棋牌大全下载安装

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                • 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 文学论文 > 和顺牛郎织女故事口头传承问题与改进策略

                  和顺牛郎织女故事口头传承问题与改进策略

                  时间:2018-12-24 10:04作者:白春香 孟榕
                  本文导读:这是一篇关于和顺牛郎织女故事口头传承问题与改进策略的文章,牛郎织女传说作为四大传说之一,在世界华人文化圈内,代代相传,影响广泛。在山西以和顺牛郎峪、南天池为中心,方圆三公里内存在着与牛郎织女传说紧密相关的众多古地名和景物名称。

                    摘    要:棋牌大全下载安装 山西和顺是牛郎织女传说传承地之一,传说经由人们以方言口传心授,产生了较多相关异文与韵文,具有作为非物质文化遗产的珍贵文化价值。但是,随着现代化进程的加快,口头传承在传承方式与传承人两方面表现出存在的问题。为适应现代社会文化的需要,只有不断探索丰富多样的传承方式和加强新型传承人的培养,才能够保护与传承好非物质文化遗产,从而振兴乡村文化。

                    关键词: 和顺牛郎织女传说; 口头传承; 非物质文化遗产;

                  棋牌大全下载安装   NIULANGZHINVCHUANSHUOZUOWEISIDACHUANSHUOZHIYI,ZAISHIJIEHUARENWENHUAQUANNEI,DAIDAIXIANGCHUAN,YINGXIANGGUANGFAN。ZAISHANXIYIHESHUNNIULANGYU、NANTIANCHIWEIZHONGXIN,FANGYUANSANGONGLINEICUNZAIZHEYUNIULANGZHINVCHUANSHUOJINMIXIANGGUANDEZHONGDUOGUDIMINGHEJINGWUMINGCHENG。RENMENYONGKOUKOUXIANGCHUAN、SHOUCHAOBENJIZAIDEFANGSHICHUANCHENGZHENIULANGZHINVCHUANSHUO。RANERZAIRENMENSHENGHUOFANGSHIXIANDAIHUAHEXINXIQUDAODUOYUANHUADEDAHUANJINGXIA,CHUANSHUODEKOUCHUANFANGSHIZHENGQUYUSHIWEI,XUZUOCHUXIANGYINGGAIJIN,JIXUJIADABAOHULIDU,SHIZHEIYITIXIANZHONGHUAWENHUADUTEXINGYURENLEIWENHUADUOYANGXINGDEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEDAOYOULICHUANCHENG。

                    一、和顺牛郎织女传说口头传承特点

                    2003NIANLIANHEGUOJIAOKEWENZUZHITONGGUOLE《FEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANGONGYUE》,QUEDINGLEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANSUOBAOKUODEFANWEISHI:“KOUTOUCHUANCHENGHEBIAOXIANXINGSHI,BAOKUOZUOWEIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANMEIJIEDEYUYAN;BIAOYANYISHU;SHEHUISHIJIAN、LIYI、JIEQINGHUODONG;YOUGUANZIRANJIEHEYUZHOUDEZHISHIHESHIJIAN;CHUANTONGSHOUGONGYI”。NIULANGZHINVCHUANSHUOZAIHESHUNLIUCHUANYIJIU,ZAICHUANSHUOBANBEN、JIANGSHUYUYANHEBIAOYANYISHUFANGMIANJUYOUNONGHOUDEDIFANGTESE,CHUANSHUODEKOUTOUCHUANCHENGCHENGXIANCHUYIWENGUANGFANLIUCHUAN、FANGYANTUYUJIANGSHUJISHUOCHANGYUNWENCHUANCHANGSANDATEDIAN。

