棋牌大全下载安装

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                              • 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 社会哲学论文 > 王阳明的天理观及其对朱子思想的延续

                                王阳明的天理观及其对朱子思想的延续

                                时间:2019-03-21 10:09作者:叶云
                                本文导读:这是一篇关于王阳明的天理观及其对朱子思想的延续的文章,历来研究阳明心学,多论其与朱子学之异,少说其同。阳明是通过反朱子而起家的,在批评朱子并重新建构儒家思想的同时,不可避免地会共享着一些思想前提。

                                  摘    要:棋牌大全下载安装 王阳明虽以批评朱子起家,但也继承了朱子天理思想。在阐释良知时,阳明在相当程度上就是从天理的角度来说的;在天理、人欲之辨上,王阳明也承袭了朱子的基本立场。阳明对朱子天理思想的继承为良知的客观性、普遍性作出了有力论证,也带来了问题。首先,以天理为心之本体、为至善者,以人欲、私欲为恶,这看上去似乎没什么问题,但在“去得人欲,便识天理”的论调下,理与欲就处于非此即彼的关系中。如此,感性欲望的地位就不得独立,意义就不得彰显。其次,以超验的天理诠释良知,会使作为人内在成德根据的良知抽象化,从而使阳明心学陷入二重性的困境,在学理上有走向分化和破败的可能。

                                  关键词: 王阳明; 朱子; 良知; 天理; 人欲;

                                  Abstract: Although Wang Yangming set up his mind by criticizing Zhu Zi, he also inherited Zhu Zi's Tianli thought. Yangming explained conscience from the point of the thought of Tianli to a great extent and he also inherited Zhu Zi's attitude to distinguishing Tianli and Renyu. Though Yangming's inheritance made a great contribution to demonstrating the objectivity and the universality of conscience, it brought problems. First, there is no problem in treating Tianli as summum bonum and Renyu as evil. But the relationship of Li and Yu became either this or that in the argument of “extinguish Renyu. If so, the status of desire cannot become independent and its significance is not obvious. Second, it will make conscience transcendental when explaining conscience by abstract Tianli. This would also make Yangming's theory fall into duality dilemma, and became divided and ruined.

                                  Keyword:棋牌大全下载安装 Wang Yangming; Zhu Zi; conscience; Tianli; Renyu;

                                  LILAIYANJIUYANGMINGXINXUE,DUOLUNQIYUZHUZIXUEZHIYI,SHAOSHUOQITONG。YANGMINGSHITONGGUOFANZHUZIERQIJIADE,ZAIPIPINGZHUZIBINGZHONGXINJIANGOURUJIASIXIANGDETONGSHI,BUKEBIMIANDIHUIGONGXIANGZHEYIXIESIXIANGQIANTI。RUCI,YANGMINGXINXUEBIYOUJICHENGZHUZILIXUEZHICHU。CHENGRULIUSHUXIANXIANSHENGSUOYAN:“YANGMINGZHIXUESUIYUZHUXUEGEGEBURU,QIXUESHIYUGEWUXINJIE,JIYIZHUZIWEIPIPINGZHIDUIXIANG。WANNIANXIE‘DAXUEWEN’,DUIQIBENSHENDETIYANZIYOUGENGTOUCHEDEFAHUI,RANQILILUNZHIGUIMOQUERENGXUYAOJIEZHUXUEZHIDUIFANERYIXIAN。ZAICIYIXIA,YEKEWEIZHUXUEWEIWANGXUEZHIYIZHONGYAOYUANYUAN。”[1]493ERJIUYANGMINGSHUOFABENSHENLAIKAN,TADUIYUZHUZIXUEYEBINGWEIYIWEIBIANCHI。XIANGFAN,TACHONGFENKENDINGZHUZIQIREN、QIXUE,RENWEI“HUIANZHIYUXIANGSHAN,SUIQISUOWEIXUEZHERUOYOUBUTONG,ERYAOJIEBUSHIWEISHENGRENZHITU”“FUHUIANZHEZHONGQUNRUZHISHUO,YIFAMING《LIUJING》《YU》《MENG》ZHIZHIYUTIANXIA,QIJIAHUIHOUXUEZHIXIN,ZHENYOUBUKEDEERYIZHE”[2]845-846。YANGMINGRENWEIZIJISUOZUODEGONGZUOBUGUOSHIKUANGZHENG、BUZHENGZHUZI,TAFEIDALIQIBIANZHUANDE《ZHUZIWANNIANDINGLUN》,JISHIMINGZHENG。RUCI,TAOLUNYANGMINGDUIZHUZISIXIANGZHIJICHENG,WUYIYOUZHUYULIJIEYANGMINGSIXIANGDENEIZAIYILIJIQIWENTI。

