIBENSHIZIBENZHUYIJIQIDAGONGYEDECHANWU,ZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGCHUXIANLEJIQITIXIZHIHOUCAINENGBEICHENGZUOGUDINGZIBEN。ZAIGONGCHANGSHOUGONGYEJIEDUAN,SIMIHELIJIATUSUOSHIYONGDEGUDINGZIBENBUSHIMAKESISUOSHIYONGDEGUDINGZIBEN,YANGESHUOLAIBUNENGBEICHENGZUOGUDINGZIBEN。ZAIGONGCHANGSHOUGONGYEJIEDUAN,ZIBENHAIMEIYOUWANQUANSHIXIANDUIGONGRENDEBAQUAN,CONGGONGCHANGSHOUGONGYEDAOJIQIDAGONGYE,JIQIJIQIJIQITIXIDECHANSHENG,ZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIDEZHUANBIAN,GUDINGZIBENDECHUXIAN,CAISHIDEZIBENZAIZHENZHENGYIYISHANGWANCHENGLEDUIGONGRENDESHENGMINGZHENGZHIDETONGZHI。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   SHIJISHANG,CONG“ZHIZAO”ZHEIGECIJIUKEYIKANCHUSHENGCHANFANGSHIDELISHIBIANQIAN。“ZHIZAO”ZHEIGECIZUICHUYUANZIHOUQILADINGYUDEmanufactura:manu(SHOU)+factura(GONGZUO),YIWEISHOUGONGLAOZUO。CONGCIYUANSHANGKAN,ZHIZAOZHEIGECIBENLAIDEHANYISHIYONGSHOUGONGZHIZUO,SHOUGONGZHIZUOSHIGONGCHANGSHOUGONGYEDETEZHENG,ERJIQIDAGONGYEZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIXIASHIDAGUIMODEJIQIZHIZAO。TONGGUOCIYUANDEBIANHUA,KEYIKANDAOGONGCHANGSHOUGONGYEHEJIQIDAGONGYEZAISHENGCHANFANGSHISHANGDEBENZHIBUTONG。

                                      SHENGCHANFANGSHIDEBUTONGDAOZHIZIBENDUIGONGRENDETONGZHIYESHIBUTONGDE。MAKESIZAI《1861—1863NIANSHOUGAO》ZHONGFENXILELAODONGDECONGSHUWENTI,LAODONGCONGXINGSHISHANGDECONGSHUBIANCHENGLESHIZHISHANGDECONGSHU。YEJIUSHISHUO,ZAIGONGCHANGSHOUGONGYEJIEDUAN,SUIRANSHENGCHANGUOCHENGYINWEIFENGONGBEIZHIJIE,LAODONGHAISHIYIKAOGONGRENDEJISHU、SHULIANCHENGDU,ZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONG,GONGRENZHANJUZHUDAODIWEI。YINCI,DANGGONGRENBUMANYIZIBENJIADEBOXUEDESHIHOU,GONGRENJIUHUIQILAIFANKANG,QILAIDOUZHENG、BAGONG,CONGERZIBENJIADELIYIJIUHUISHOUDAOSUNSHI。“YINWEISHOUGONGYEDESHULIANRENGRANSHIGONGCHANGSHOUGONGYEDEJICHU,TONGSHIZAIGONGCHANGSHOUGONGYEZHONGZHIXINGZHINENGDEZONGJIGOUMEIYOURENHEBUYILAIGONGRENBENSHENDEKEGUANGUGE,SUOYIZIBENBUDEBUJINGCHANGTONGGONGRENDEBUFUCONGXINGWEIZUODOUZHENG。”[4]425SUOYI,ZAIGONGCHANGSHOUGONGYEXIA,ZIBENJIAHAISHISHOUZHIYUGONGRENDEJISHUYUNENGLIDE。ZAIJIQIDAGONGYETIXIXIA,GONGRENZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGDEDIWEICONGZHUTIDIWEIJIANGWEICONGSHUDIWEI,SHENGCHANGUOCHENGDEZHUTIBIANCHENGLEJIQITIXI,SHENGCHANDEGUOCHENGYIJINGBUZAIYIKAOGONGRENDENENGLI。“JIQISHISHOUGONGYEDEHUODONGBUZAICHENGWEISHEHUISHENGCHANDEZHIPEIYUANZE。