                    (一)当地流传着许多牛郎织女的传说异文

                    传说的传承人多为当地村民。由于他们受所处社会环境、自身性格与心理状态及讲述时听众的反应的影响,在日常讲述传说、聊以消遣的过程中不断对传说进行着再加工,因此使传说在情节、结构甚至主题方面有所变异,产生了当地丰富多变、贴近现实生活的传说异文。如村民王秉义所述:“据听说,他们生活在一起后开过盐店哩,这个是有证据的。以前农业社,耕地的时候发现那个青石板是白土地,没有地。再一个就是我亲身经历,我在那耕地的时候,还拾到一个秤砣,和猴的形状一样,只是现在寻不见了。”1而在传承人王继升的手抄本中,牛郎织女过着典型的男耕女织的生活:“从此,牛郎每天清晨往喜鹊山上牧牛,在坡地上耕田种植玉茭,在山沟边种下豆子,还从山崖上采来石片石块盖起一座房子;织女也从不闲着,采来桑叶在家里养蚕,每当牛郎耕田放牧回来,就给牛郎端上热气腾腾的小米粥和玉米饼”[1]136。当地还流传着许多传说异文,这些异文大多与村民的生活息息相关。村民们根据自己的生活理解,讲述着牛郎织女的传说,这些异文反映了当地独特的风土人情与所处时代的特点。
                   

                  和顺牛郎织女故事口头传承问题与改进策略
                   

                    (二)传承人多采用通俗明快的方言讲述传说,对于保持传说的原真性具有不可估量的作用

                  棋牌大全下载安装   FANGYANSHENGZHANGYUMINZHONGFENGHOUDESHENGHUOTURANG,NINGJULERENMENSHIDAIXIANGCHUANDEZHIHUIHEJINGYAN,CHUANDAZHEMINZHONGDESIXIANGGANQING,YINCI,FANGYANZUOWEICHUANSHUOCHUANCHENGDEMEIJIE,YIYIBUJINZAIYUCHUANSHUOQINGJIEDEXUSHU,GENGZAIYURENMENWUYISHIDESHENCENGCIDEQINGGANBIAODA。LIRUZAICHUANCHENGRENWANGJISHENGDESHOUCHAOBENZHONG,FANGYANXUSHUDEWENBENYUYANZHIPOERFUYUSHENYI。RU:“……SHIJIANYINIANYINIANGUOQULE,NIULANGYEYITIANYITIANZHANGDALE,YANCHOUZHEJIUBASUILE。NIULANGMEITIANZAIWAIMIANFANGNIU、DACHAI,MUQINZAIJIALIZUOXIEJIAWUSHI,RIZIGEQIAN(JIANGJIU)ZHEJIUZHEIMEGUOXIALAILE。KESHI,MUQINDESHENTIJIANJIANDIBUDI(XURUO)LE。NIULANGDELIANGGEGEGECHENGJIAHOU,BIANDEYUELAIYUEGEKOU(XIAOQI),ZONGXUNSIZHELAOWUYUANLIDEJIACHAN。YITIAN,NIULANGDELIANGGEGEGEXIANGGENZHELAIDAOLAOWULI,DUIMUQINSHUO:‘NIANGA,KANZHEXIAOSAN(NIULANG)YEZHANGDALE,BURUZANMENBAJIAFENLEBA。’MUQINTINGLE,XINLIJIUXIANGBEIGEZHEN(JINGJI)ZHALESIDE,XINXIANG:NIULANGDEXIONGSAOYIZHIBUDAIJIAN(XIANQI)NIULANG,ZIJIDESHENTIYESHIYIRIBURUYIRI,WANYIJIANGLAIYOUGESANZHANGLIANGDUANDE,NIULANGYOUSHIGEHANHOU(LAOSHI)WA,JINHOUKEZALIBAN(ZENMEBAN)A。XINLIYIJI,YOUZHELEXIEFENGHAN,JIUBINGDAOZAIKANGSHANG。……”[1]127GUANGFANYINGYONGDEFANGYANCIHUI、FUYUGUYUNDEFANGYANYUYINHETIEJINRENMENSIWEIFANGSHIDEFANGYANYUFAZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGZENGQIANGLEGUSHIDEGANRANLIYUXIYINLI,DUIYUCHUANSHUODECHUANBOQILECUJINZUOYONG。