                                  一、以天理释良知

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                                  朱子所谓“格物”云者,在即物而穷其理也。即物穷理,是就事事物物上求其所谓定理者也。是以吾心而求理于事事物物之中,析“心”与“理”而为二矣。……若鄙人所谓致知格物者,致吾心之良知于事事物物也。吾心之良知,即所谓天理也。致吾心良知之天理于事事物物,则事事物物皆得其理矣。致吾心之良知者,致知也。事事物物皆得其理者,格物也。是合心与理而为一者也。[2]49-50
                                 

                                王阳明的天理观及其对朱子思想的延续
                                 

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                                  二、天理、人欲之辨

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                                  CONGSIXIANGDENEIZAIJIEGOUKAN,YANGMINGTICHUCUNTIANLI、QURENYUSHILILUNDEBIRANJIEGUO。CONGGONGFUJIAOFADEJIAODULAIKAN,YESHIRUCI。GUANYUCUNTIANLI、QURENYUDEZHUZHANG,YANGMINGYOUDUOZHONGBIAOSHU。BIRU:

                                  QUDERENYU,BIANSHITIANLI。[2]25

                                棋牌大全下载安装   SHENGRENZHISUOYIWEISHENG,ZHISHIQIXINCHUNHUTIANLI,ERWURENYUZHIZA。YOUJINGJINZHISUOYIWEIJING,DANYIQICHENGSEZUERWUTONGQIANZHIZAYE。RENDAOCHUNHUTIANLIFANGSHISHENG,JINDAOZUSEFANGSHIJING。……WUBEIYONGGONGZHIQIURIJIAN,BUQIURIZENG。JIANDEYIFENRENYU,BIANSHIFUDEYIFENTIANLI。HEDENGQINGKUAITUOSA!HEDENGJIANYI![2]30-31

                                  JIANDEYIFENRENYUBIANSHIFUDEYIFENTIANLI、SHENGRENNAINEIXINCHUNHUTIANLIZHIREN,ZHEIZHENGSHIZHUZILIXUEDEDIANXINGSHUOFA。ZHIBUGUO,YANGMINGJIANGTIANLILUOZAIXINTIHELIANGZHISHANGJIANG,RUCI,XINYULIDEGUANXIBUZAISHIWAIZAIDE、GUANSHEDE“XINJUZHONGLI”SHIDEGUANXI,ERSHINEIZAIDE、BENZHIDE、XINYULIWEIYIDEGUANXI。QUCHUYISIRENYUZHIZA,JISHIHUIFUYISITIANLIZHICHUN,LIANGZHIDEBENRANZHISHANYEJIUDEDAOLECHENGMINGHEXIANFA。YINCI,DAODEGONGFUBUZAISHIWAIXIANGXINGDEGEWUQIONGLI,ERSHIXIANGNEIZUOJIANFA,ZUOCUNLI、QUYUDEJIANYIGONGFU。ZAIXIANGDANGZHANGYIGEJIEDUANNEI,YANGMINGBACUNTIANLI、QURENYUSHIWEIGONGFUDEZONGZHI。“SHENGRENSHU《LIUJING》,ZHISHIYAOZHENGRENXIN,ZHISHIYAOCUNTIANLI、QURENYU。”[2]9“XUEZHEXUESHENGREN,BUGUOSHIQURENYUERCUNTIANLIER。”[2]30ZHUZI“CUNTIANLI,MIERENYU”DEMINGTIBEIYANGMINGBIAOSHUWEI“CUNTIANLI,QURENYU”。ERZHEBIAODASUILVEYOUYI,YIYIHEJINGSHENQUENEIZAIXIANGTONG。