YINCI,YIFANGMIAN,GONGRENZHONGSHENGGUDINGCONGSHIMOUZHONGJUBUZHINENGDEJISHUJICHUBEIXIAOCHULE。LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZHEIGEYUANZEJIAYUZIBENTONGZHISHENSHANGDEXIANZHIYEXIAOSHILE。”[4]426MAKESIZAIZHEILIFENXIDEFEICHANGSHENKE,YONGJIQIDAITIGONGRENBIAOMIANSHANGKANSHIWEILETUPOGONGRENDEBUXUNFUSUODAILAIDEDUIZIBENDEXIANZHI,QIGENBENYUANYINZAIYUJIECHUZIBENTONGZHISHENSHANGDEZISHENDEXIANZHI,SHIZIBENZISHENZHENGTUOLEQIZISHENDEJIASUO。YUANXIANGONGRENHAIKEYIYIZIJIDEJISHUZUOWEIYUZIBENJIATANPANDEZIBEN,XIANZAIGONGRENSHIQULEYUZIBENJIAXIESHANGDERENHECHOUMA,ZHINENGGUAIGUAIDICHENFUYUZIBENJIADETONGZHI。CONGZHEIGELILUNCENGMIANLAIKAN,GONGRENBUSHICHENFUYUZIBENJIADETONGZHI,ERSHICHENFUYUZIBENDETONGZHI,ZHUNQUEDISHUOSHIYIJIQITIXIWEIHEXINDEGUDINGZIBENDETONGZHI。

                                      ZAIZIBENZHUYIJIQIDAGONGYETIAOJIANXIA,GUDINGZIBENDESHIYONGYUELAIYUEGUANGFAN,NEIMEGUDINGZIBENDESHIYONGDUIGONGRENLAISHUOHUIDAILAISHENMEHOUGUONI?KEYISHUO,GUDINGZIBENDESHIYONGSHIXIANLEZIBENJIADUIGONGRENGENGSHENCENGCIDESHENGMINGZHENGZHIDETONGZHI。“ZIBENFAZHANCHENGWEIYIZHONGQIANGZHIGUANXI,POSHIGONGRENJIEJICHAOCHUZISHENSHENGHUOXUYAODEXIAAIFANWEIERCONGSHIGENGDUODELAODONG。ZUOWEITARENXINQINLAODONGDEZHIZAOZHE,ZUOWEISHENGYULAODONGDEZHAQUZHEHELAODONGLIDEBOXUEZHE,ZIBENZAIJINGLI、TANLANHEXIAOLVFANGMIAN,YUANYUANCHAOGUOLEYIWANGYIQIEYIZHIJIEQIANGZHILAODONGWEIJICHUDESHENGCHANZHIDU。”[4]359YOUCIKEJIAN,ZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIDAOZHIGUDINGZIBENZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGCHENGZAILEZIBENJIADUIGONGRENGENGSHENCENGDEBOXUE。“ZUOWEIZIBENJIA,TAZHISHIRENGEHUADEZIBEN。TADELINGHUNJIUSHIZIBENDELINGHUN。ERZIBENZHIYOUYIZHONGSHENGHUOBENNENG,ZHEIJIUSHIZENGZHIZISHEN,CHUANGZAOSHENGYUJIAZHI,YONGZIJIDEBUBIANBUFENJISHENGCHANZILIAOSHUNXIJINKENENGDUODESHENGYULAODONG。ZIBENSHISILAODONG,TAXIANGXIXUEGUIYIYANG,ZHIYOUSHUNXIHUOLAODONGCAIYOUSHENGMING,SHUNXIDEHUOLAODONGYUEDUO,TADESHENGMINGJIUYUEWANGSHENG。”[4]269GUDINGZIBENZAIZHEILIJIUXIANGSHIMAKESISUOSHUODEXIXUEGUI,TAJIUSHIYAOTONGGUOSHUNXIGONGRENDELAODONGLILAIHUODEGENGDUODESHENGYUJIAZHI,ERQIESHIYIGEYONGBUTINGZHIDEXIXUEGUI。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   TONGSHI,GUDINGZIBENHAITIXIANCHUZIBENLUOJIDENEIZAIMAODUN。ZIBENJIAJIANGSHUNXIGUOLAIDEGONGRENDELAODONGZAISHENGCHANCHUSHENGYUJIAZHIZHIHOU,YOUHUIJIANGSHENGYUJIAZHITOURUDAOSHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONG,BUDUANDIJINXINGSHENGCHANYUZAISHENGCHAN,BUDUANDIJINXINGKUODAZAISHENGCHAN。