                    (三)南天池、牛郎峪一带还存在许多和传说有关的说唱韵文

                    ZHEIXIESHUOCHANGYUNWENLANGLANGSHANGKOU,RONGYIJIYI,SHIDANGDIRENCONGMINGCAIZHIDEJIEJING。SHUOCHANGYUNWENSHIYIZHONGWEIRENMENXIWENLEJIANDEBIAOYANYISHU,GUOQUCHANGZAIDANGDICUNMINDEJIEHUNDIANLIHEZHONGDAJIERIBIAOYAN。CONGSHIZHEIZHONGYISHUXINGSHIBIAOYANDEYANYUANDADUOSHIDANGDICUNMIN,TAMENZAIRICHANGWUNONGSHENGHUOZHONG,XUEHUILESHUOCHANGYUNWEN,ZHEIZHONGYISHUXINGSHIYUNONGCUNXIANSHISHENGHUOLIANXIJINMI,JIJUYANJIUJIAZHI。NANTIANCHICUNMINFENGXIAOSANSHI“NIULANGZHINV”SHENGJIDAIBIAOXINGCHUANCHENGRENZHIYI,“TAZHEZHONGCHUANCHENGNIULANGZHINVDESHUOCHANGYUNWEN《XIAOLUOQIANG》。ZHEIZHONGSHIYUHANDAIDENIULANGZHINVGUSHIYISHUXINGSHI,MUQIANYIHANJIAN,TASHINIULANGZHINVWENHUAFENGFUXING、DUOYANGXINGDEJIANZHENG。MUQIANZIBAN20DUORENDEXIAOLUOQIANGJUTUAN,MEINIANQIYUECHUQIJINXINGYANCHU。GONGYOUJUBEN30DUOBEN,JINFANYINGNIULANGZHINVGUSHIDEJIUDUODA10BEN,RU《JINGSHENJI》《BAFUSHENXIAN》DENG”[2]138。ZHEIZHONGYISHUXINGSHIJIANGCHUANSHUOCHUANCHENGYUXIAOQIANYULELIANXIZAIYIQI,SHICHUANSHUOZAIQINGSONGYUYUEDEFENWEIZHONGDEYICHUANCHENG。

                    二、和顺牛郎织女传说口头传承存在的问题

                  棋牌大全下载安装   SUIZHESHEHUIJINGJIDEFAZHAN,NONGCUNCHUANTONGDESHENGHUOFANGSHIYUSIXIANGGUANNIANYIFASHENGGAIBIAN,MINJIANCHUANSHUOGUOQULAIYILIUCHUANFAZHANDEWENHUAHUANJINGZHUJIANXIAOSHI。JIAZHIXINXIHUASHIDAIDEDAOLAI,“SHEHUIDECHUANBOMEIJIEFASHENGLEBIANHUA,DAZHONGCHUANMEIJINRUPUTONGMINZHONGDESHENGHUOERJIJUKUOZHANG,DAPOLEZIRANCUNLUODEFENGBIZHUANGTAI,NONGMINDESHIYEDADATUOKUAN,TAMENYUWAIBUSHIJIEDEXINXIJIAOLIUCHENGXIANCHURIYIKUODADETAISHI,YUANBENJINMINEIJUDEXIANGCUNJIUHUIFASHENGSHENKEDEBIANHUA”[3]447。DANGQIANNIULANGZHINVDEKOUTOUCHUANCHENGYEMIANLINZHELIANGFANGMIANDEWENTI:

                    (一)传承方式方面

                    MUQIANRENMENHUOQUXINXIDEQUDAORIQUDUOYUANHUA,WANGLUOHEDAZHONGMEITIZAIRENMENDEJINGSHENSHENGHUOZHONGZHANJUZHEYUELAIYUEZHONGYAODEDIWEI,TAMENDAIJIRENDESHITINGCHONGJISHICHUANSHUOWUFABINIDE。CONGQIANZAIFANXINGMANTIANDEQINGLIANGXIAYE,ZUSUNZAISHUXIACHENGLIANGJIANGNIULANGZHINVGUSHIDECHUANTONGCHUANCHENGFANGSHIYIJINGBUZAISHIYINGDANGQIANDEXIANDAIHUASHEHUI,NIULANGZHINVCHUANSHUODECHUANCHENGJIXUTANSUOXINDEQUDAO。

                    (二)传承人方面

                    表1 牛郎织女传承谱系[1]
                  表1 牛郎织女传承谱系[1]