                                  CONGYANGMINGGONGFUJIAOFAFAZHANDEGUOCHENGLAIKAN,CUNTIANLI、QURENYUDETICHUSHIWEILEDUIZHIJINGZUOZHIBI。ZHEIBIAOMING,CUNTIANLI、QURENYUSHIDUIJINGZUOGONGFUDEYANGQI。DANTABINGBUYIWEIZHEYANGMINGFANGQILEJINGDEGONGFU,XIANGFAN,JINGDEGONGFUYEBEIHANSHEZAIQIZHONGLE。ZAIJIESHICUNLIQUYUGONGFUYUDONG、JINGDEGUANXISHI,YANGMINGJIANG:

                                  ZHIYAOQURENYU、CUNTIANLI,FANGSHIGONGFU。JINGSHINIANNIANQURENYU、CUNTIANLI,DONGSHINIANNIANQURENYU、CUNTIANLI,BUGUANNINGJINGBUNINGJING。RUOKAONEININGJING,BUWEIJIANYOUXIJINGYANDONGZHIBI,ZHONGJIANXUDUOBINGTONG,ZHISHIQIANFUZAI,ZHONGBUNENGJUEQU,YUSHIYIJIUZIZHANG。YIXUNLIWEIZHU,HECHANGBUNINGJING;YININGJINGWEIZHU,WEIBINENGXUNLI。[2]15

                                  YIJINGWEIZHU,JIUHUICHUXIANJINGSHININGJING,DONGSHIQUEYOUBUZHIRUHEYINGSHIJIEWUDEWENTI。ERZAICUNTIANLI、QURENYUDEGONGFUZHONG,DONG、JINGBUZAISHIHENGLIANGGONGFUSHIFOUYOUCHENGXIAODEBIAOZHUN。SUOWEINIANNIANZHIYAOCUNTIANLI、QURENYU,BULUNSHIJINGDEJIEDUAN,HAISHIDONGDEJIEDUAN,DOUBAOKUOZAINEI。ZAICIJIAOFAXIA,GONGFUBINGBUQUFENDONG、JING,ZHIYAOSHISHIYIRENXINBENRANDEZHISHANTIANLIZUOWEIZHIYIN,JIUZIRANNENGJIANGRENDEXINGWEIDAOXIANGSHANDEJIEGUO。YANGMINGHOULAITICHU“SHISHANGMOLIAN”,BUGUOSHICUNTIANLI、QURENYUGONGFUZAIDONGDEJIEDUANZHANXIANERYI。YIHOUYANGMINGZHENGSHITICHUZHILIANGZHIJIAO,ZHUZHANGLIANGZHIBENTIYUANWUDONGJING、ZHILIANGZHIGONGFUWUJIANYUDONGJING,SHIWEILILUNDEBIRAN。

                                  三、王阳明天理思想之评价

                                  (一)天理对良知客观性与普遍性之保证

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YANGMINGXINXUEYILIANGZHIWEIJUEDUIQIDIAN,TARENWEILIANGZHISHIMEIGERENTIANSHENGJUYOUDEDAODEGENJU;DANLIANGZHISHIGETIZHUGUANTIYANHEZHIJUEDAODEDONGXI,TASHIFOUJUYOUKEGUAN、PUBIANXINGNI?ZHEIDUIYANGMINGXINXUELAISHUOSHIYIGEGUANJIANDEWENTI。