“YINCI,ZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZAIBENSHENDEJINXINGZHONG,ZAISHENGCHANCHULAODONGLIHELAODONGTIAOJIANDEFENLI。ZHEIYANG,TAJIUZAISHENGCHANCHUBOXUEGONGRENDETIAOJIAN,BINGSHIZHIYONGJIUHUA。……KEJIAN,ZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANGUOCHENG,ZAILIANXIZHONGJIAYIKAOCHA,HUOZUOWEIZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGJIAYIKAOCHASHI,BUJINSHENGCHANSHANGPIN,BUJINSHENGCHANSHENGYUJIAZHI,ERQIEHAISHENGCHANHEZAISHENGCHANZIBENGUANXIBENSHEN:YIFANGMIANSHIZIBENJIA,LINGYIFANGMIANSHIGUYONGGONGREN。”[4]665-667YOUCIKEJIAN,GUDINGZIBENDUILAODONGLISHUNXIDEYAOQIUBUDUANZENGQIANG,SHUNXINENGLIBUDUANTIGAO,ZONGZHI,ZHEIYANGDESHUNXIGUOCHENGSHIBUHUITINGZHIDE。TONGGUOZHEIZHONGSHUNXI,BUDUANZAISHENGCHANCHUZIBENJIAHEGONGREN,YEJIUSHIBUDUANZAISHENGCHANCHUZIBENJIADUIGONGRENDEBOXUE。SUOYI,CONGLISHIWEIWUZHUYIDESHIJIAOLAIKAN,GUDINGZIBENBENSHENTIXIANLEZIBENJIADUIGONGRENBUDUANBOXUEDEGUOCHENG,ERZHEIZHONGGUOCHENGZHENGSHIZIBENZHUYINEIZAIMAODUNBUDUANJIHUADEGUOCHENG。YOUCIKEJIAN,DUIGUDINGZIBENDEFENXISHIMAKESITONGXIANGDUIZIBENZHUYIKEGUANDENEIZAIMAODUNDEFENXIDAOLU,YESHIMAKESIDELISHIWEIWUZHUYIZHEXUEBUDUANSHENHUADELUJING。

                                      ZAIZHEIYILILUNBUZHANZHONGMAKESIWANCHENGLEKETIXIANSUOYUZHUTIXIANSUODERONGHE。YEZHENGSHIDUIGUDINGZIBENDEZHUNQUEFENXI,QUERENLEQIZHONGZHUTIDELILIANG。YINWEIZAIJIQIDAGONGYEXIA,GONGRENTUIDAOLEGUDINGZIBENZHIPANG,JISHU、ZHILIDENGDENGDOUBEIXIAOJIEDEGONGRENRUHENENGGOUZHUDONGCHENGDANQIJIEFANGDELILIANGNI?MAKESIDELILUNSILUCONGZAOQIDEZHUTIFANKANGDELUJINGZOUXIANGKETINEIZAIMAODUNFENXIDELUJING。DANGRAN,MAKESIBINGMEIYOUFANGQIZHUTIDEXIANSUO,ERSHIJIANGZHUTIDEXIANSUOYUKETIDEXIANSUORONGWEIYITI。ZIBENZHUYISHEHUIBENSHENDEMAODUNLAIZIYUGUDINGZIBENSUOCHENGZAIDESHENGCHANLIYUSHENGCHANGUANXIDENEIZAIMAODUN,GUDINGZIBENSUOCHENGZAIDEKEGUANMAODUNYUNDONGCAISHIZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIDEZHUTI,WULUNSHIJIQIHAISHIGONGRENDOUBUNENGGOUCHENGZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIDEZHUTI。CONGER,SHEHUIJIEFANGDELUJINGLAIZIYUGUDINGZIBENSUOCHENGZAIDEKEGUANDENEIZAIMAODUN。TONGGUODUIGUDINGZIBENZHEIYIGAINIANDESHENCENGPOUXI,KEYISHIXIANWEIWUSHIGUANYUZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEPIPANLILUNDETONGYI。

                                      三、西方学者重拾固定资本的意义及其局限性