                  棋牌大全下载安装   YOUBIAO1KEYIDECHU:DIYI,CONGNIANLINGJIEGOUKAN,CHUANCHENGRENDADUOCHUYUZHONGLAONIANJIEDUAN,YINSHOUNIANLINGXIANZHI,BUKEBIMIANDICUNZAIXUSHUTUOTA,YILOUXIJIE,QIANQUEQINGXILUOJIDEWENTI。DIER,CONGXINGBIEKAN,CHUANCHENGRENQUANBUWEINANXING。YOUYUNANXINGHENVXINGSIWEIFANGSHIBUTONG,ZHEIYEHUIDUICHUANSHUODEXUSHUFANGSHI、CEZHONGDIANCHANSHENGYINGXIANG。DISAN,CONGWENHUACHENGDUKAN,CHUANCHENGRENDEWENHUASHUIPINGPUBIANBUGAO。CHUANCHENGRENDEWENHUASHUIPINGXIANZHILETUIGUANGCHUANSHUOSHIYINGXINHUANJINGDENENGLI,SHIZHIWUFASHIXIANYOUXIAOCHUANBO。DISI,CONGSHEHUIDIWEIKAN,DABUFENCHUANCHENGRENZUOWEIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANCHUANCHENGRENMEIYOUHUODESHEHUIYINGYOUDERENKEYUZUNZHONG。ZAICHUANTONGSHEHUIZHONG,TAMENSHIRENMINQUNZHONGDEYIYUAN,SHENZHIZAIJINGYINGWENHUAZHUDAOZHONGDECHUANTONGSHEHUIZHONGCHUYUBIANYUANDIWEI。TAMENSHOUJI、JIANGSHUCHUANSHUODECHUANCHENGHUODONGBEIYIXIEBULEJIEDERENSHIWEI“BUWUZHENGYE”。

                    三、和顺牛郎织女传说口头传承改进策略

                    GUOWUYUANBANGONGTING《GUANYUJIAQIANGWOGUOFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANBAOHUGONGZUODEYIJIAN》ZHICHU:“SUIZHEQUANQIUHUAQUSHIDEJIAQIANGHEXIANDAIHUAJINCHENGDEJIAKUAI,WOGUODEWENHUASHENGTAIFASHENGLEJUDABIANHUA,FEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANSHOUDAOYUELAIYUEDADECHONGJI。YIXIEYIKAOKOUSHOUHEXINGWEICHUANCHENGDEWENHUAYICHANZHENGZAIBUDUANXIAOSHI,XUDUOCHUANTONGJIYIBINLINXIAOWANG,DALIANGYOULISHI、WENHUAJIAZHIDEZHENGUISHIWUYUZILIAOZAODAOHUIQIHUOLIUSHIJINGWAI,SUIYILANYONG、GUODUKAIFAFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEXIANXIANGSHIYOUFASHENG。JIAQIANGWOGUOFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEBAOHUYIJINGKEBURONGHUAN。”ERZUOWEIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEHESHUNNIULANGZHINVCHUANSHUOYOUYUCHUANCHENGFANGSHIBUSHIYINGXIANDAISHENGHUO、CHUANCHENGRENLAOLINGHUADENGYUANYIN,JIDAICONGTANSUOFENGFULINGHUODECHUANCHENGFANGSHIYUJIAQIANGXINXINGCHUANCHENGRENDEPEIYANGLIANGDAFANGMIANZUOCHUGAIJIN。