                                棋牌大全下载安装   WUZHENXIANSHENGZHICHU,“LIANGZHIXUENEIBUDEZHUGUANXINGYUANZEYUKEGUANXINGYUANZEDELILUNJINZHANGSHIZHONGCUNZAI”,YANGMINGSHITU“TONGGUOJIANGLIANGZHITISHENGZHI‘TIANLI’DEGAODU”,YIBIAN“CONGLILUNSHANGZHENGMINGLIANGZHIZUOWEIPINGPANSHANEDEKEGUANBIAOZHUNBUJINSHISHUYUGERENDE,ERQIEHAISHISHUYUZHENGGETIANXIAGUOJIADE”[3]232。KEYISHUO,YANGMINGYONGTIANLIQUANSHILIANGZHIDEYIGEZHONGYAOKAOLV,JIUSHIWEILEBAOZHENGXINTI、LIANGZHIDEKEGUANXING。JUTILAISHUOJIUSHI,BALIANGZHIZHEIZHONGZHUGUANTIYANDAODEDONGXICHANSHIWEIKEGUANWEISUOYOURENJUYOUDEDONGXI。JIYUZHEIYIDIAN,YANGMINGCAIHUIJIANG“LIANGZHISHITIANLIZHIZHAOMINGLINGJUECHU”“LIANGZHIJISHITIANLI”DENG。DUICI,MOUZONGSANCENGYOUJIESHI:“WOMENKEYIBAYANGMINGZHEIJUHUAGENGSHOUJINYIDIANSHUO:LIANGZHISHITIANLIZHIZIRANERMINGJUECHU,TIANLISHILIANGZHIZHIBIRANERBUKEYICHU。LIANGZHISHITIANLIZHIZIRANERMINGJUECHU,ZETIANLISUIKEGUANERYIZHUGUAN;TIANLISHILIANGZHIZHIBIRANERBUKEYICHU,ZELIANGZHISUIZHUGUANERYIKEGUAN。”[8]181HUANYANZHI,YITIANLISHILIANGZHIBENSHENJIUYOUKEGUANHUALIANGZHIDEXIAOLIHEYIYI。

                                  CIWAI,YANGMINGTONGGUOTIANDEPUBIANXINGLAILUNZHENGLIANGZHIXINTIDEPUBIANXING。ZAIYUDIZITAOLUN“XINZHIBENTI”WENTISHI,YANGMINGTICHULE“RENXINSHITIANYUAN”DEMINGTI。TARENWEI,RENXINYUANBENJIUXIANGCANGTIANYIYANGWUSUOBUGAI、XIANGSHENYUANYIYANGWUYOUQIONGJIN,DANWEISIYUZHISAI,CAIHUISANGSHIQIBENRANYANGMAO。ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANG,TAYOUYONGTIANZUOBILAISHUOMING:“BIRUMIANQIANJIANTIAN,SHIZHAOZHAOZHITIAN;SIWAIJIANTIAN,YEZHISHIZHAOZHAOZHITIAN。ZHIWEIXUDUOFANGZIQIANGBIZHEBI,BIANBUJIANTIANZHIQUANTI,RUOCHEQUFANGZIQIANGBI,ZONGSHIYIGETIANYI。BUKEDAOYANQIANSHIZHAOZHAOZHITIAN,WAIMIANYOUBUSHIZHAOZHAOZHITIANYE。”[2]105SHIZE,LIANGZHIDEFAYONGSUIZHIRENYILIZHIZHUDEZHONGZHIYIDUAN,DANJIUCIFAYONGSUOJIANZHIXINTINAIQUANTIERYAN,TASHIWUSUOBUBAO、WUYOUQIONGJINDE,TAHUIZAIBUTONGDECHANGHE、SHIJICHENGXIANCHUBUTONGDEDEXING。ZHEIJIUXIANGTIANYIYANG,BUKESHUOZHIYOUYANQIANSUOJIANDESHIZHAOZHAOZHITIAN,BIECHUBUSHI。JIUZHIYOUYIGETIAN,ZHISHIWOMENDESHIYUBEIZUDUANMEIFAXIANERYI。LIANGZHIDECUNZAIJIQIZUOYONGYESHIRUCI,PUBIANJUZAI。

                                  TONGGUOTIANLILAILUNZHENGLIANGZHIDEPUBIANCUNZAIYIJIQIKEGUANXING,ZHEIZAISONGMINGSHIQIYOUQILISHIXIAOLI,BIJINGDUIYUTIANDEXINYANGZAINEIGESHIDAISHANGWEIBENGTA。YANGMINGXUEFAZHANDAOHOULAI,CHUXIANLEHENDUOLIUBI,WANGXUEDIANJUNLIUJISHANWEIZHI“CHANGKUANGZHECANZHIYIQINGSHI”“CHAOJIEZHEDANGZHIYIXUANXU”。QIZHONG,“XUANXU”JIUSHIBADUIDAODEBENTIDETIYANSHUODEXUANYUAN、XUWU,BUQIESHIJI。WEILEJIEJUEZHEIGEWENTI,JISHANZHUZHANGHUAFENXINZONGHEXINGZONG,TONGGUOXINGZONGLAIBAOZHENGXINZONGDEKEGUANXING,TONGGUOXINGTIANZHIZUNLAIBAOZHENGXINTIDEPUBIANXING,JIEJUEFANGSHIZUIZHONGHAISHISUZHUTIAN。