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   SUIZHEDANGJINSHEHUICONGGONGYESHEHUIZHUANXIANGHOUGONGYESHEHUI,SHEHUISHENGCHANFANGSHIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGYOUBIEYUMAKESIDANGNIANSUOLUNSHUDEJIQIDAGONGYESHEHUI。ZAISHEHUILINGYUZHONG,JINRONGLINGYUHEXINYONGTIXIYUELAIYUEZHANJUZHUDAODIWEI,SHENGCHANGUOCHENGKAISHICHUXIANLEYIRENDEZHILIYINSUWEIZHUDAODETIXI。ZAIZHEIYANGDESHEHUIZHUANXINGJIZHIXIA,XIFANGXUEZHEDUIGUDINGZIBENJIYULEGENGDUODEGUANZHUDU,DAIBIAORENWUYOUHAWEI、NAIGELIDENGREN。DANSHIRUGUOBUNENGCONGLISHIWEIWUZHUYISHIJIAODUIGUDINGZIBENJINXINGSHENKEPOUXI,NEIMEBIRANHUIQUJIEMAKESIDEGUDINGZIBENGAINIAN。YINCI,ZHONGSHIGUDINGZIBENGAINIAN,HUIYINGXIFANGXUEZHETICHUDEWENTIJUYOUYIDINGDELILUNHEXIANSHIYIYI。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   JIYUSHEHUIZHUANXINGJIZHI,XIFANGXUEZHECONGBUTONGLILUNSHIJIAOGUANZHUGUDINGZIBEN。HAWEICONGKETIWEIDUGUANZHULEMAKESIDEGUDINGZIBEN,ZAITADEZHEZUO《GENDAWEI·HAWEIDU〈ZIBENLUN〉》(DIERJUAN)HE《ZIBENDEXIANDU》ZHONGZHUANMENKAIPILEZHANGJIELAILUNSHUGUDINGZIBEN。NAIGELIZAI2017NIANCANJIANANJINGDAXUEDEHUIYISHISUOTIJIAODEHUIYILUNWENZHONGZHUANMENTANTAOLEGUDINGZIBEN———《GUDINGZIBENDEZHANYOU:YIGEYINYU?》。YIHAWEIHENAIGELIWEIDAIBIAODEXIFANGXUEZHEWEISHENMEHUIZHONGSHIMAKESIDEGUDINGZIBENLILUNNI?TAMENRUHELIJIEGUDINGZIBEN?TAMENDUIMAKESIDEGUDINGZIBENDELIJIESHUOMINGSHENME?JIEXIALAIXIANGXITANTAOZHEILIANGGEXUEZHEDUIGUDINGZIBENDEFENXI。

                                      SHOUXIANTANTAOHAWEIDUIGUDINGZIBENDEFENXI。HAWEIDUIGUDINGZIBENDEFENXIJIZHONGZAILIANGGEFANGMIAN:

                                      YIFANGMIAN,HAWEIYUGUOWAIHENDUOXUEZHEYIYANGGUANZHULE《GUDINGZIBENYUSHEHUISHENGCHANLIDEFAZHAN》ZHEIYIZHANGJIE,ZHEISHIZAIYANJIUGUDINGZIBENSHIWUFAGUIBIDENEIRONG。“KEXUEZHISHIDENGRENLEICHUANGZAOLIDEWUCHANGKUIZENGYIJI‘CHUNCANTUSI’SHIDELAODONGTONGGUOBUTONGFANGSHIJINRUZIBENXUNHUAN。DANMAKESIWEIYIGANXINGQUDESHITASUOWEIDE‘PUBIANZHISHI’,JUTISHUOJIUSHIJISHUHEKEXUEZHISHIRUHEQIANRUGUDINGSHENGCHANZIBEN,CONGERYIJIXIEZIDONGHUA(ZAIWOMENDESHIDAISHITONGGUOJIQIRENHERENGONGZHINENG)QUDAIHEBODUOLAODONG。TATONGGUOGUDINGZIBENXINGSHIYINGXIANGLAODONGSHENGCHANLV。MAKESIRENWEIKEXUEZHISHIBENSHENJIUSHIMIANFEIPIN。”[6]HAWEIZHEIDUANHUAJIUSHIZAITAOLUNMAKESI《57—58NIANSHOUGAO》ZHONGDE《GUDINGZIBENYUSHEHUISHENGCHANLIDEFAZHAN》ZHEIYIZHANGJIE,GUOWAIXUEZHEJIANGCIFANYICHENG“JIQILUNPIANDUAN”。CONGFANYIKEYIKANCHU,HAWEIHEGUOWAIDABUFENXUEZHESHICONGWUDEWEIDULAIKANGUDINGZIBEN。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   CONGLISHIWEIWUZHUYIZHEXUELAIKAN,HAWEIYUGUDIANZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEJIAYIYANGJIANGWUJINJINKANZUOSHIWU,QUESHAOLESHEHUIGUANXIDEWEIDU。