                  棋牌大全下载安装   DIYI,TANSUOFENGFUDUOYANGDECHUANCHENGFANGSHI。ZAIQUANQIUJINGJIYITIHUAYUSHEHUISHENGHUOXIANDAIHUADEJINTIAN,CEZHONGYUKOUERXIANGCHUANDECHUANTONGCHUANCHENGFANGSHI,XIAOLVJIAODI,NANYIWEIJI,YINGGAIYINSHIZHIYITANSUOFENGFUDUOYANGDECHUANCHENGFANGSHI。YIFANGMIAN,SHICHUANCHENGMIANXIANGSHEHUIDAZHONG。YINWEICHUANSHUODETURANG、GENJIZAISHEHUIDAZHONG,SUOYIYINGGUANGFANKAIZHANYUSHIDAITEDIANJINMIJIEHEDECHUANCHENGRENYANTAO、JIANGSHU、BIAOYANDESHEHUIHUODONG,SHICHUANSHUOZHENZHENGSHENRURENXIN。LINGYIFANGMIAN,SHICHUANCHENGMIANXIANGJICHUJIAOYU。JIANGCHUANSHUOGUSHIJINXINGZENGSHANGAIXUE,SHIZHISHIYINGJICHUJIAOYUDEXUYAOBINGNARUJIAOCAI,YEKEJIANGGUSHICHUANCHENGRENQINGRUXIAOYUAN,JIANGSHUNIULANGZHINVCHUANSHUO,SHIZHONGXIAOXUESHENGSHOUDAOCHUANTONGWENHUADEXUNTAO,ZIJUECHUANCHENG。

                  棋牌大全下载安装   DIER,JIAQIANGXINXINGCHUANCHENGRENDEPEIYANG。SHOUXIAN,YINGWEICHUANCHENGRENDEPEIYANGTIGONGJINGJIBUZHU,SHICHUANCHENGHUODONGJUYOUJINGJIBAOZHANG,CONGERSHICHUANCHENGRENDEJIBENSHENGHUOXUQIUDEDAOMANZU,SHICHUANCHENGRENYOUJIAOCHONGYUDESHIJIANYUJINGLITOURUDAOXINXINGCHUANCHENGRENDEPEIYANGZHONG。QICI,ZHUYIXINXINGCHUANCHENGRENDENIANLING、XINGBIEJIEGOU,JIJIXISHOUGAOWENHUASHUIPINGDECHUANCHENGREN,YITUPOYIYOUJUXIAN。ZAICI,TISHENGCHUANCHENGRENDESHEHUIDIWEIYUSHEHUIYINGXIANGLI,WEITAMENTIGONGDEYIZHANSHITAMENCHUANCHENGDECHUANSHUOGUSHI、SHUOCHANGYUNWENDENGDEJIHUI,RUDINGQIJUBANJIANGSHUYUBIAOYANHUODONG,JIANGTAMENXUANWEIDIFANGWENHUADAIBIAORENWUDENG。ZHEIXIEHUODONGYOULIYUXINGCHENGQUANSHEHUIJIJICHUANCHENGCHUANSHUODEWENHUAFENWEI,TISHENGQUANMINDUICHUANSHUODEXINGQU,XIYINWENHUACHENGDUJIAOGAODEXINXINGCHUANCHENGREN。ZUIHOU,YINGDUICHUANCHENGRENSHISHIJINGSHENGULI。CHUANSHUODEKOUTOUCHUANSHOUZHIJIESHOUCHUANCHENGRENDEXINLIZHUANGTAIYUJINGSHENMIANMAODEYINGXIANG,YINCIYINGCHONGFENLIJIE、ZUNZHONGCHUANCHENGRENDEXIANGFA,DINGQIYUQIJIAOLIU,RANGCHUANCHENGRENRENSHIDAOQIGONGZUODUIYUCHUANCHENGZHONGHUACHUANTONGWENHUA、WEICHISHIJIEWENHUADUOYANGXINGDEZHONGYAOXING,TISHENGCHUANCHENGRENDESHIMINGGAN,SHIXIANYOUZIFADECHUANTONGCHUANCHENGRENDAOZIJUEDEXINXINGCHUANCHENGRENDEZHUANBIAN。

                    参考文献

                    [1] 侯文禄,杨建平.中国牛郎织女文化之乡———和顺[M].和顺:和顺人民政府,2010.
                    [2]邓永林.和顺牛郎织女文化[M].太原:山西经济出版社,2014.
                  棋牌大全下载安装   [3] 仲富兰.民俗传播学[M].上海:上海文艺出版社,2007.

                    注释

                    1BEIDIAOCHAREN:WANGBINGYI,NAN,72SUI,HESHUNXIANNANTIANCHICUNCUNMIN。FANGTANREN:WANGYITING,MENGRONG。FANGTANSHIJIAN:2015NIAN10YUE2RI。FANGTANDIDIAN:NANTIANCHI。

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