                                  (二)天理、人欲之辨带来的问题

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YANGMINGZAIJICHENGZHUZITIANLISIXIANGDETONGSHI,YEJICHENGLEQILIYUGUANXIDEJIBENLICHANG,YIJICUNTIANLI、QURENYUDEGONGFUZHUZHANG。YEYINRUCI,TAYOUYANXULEYIXIEZHUZIXUEMIANLINDELILUNNANTI。

                                  ZAIZHUZICHU,TIANLIDENGTONGYUDAOXIN,YUDENGTONGYURENXIN。SUOWEI“CIXINZHILING,QIJUEYULIZHE,DAOXINYE;QIJUEYUYUZHE,RENXINYE”[4]2680。RENXIN、YUSUIBUJIWEIE,DANTARONGYIMEIYOUJIEZHIERGUODU,ZAOCHENGSIYU、RENYUERWEIE。SUOYI,YUWANGHENWEIDAI,RENDESHIJIANBIXUYIDAOXIN、TIANLIWEIZHIYIN。LIYUYUZAIZHUZICHUSUIBURUSHANYUENEIYANGZHIJIEDUILI、XIANGFANERZAI,QUEYESHIFEICIJIBIDEXUANZE——XINYAOMEJUEYULI,YAOMEJUEYUYU。DUIYUZHUZILAISHUO,XINGWEIBUKEYIRENXIN、LIYUWEICHUFADIAN,ERZHINENGCHUYUDAOXIN、TIANLI。YANGMINGMEIYOUXIANGZHUZINEIYANG,DUI“YU”“RENYU”“SIYU”DENGGAINIANZUOCHUXIANGXIDEKAOCHAHEFENBIAN,LIYUYUZHIJIANFEICIJIBINAIZHIZHIJIEDUILIDEGUANXIZAITANEILIGENGJIAMINGXIAN。

                                  BIAOMIANKANLAI,TIANLIWEISHAN,RENYU、SIYUWEIE,WEISHANQUEZHEIMEIYOUSHENMEBUDUI;DANZAIZHEIYANGSUIFEIZHIJIEDUILIQUEFEICIJIBIDELIYUGUANXIZHONG,GANXINGYUWANGBENSHENDEDIWEISHIBUDEDULIHEZHANGXIANDE。ZAIYUANSHIRUXUEZHONG,YUHELISHIBEIKENDINGDEDUIXIANG,RENMENKEYICHUYUNEIZAIYUWANGDESUQIUERZHIJIEXINGDONG。RUKONGZIZHI“SHENSHENRUYE,YAOYAORUYE”(《LUNYU·SHUER》),“SHIBUYANJING,KUAIBUYANXI”(《LUNYU·XIANGDANG》);MENGZIZHI“HAOSE,RENZHISUOYU”“FU,RENZHISUOYU”“GUI,RENZHISUOYU”(《MENGZI·WANZHANGSHANG》);XUNZIZHI“RUOFUMUHAOSE,ERHAOSHENG,KOUHAOWEI,XINHAOLI,GUTIFULIHAOYUYI,SHIJIESHENGYURENZHIQINGXINGZHEYE”(《XUNZI·XINGE》)。ZHIBUGUOKONGMENGXUNSUOCHANGDAODEJUNZI、SHIZHIRENGE,JIANGDAOYIKANDEGENGGAO,YIDAOYIWEIZHONG,GUERBIAOXIANCHUDANBOLIYU、ZHIYUDAOYIDEQUXIANG。MENGZIMINGQUEKENDINGGANXINGYUWANGZHIMANZUWEI“LE”,DANRENWEITABUGUOSHIDICENGJIDE“LE”:“XIANZHEERHOULECI,BUXIANZHESUIYOUCI,BULEYE。”(《MENGZI·LIANGHUIWANGSHANG》)YINCI,DANGYUWANGZHISUQIUYUDAODEYAOQIUXIANGWEIBEISHI,RUZHEJIUDANGSHASHENCHENGREN、SHEYUERQUXIONGZHANGYE。