MAKESIDEWUSHIWUHESHEHUIGUANXISHUANGZHONGWEIDU。GUDINGZIBENBUJINJINSHIJIQI、CHANGFANGDENGKANDEJIANMODEZHEDEWU,GENGSHIZIBENJIAHEGONGRENZHIJIANDESHEHUIGUANXI,SHIZIBENJIADUIGONGRENZHIJIANDEBOXUEYUBEIBOXUEDEGUANXI。SUOYI,MAKESISUOSHIYONGGUDINGZIBENZHEIYIGAINIANTEZHIZIBENZHUYISHEHUIGUANXIXIADEGUDINGZIBEN。ZHENGSHIYINWEIHAWEIWUFACONGSHEHUILISHIGUANDEJIAODUQULIJIEMAKESI,SUOYITACAIHUIRENWEIMAKESI“FANGFODIAOJINLEBAIWUJIAODEXIANJING,ERZHEIQIAHAOSHITAJIQIPINFANDIYUYICHIZEDE”[7]343。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   LINGYIFANGMIAN,HAWEIDUIGUDINGZIBENKAOCHADELILUNSHIYUCONGSHENGCHANGUOCHENGYANSHENDAOLIUTONGGUOCHENG,BINGQIEPIPINGMAKESIJIANGTAOLUNDELILUNYUXIANDINGZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGJUYOUYIDINGDEJUXIANXING。“YOUCIKEJIAN,WOMENRUGUOMEIYOUCHEDIKAOCHAHUOBIZIBENHELIXI,ZAITAOLUNGUDINGZIBENDEZHEIZHONGLIUTONGXINGSHISHIJIUMEIFAZOUDEHENYUAN。ZHENGSHICHUYUZHEIGEYUANYIN,MAKESIZAITANTAOGUDINGZIBENDEDUANLUOZHONGPAICHULEDUIZHEIGEWENTIDEJINYIBUKAOCHA,JINJINTANTAOLEFENGBIZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGDEGUDINGZIBEN。”[7]364HAWEIDUI《ZIBENLUN》DEFENXICEZHONGDIERJUANHEDISANJUAN,ZHISUOYIYOULILUNSHIYUDEZHUANHUANSHIYINWEITAKANDAOZAIXINDELISHISHIQIZIBENZHUYICHUXIANLEXINXIANXIANG,TAJIANGLILUNSHIYUYANSHENDAOXINYONGTIXI、JINRONGDENGLINGYU,CONGGUDINGZIBENDESHENGCHANGUOCHENGYANSHENDAOLIUTONGGUOCHENG。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   BUKEFOURENMAKESIDE《ZIBENLUN》DIERJUANSHIZAITAOLUNZIBENDELIUTONGGUOCHENG,DANSHIMAKESIDE《ZIBENLUN》DIERJUANSUIRANSHIFENXILIUTONGGUOCHENG,DANLILUNJICHUSHIDIYIJUAN,ERDIYIJUANFENXIDESHIZIBENZHUYINEIZAIMAODUNDEYUNDONGJILI,DIERJUANYUDIYIJUANDEGUANXISHIBENZHIZAIXIANXIANGCENGMIANDEZHANXIAN,CONGFANGFALUNJIAODULAIKAN,ZHEISHIMAKESIDECONGCHOUXIANGSHANGSHENGDAOJUTIDEFANGFALUNDELUOJIJINCHENG。RUGUOBUNENGLIJIEDIYIJUANZHEIYIBENZHINEIRONG,NEIMEDIERJUANZHEIYIBENZHIZAIXIANXIANGCENGMIANDEZHANXIANJIUHUIBEIDANGZUOJINGYANLAILIJIE,HAWEIJIUSHICONGXIANXIANGCENGMIANLAILIJIE《ZIBENLUN》DEDIERJUANDENEIRONG,YINCIHAWEIDUILIUTONGGUOCHENGDELIJIEJIUHUIJINGYANHUA。

                                      ZAIFENXIGUDINGZIBENDEZHEJIUSHI,HAWEIJIANGMAKESIDEGUDINGZIBENDEZHEJIUCHENGZUOWEI“XIANXINGJIAZHIZHUANYI”MOXING。SHIJISHANGSHITAZIJIZAIXIANXINGCENGMIANJIEDUZIBENLUN,ZHEIYIDIANKEYICONGTADESHUIXUNHUANTUKANCHU。HAWEIYONGSHUIXUNHUANTULAIBIAOSHIZIBENXUNHUANDADARUOHUALEZIBENDESHEHUILISHINEIRONG。MAKESIZAI《ZIBENLUN》XUYANZHONGSHUOGUO,“FENXIJINGJIXINGSHI,JIBUNENGYONGXIANWEIJING,YEBUNENGYONGHUAXUESHIJI。ERZHEDOUBIXUYONGCHOUXIANGLILAIDAITI。”[4]8YANJIUSHEHUILISHIGUOCHENGBUNENGYONGJIEPOUDAO,YAOYONGCHOUXIANGLI。SHIJISHANGHAWEISHIYONGJIEPOUDAOFENXIDANGDAIZIBENZHUYISHEHUICHUXIANDEXINWENTI,DANSHIYANJIUJUTIDESHEHUIWENTIZHIQIANRUGUOMEIYOUNONGQINGCHUCHOUXIANGDELILUNWENTIJIUZHIHUITINGLIUYUXIANXIANGCENGMIANDEFENXI。HAWEIQIANGDIAO《ZIBENLUN》SANJUANBENDEWANZHENGXINGSHIFEICHANGZHUNQUEDE,DANSHIHAWEISHICONGXIANXINGCENGMIANLAIHUAFENSANJUANBEN。SHIJISHANG,MAKESIDE《ZIBENLUN》SANJUANBENSHICONGCHOUXIANGSHANGSHENGDAOJUTIDELILUNLUJING,SHIBENZHIZAIXIANXIANGCENGMIANDEZHUBUZHANXIAN。ZAIJINRONGDENGLINGYUCHUXIANDEMAODUNSHIZIBENZHUYIDEBENZHIMAODUNZAIXINDELISHITIAOJIANXIASUOZHANXIANCHULAIDEXINDEMAODUNXIANXIANG,RUGUOBUZHUAZHUBENZHIMAODUNJIUHUIBEIZHEIXIEXIANXIANGMIHUOSHUANGYAN。HAWEISUOPIPANDELILUNSHIJIAOYOUYIDINGDEHELIXING,DANZHEIXIEWENTIBUSHIBENZHIWENTI。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   CONGYISHANGFENXIKEJIANHAWEIDUIGUDINGZIBENDEGUANZHUSHIZAIKETICENGMIAN,ERNAIGELIDUIGUDINGZIBENDEGUANZHUZEJUJIAOZAIZHUTICENGMIAN。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   NAIGELIRENWEI,MAKESIDANGNIANSUOTAOLUNDELILUNSHIYUSHIJIQIDAGONGYESHIDAI,DANGJINSHEHUIYIJINGJINRUDAOHOUGONGYESHIDAI,SHENGCHANFANGSHIYIJINGSHIXIANLECONGWUZHISHENGCHANDAOFEIWUZHISHENGCHANDEZHUANBIAN,GONGRENDELAODONGYECONGGONGYESHEHUIZHONGDEWUZHILAODONGZHUANXIANGLEHOUGONGYESHEHUIZHONGDEFEIWUZHILAODONG,GONGRENZHONGXINCHENGWEISHENGCHANDEZHUTI。TADUIGUDINGZIBENDELIJIEZAIXUELICENGMIANYEYOUSUOTUIJIN。ZAIHUIYILUNWEN《GUDINGZIBENDEZHANYOU:YIGEYINYU?》ZHEIPIANWENZHANGZHONG,TAZHEZHONGFENXILEGUDINGZIBEN。

                                      NAIGELIRENWEIDANGJINSHEHUIYIJINGJINRUSHUZIHUAJIQISHIDAI,GONGRENDELAODONGBIANCHENGLERENZHILAODONG。YOUYULAODONGFANGSHIFASHENGGAIBIAN,CONGWUZHILAODONGZHUANBIANWEIFEIWUZHILAODONG,NEIMESUIZHEKEXUEJISHUDEFAZHAN,GONGRENKEYIZHONGXINZHANYOUGUDINGZIBEN。“DANGMAKESIDUANYANZAI《ZIBENLUN》ZHONGTONGCHANGBEILIJIEWEIZUOWEIJIQIWANGLUODEGUDINGZIBEN,YIJINGBIANCHENGLE‘RENBENSHEN’SHI,TAYUYANLEZIBENZAIWOMENSHIDAIZHONGDEFAZHAN。SUIRANGUDINGZIBENZHIBUGUOSHIBEIZIBENSUOZHANYOUDELAODONGDECHANWU;SUIRANBEIMAKESICHENGWEI‘YIBANZHILI’DESHENGCHANLIHEKEXUEHUODONGDEJILEIBEINARUDAOSHOUZIBENKONGZHIDEJIQIZHIZHONG;ZUIZHONG,SUIRANZIBENWUCHANGDIZHANYOUZHEIYIQIE———DANSHI,ZAIZIBENZHUYIFAZHANDEMOUXIESHIKE,HUOLAODONGFAHUICHUDIANDAOZHEIZHONGGUANXIDELILIANG。”