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YUANSHIRUJIASHASHENCHENGREN、SHESHENQUYIDETAIDUKANSIYUZHUZI、YANGMINGZHILIYUGUANHENXIANG,SHIZEBURAN。ZUIDADEBUTONGZAIYU,ZAIZHUZI、YANGMINGCHU,RENBUKEYIYUYUWANGBENSHENERYOUSUOXINGDONG,ERZHINENGSHI,CHUYUDAOYIDEMINGLINGCAINENGMANZURENJIBENDESHENGCUNXUQIU。ZAICI,YUWANGBENSHENDEDIWEIBUBEIKENDING。JINGUANZHUZI、YANGMINGDENGSONGMINGRUJIABURENWEIYUWANGBENSHENSHIE——ZHIYOUSIYU、RENYUSHIE——DANZAI“QUDERENYU,BIANSHITIANLI”NAIZHI“CUNTIANLI,MIERENYU”DELUNDIAOZHONG,YUWANGBENSHENDEDIWEIMEIFAZHANGXIAN。LIMINGHUIXIANSHENGZHICHU,SONGMINGLIXUEBUNENGSHUOSHIJINYUZHUYI,ZHINENGSHUOSHIDAODEYANGEZHUYI[9]。YANGZEBOXIANSHENGYILEIQISHUO,CHENGQIWEIQUYUZHUYI。[10]

                                  ZAIYANGMINGNEILI,TIANLI、RENYUZHIBIANYEHEZHUZIYIYANG,YUGONGSIZHIBIANNEIZAIXIANGGUAN。YANGMINGDIZIXUAICENGYIZHUZI“SHISHIWUWUJIEYOUDINGLI”QIUJIAO,YANGMINGDAYUE:“YUSHISHIWUWUSHANGQIUZHISHAN,QUESHIYIWAIYE。ZHISHANSHIXINZHIBENTI,ZHISHI‘MINGMINGDE’DAO‘ZHIJINGZHIYI’CHUBIANSHI。RANYIWEICHANGLIQUESHIWU,BENZHUSUOWEI‘JINFUTIANLIZHIJI,ERWUYIHAORENYUZHISI’ZHEDEZHI。”[2]2YOU,YANGMINGCENGLUNCUNTIANLI、QURENYUGONGFUYOUYUN:“XUSHIPINGRIHAOSE、HAOLI、HAOMINGDENGXIANGYIYINGSIXIN,SAOCHUDANGDI,WUFUXIANHAOLIUZHI,ERCIXINQUANTIKUORAN,CHUNSHITIANLI,FANGKEWEIZHIXINUAILE‘WEIFAZHIZHONG’,FANGSHITIANXIAZHI‘DABEN’。”[2]26XIANRAN,ZAIYANGMINGNEILI,TIANLIYURENYUZHISIHUOWOSIXIANGDUILI。TIANLIWEIGONG、WEISHAN,RENYUZHISI、SIYUJIUCHENGLEE,YEJIUSHIYAOBEIQUCHUDEDUIXIANG。DANWENTISHI,SHIBUSHICHUYU“SI”DEYUJIUSHIENI?ZAIYUANRUCHU,“SI”HE“YU”YIYANGSHIBEIKENDINGDEDUIXIANG,“SHENSHENRUYE,YAOYAORUYE”“SHIBUYANJING,KUAIBUYANXI”DOUSHIDUIRENYUWANGZHISIZHIKENDINGDEDIANLI;DANZAIZHUZICHU,“YINSHIZHE,TIANLIYE;YAOQIUMEIWEI,RENYUYE”[5]224,YUKONGZINAIZHIYUYUANSHIRUJIADUIYUYUWANGDETAIDUXIANGCHAJIAODA。SHISHISHANG,YUANSHIRUJIAPANDINGSHAN、EBINGBUSHIYIGONGSIWEIBIAOZHUN,ERSHIYIYIWEIBIAOZHUN。HEYUDAOYIJISHIDAODEDE,BUHEYUDAOYIJIUBUDAODE。YINCI,JIBIANCHUYULI、CHUYUSI,YEBUYIDINGBUDAODE。XIANGJIAOZHIXIA,ZHUZI、YANGMINGYISIWEIE,JIUSHIFOUDINGLESIYUYUDEDIWEI,SHIDEGANXINGYUWANGDEYIYIBUXIAN、DIWEIBUZHANG。PIEKAISHIREN、JUNZIZHEILEIRUJIAYOUGAOYAOQIUDERENBUSHUO,PUTONGLAOBAIXINGDESUQIUZHISHIYISHIBAONUANZHILE,JINERHUOYOUYIMEI、SHIMEIDESUQIU,ZHEIWEIHEYOUBUKENI?