[8]CONGZHEILIKEYIKANDAO,YUHAWEIGUANZHUKETIBUTONG,NAIGELIDUIJIQILUNPIANDUANDEGUANZHUZHONGDIANSHI“YIBANZHILI”HE“HUOLAODONG”,TAGENGGUANZHUZHUTIDELILIANG,ZHEIYUTAZAI《DAGANG:CHAOYUEMAKESIDEMAKESI》ZHEIYIZAOQIZHEZUOZHONGDESILUSHIYIZHIDE,DANYOUYOUSUOFAZHAN。ZAIZHEIPIANWENZHANGZHONG,TAYIRANZHANGYANGGEMINGDEZHUTIXING,DANZHEILITADUIZHUTIXINGDEZHANGYANGSHIJIYUDUIXINSHIDAIDEPANDUAN。NAIGELIRENWEI,MAKESIZAOYIYUYANSHENGCHANFANGSHIDEZHUANHUANZHEIYIWENTI,ZHEIJIUSHIMAKESIZAI《57—58NIANSHOUGAO》ZHONGSUOLUNSHUDE,“GUDINGZIBENDEFAZHANBIAOMING,YIBANSHEHUIZHISHI,YIJINGZAIDUOMEDADECHENGDUSHANGBIANCHENGLEZHIJIEDESHENGCHANLI,CONGERSHEHUISHENGHUOGUOCHENGDETIAOJIANBENSHENZAIDUOMEDADECHENGDUSHANGSHOUDAOYIBANZHILI(general intellect)DEKONGZHIBINGANZHAOZHEIZHONGZHILIDEDAOGAIZAO。”[1]102ZAIZHEILI,MAKESIJIANGGUDINGZIBENYUYIBANZHILIDENGTONGQILAI,ZHEIZHENGSHINAIGELIDENGRENGUANZHUJIQILUNPIANDUANDECHUCHANGYUJING。

                                      YUCITONGSHI,MAKESIYOUZHICHU,“JIEYUELAODONGSHIJIANDENGYUZENGJIAZIYOUSHIJIAN,JIZENGJIASHIGERENDEDAOCHONGFENFAZHANDESHIJIAN,ERGERENDECHONGFENFAZHANYOUZUOWEIZUIDADESHENGCHANLIFANZUOYONGYULAODONGSHENGCHANLI。CONGZHIJIESHENGCHANGUOCHENGDEJIAODULAIKAN,JIEYUELAODONGSHIJIANKEYIKANZUOSHENGCHANGUDINGZIBEN,ZHEIZHONGGUDINGZIBENJIUSHIRENBENSHEN。”[1]107-108ZHEIYIDIANZHENGSHINAIGELIDENGYIDALIZIZHIZHUYIZHECONGZHONGSHENGFACHUGEMINGDEZHUTILILIANGDECHUCHANGLUJING。TAMENRENWEIGUDINGZIBENJIEYUELAODONGSHIJIANCONGERGERENYOULEGENGDUODEFAZHANKONGJIAN,ZHEISHIMAKESIYUYANZIBENZAIWOMENSHIDAIDEFAZHAN,SUOYITAJINJINZHUAZHU“HUOLAODONG”DEDIANDAODELILIANG。“JINTIANWOMENKEYIZHENZHENGDITANLUNZAIZIZHUSHEHUIKONGZHIZHIXIADEZHINENGJIQIDEYITIHUAYUGONGRENDUIGUDINGZIBENDEZHONGXINZHANYOU。”[8]SHIJISHANG,NAIGELIMEIYOUKANDAOMAKESILUNSHUDEGENGSHENCENGCIDENEIRONG,NEIJIUSHIMAKESISUOSHUODE“GUDINGZIBENJIUSHIRENBENSHEN”ZHEIYIJUHUADEFENLIANG。SUIRANMAKESIYUYANDAOZIBENZAIWOMENSHIDAIDEFAZHAN,DANSHIBINGFEIRUNAIGELISUOSHUODEKEYICONGZHONGKANDAOHUOLAODONGDEZHUTIDELILIANG。MAKESIZHEIJUHUADESHENCENGYIYUNSHIWULUNSHIWUZHILAODONGHAISHIFEIWUZHILAODONG,RUJINZIBENYIJINGWANCHENGLEDUISUOYOUGONGRENDELAODONGZHIMIN。CONGJINGYANCENGMIANLAIKAN,GONGRENDELAODONGFANGSHIQUESHIYOUSUOGAIBIAN,YOUDELAODONGZHECHUMAIDESHIZIJIDEZHISHI、ZHILIDENGYINSU,YEJIUSHINAIGELITICHUDEFEIWUZHILAODONG,DANSHIZHEIBINGMEIYOUGAIBIANZIBENDUIGONGRENDETONGZHIDEFANGSHI,WULUNSHIWUZHILAODONGHAISHIFEIWUZHILAODONGDOUMEIYOUGAIBIANBEIZIBENTONGZHIDEMINGYUN。