                                  (三)天理与良知之间的二重性矛盾

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YANGMINGZAICHENGXIZHUZITIANLISIXIANGZHISHI,YONGTIANLILAIQUANSHILIANGZHI,TAYOUZIJIDUITIANLIZHEIYIGAINIANDEYONGFA,DANTIANLIBUNENGGULIDIZUOWEIYIGEMINGHAOLAIKANDAI。ZAIZHUZIXUEZHONG,LISHIYIGEJIBENDECUNYOULUNGAINIAN,SHIWUZHICUNZAIJIGENYUANYULI。ZHUZIJIANG:“WUZHISHIWU,SUOYIWEIWUZHILIZHE,NAIDAOYE。”[5]1363TIANLIZAIZHUZIXUEZHONGSHIYIXINGERSHANGXUEDEGAINIAN,TASHIYIQIECUNZAIDEYICUNZAIDEXINGSHANGGENJUHUOBENTI。

                                  YANGMINGZAISHOUZHUZIXUETIANLIGUANNIANYINGXIANGDETONGSHI,XIANRANYESHOUDAOLEZHEIYIZHONGXINGERSHANGXUEDEYINGXIANG。ZAIYITIANLICHANSHILIANGZHIXINTISHI,YANGMINGJIJIANG:

                                  TIANLIZAIRENXIN,GENGUGENJIN,WUYOUZHONGSHI。TIANLIJISHILIANGZHI,QIANSIWANLV,ZHISHIYAOZHILIANGZHI。[2]120

                                棋牌大全下载安装   DAOJISHITIAN,RUOSHIDESHI,HEMOERFEIDAO?RENDANGEYIQIYIYUZHIJIANRENDING,YIWEIDAOZHIRUCI,SUOYIBUTONG。RUOJIEXIANGLIXUNQIU,JIANDEZIJIXINTI,JIWUSHIWUCHUBUSHICIDAO。GENGUGENJIN,WUZHONGWUSHI,GENGYOUSHENTONGYI?XINJIDAO,DAOJITIAN,ZHIXINZEZHIDAO、ZHITIAN。[2]23

                                棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIZHUZINEILI,TIANLIHENGCHANGBIANZAI、GENGUYONGCUN。ZAISHANGSHULUNSHUMAILUOZHONG,LIANGZHIXINTIDEPINXINGYESHIRUCI。GENGUGENJIN、WUYOUZHONGSHI、WUSHIWUCHUBUSHICIDAODENG,MINGXIANJIANGLIANGZHIMIAOSHUWEIYIXINGERSHANGDECHAOYANBENTI,YEJIUSHICHAOYUEJINGYANZHISHANGDECHOUXIANGBENTI。YANGMINGBALIANGZHIXINTIDENGTONGYUTIAN、DAO,LIYOUJIZAIYU,CHOUXIANG、CHAOYANDETIANLIDUIYULIANGZHIDEQUANSHISHIDELIANGZHIZHENGTUOLESHIKONGDEXIANZHI,CHAOYUEYUSHIKONGZHISHANG,GENGUBUBIAN、PUBIANJUZAI。YANGMINGJIANG,XINTIYUTIANDAO“GENGYOUSHENTONGYI”,ZHIBAIDIBIAOMINGLELIANGZHIXINTIDEZHEIZHONGWEIYIXING、JUEDUIXINGYUCHOUXIANGXING。

                                  TIANLIZHISHAN,WEIXINGERSHANGZHE,ERLIANGZHIQUESHIXIANSHIZHONGRENMENNEIXINJUYOUDECHENGDEGENJU。ZAIYITIANLICHANSHILIANGZHIZHISHI,LIANGZHIJIUYOULEERZHONGHUADENEIHAN。DANGYANGMINGSHUO“LIANGZHIZHITIANLI”SHI,CILIANGZHIWEICHAOYAN、YONGHENGBUBIANZHIDAODEBENTI;DANGSHUOYUSHIZIRANERZHI、DANGXIACHENGXIANDELIANGZHISHI,QIWEIJINGYANDE、ZAISHIKONGZHIZHONGDEDAODEBENTI。CILIANGZHEYIWEIJUEDUIDE、CHOUXIANGDEXINGERSHANGXUEBENTI,YIWEIXIANSHISHENGHUOZHONGDE、SHISHIZAIZAIDESHIFEIZHIXIN;YIWEICHAOSHIKONGZHE,YIWEIZAISHIKONGZHIZHONGZHE。ERZHEZHIJIANBIRANYUNHANZHEZHANGLI,SHENZHISHIMAODUNHECHONGTU。ERZHEIZHONGERZHONGXINGDEJINZHANGHUOMAODUN,JIUQIANZANGZHEYANGMINGXINXUEZAIXUELISHANGFENHUAHEBAOLIEDEKENENG。LIZEHOUXIANSHENGCENGZHICHU,“SONGMINGLIXUENULILUNZHENGLUNLIDAODEZHISUOYIBUNENGHEBUYINGKANGJU,SHIYINWEITAYOUCHAOHUGERENHECHAOHUJINGYANDEYIJUHELIYOU。ZHEIJIUSHITIANLIHELIANGZHI”,DAN“TAMENSUOJILIZHUIQIUDECHAOYAN、JUEDUI、PUBIANBIRANDE‘LI’‘XIN’‘XING’,RENGRANLIBUKAIJINGYANDE、XIANGDUIDE、JUTIDE‘QING’‘QI’‘YU’”[11]60-62。YINCI,ZAIDAODEGENJUZHONGJIUBIRANCHONGCHIZHEZIRANYUCHAOZIRAN、LIXINGYUGANXING、XIANYANLIXINGYUJINGYANXIANSHIDENGERYUANDUILI。ZAIXUELISHANG,ZHEISHIDEYANGMINGXINXUEXIANYUERZHONGXINGDEZHANGLIHEKUNJINGZHIZHONG,YESHIDETAYOUZOUXIANGFENHUAHEPOBAIDEKENENG。

                                  参考文献

                                  [1] 刘述先.朱子哲学思想的发展与完成[M].长春:吉林出版集团有限责任公司,2014.
                                  [2] 王阳明.王阳明全集[M].新编本.杭州:浙江古籍出版社,2010.
                                  [3] 吴震.《传习录》精读[M].上海:复旦大学出版社,2011.
                                  [4] 朱熹.朱子全书[M].上海:上海古籍出版社,2002.
                                  [5] 朱熹.朱子语类[M].北京:中华书局,1986.
                                  [6] 杨国荣.王学通论[M].上海:华东师范大学出版社,2003.
                                  [7] 杨泽波.孟子性善论研究[M].修订版.北京:中国人民大学出版社,2010.
                                  [8] 牟宗三.从陆象山到刘蕺山[M].台北:联经出版事业股份有限公司,2003.
                                  [9] 李明辉.朱子对“道心”“人心”的诠释[J].湖南大学学报(社会科学版),2008(1):19-27.
                                  [10] 杨泽波.从义利之辨到理欲之争--论宋明理学“去欲主义”的产生[J].复旦学报(社会科学版),1993(5):35-41.
                                棋牌大全下载安装   [11] 李泽厚.实用理性与乐感文化[M].第2版.修订本.北京:生活·读书·新知三联书店,2008.

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