                                    棋牌大全下载安装   RUJINGUDINGZIBENYOULEXINDENEIRONG,CHULEMAKESIDANGNIANSUOLUNSHUDEZAIJIQIDAGONGYEXIADEYIJIQITIXIWEIDIANXINGDAIBIAODEGUDINGZIBEN,ZAIHOUGONGYESHIDAI,ZIBENSUOZHUIZHUDESHIKANBUJIANMOBUZHEDEGUDINGZIBEN,JIGONGRENDEZHILI、ZHISHIDENG,YEJIUSHINAIGELISUOSHUODEFEIWUZHILAODONG,ZHEICHENGWEIGUDINGZIBENDEXINNEIRONG,ZHEIBIAOMINGZIBENZAIGENGXINGENGGUANGFANDEYIYISHANGLAOLAODITONGZHIZHEGONGREN,WANCHENGLEDUIGONGRENGENGGUANGFANDESHENGMINGZHENGZHIDETONGZHI,JIANGSUOYOUDELAODONGFANGSHIDOULAOLAODIZHANGWOZAIZIJIDETONGZHIZHIXIA。ZAIZHEIYANGDEQINGKUANGXIA,MAKESIDEGUDINGZIBENBUSHIJIANDANDEWU,TACHENGZAIDESHIZIBENJIADUIGONGRENDEBOXUE,ZHEIZHONGBOXUESHENKEDITIXIANZAIZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONG。SUOYIDUIGUDINGZIBENDELIJIEBIXUSHENHUADAOLISHIWEIWUZHUYIDEJIAODUQUFAXIANGUDINGZIBENSHENSHANGSUOTIXIANCHULAIDEZIBENZHUYIDENEIZAIMAODUN。XIFANGXUEZHEYIHAWEIHENAIGELIWEIDAIBIAOZAIMIANDUIDANGDAISHEHUISHENGCHANFANGSHIDEZHUANXINGGUOCHENGZHONG,CONGGUDINGZIBENZHEIYIGAINIANZHONGSUONENGYINSHENCHUDEZHEXUENEIHANWUFEISHIRENDUIWUDESHENGCHANHUOCHUANGZAOGUOCHENGSUOJUYOUDEJIEFANGYIYI,DANZHEIZHONGLIJIESHIYIDUISHENGCHANGUOCHENGDESHEHUILISHINEIHANDERUOHUAWEIQIANTIDE。ZHENGSHIYINWEIBUNENGCONGSHEHUILISHIGUOCHENGLAILIJIEGUDINGZIBEN,YINCIYAOMEZOUXIANGXIANXIANGCENGMIANDELIUTONGGUOCHENGDEJINGYANFENXI,YAOMEZOUXIANGXUANSHEDEZHUTIFANKANGDAOLU。ERRUGUOWOMENQINGXIDIBAWOZHULEGUDINGZIBENZHEIYIGAINIANBENSHENSUOJUYOUDESHEHUILISHIGUANNEIHAN,JILISHIWEIWUZHUYIDEZHEXUENEIHAN,NEIME,GUDINGZIBENSHENSHANGSUOYUNHANDEJIEFANGYIYIQISHIJIUSHISHEHUILISHIGUOCHENGSUOYUNHANDEJIEFANGYIYI。

                                      参考文献

                                      [1]马克思恩格斯全集:第31卷[M].北京:人民出版社,1998.
                                      [2]马克思恩格斯全集:第45卷[M].北京:人民出版社,2003.
                                      [3]唐正东.“一般智力”的历史作用:马克思的解读视角及其当代意义[J].马克思主义与现实,2012(4):42-47.
                                      [4]马克思恩格斯全集:第44卷[M].北京:人民出版社,2001.
                                      [5] 马克思恩格斯全集:第46卷[M].北京:人民出版社,2003.
                                      [6]大卫·哈维.马克思与资本论[M].北京:中信出版集团,2018:154-155.
                                      [7]大卫·哈维.资本的限度[M].北京:中信出版集团,2017.
                                    棋牌大全下载安装   [8] 奈格里.固定资本的占有:一个隐喻?[C].黄璐,译.南京大学会议论文,2017.

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