棋牌大全下载安装

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                        当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 文学论文 > 中西方儿歌中的相同点分析

                        中西方儿歌中的相同点分析

                        时间:2019-03-05 14:12作者:杨宁
                        本文导读:这是一篇关于中西方儿歌中的相同点分析的文章,中外儿歌,尤其是传统的中外儿歌,尽管受到不同文化、审美、地域、民族等各种因素的影响而在具体内容上存在着千差万别,但是两者仍然呈现出明显的共性。这既说明了文化、文学之间的共性,同时也表明了儿歌的本质特征

                          摘    要: 儿歌作为一种古老的文学样式在世界各地流传久远。作为人之初文学,儿歌虽然存在于不同的文化传统和社会背景之中,但是,中外儿歌在许多方面体现出了共性的特征。这些共性特征具体表现在中外儿歌都具有韵律感、游戏性、教育性和幽默感等特点。中外儿歌所表现出的共性特征一方面表明了中外文化的某些共性;另一方面,也表明儿歌作为一种独特的文学体裁,能够在一定程度上超越中外文化的差异。

                          关键词:棋牌大全下载安装 中外儿歌; 韵律感; 游戏性; 教育性; 幽默感;

                          Abstract: Nursing Rhymes spread as an ancient literary style in the world. Although they exist in different cultures and societies for children,nursing rhymes both at home and abroad share similarities in many ways,including rhymes,gameplay,enlightenment,humor etc.. On one hand,these similarities indicate some similarities both in foreign and Chinese cultures,and on the other hand,it means clearly that nursing rhymes can overstep the cultural differences to some extent as a special literary form.

                          Keyword: nursing rhymes at home and abroad; rhymes; gameplay; enlightenment; humor;

                        棋牌大全下载安装   ZHONGGUODEERGEZUIZAOCUNZAIYUMINJIANWENXUE,SHIZHIYOUYUNLVDE、PIANFUJIEGOUXIANGDUIDUANXIAODEYILEIZUOPIN。CONGZIMIANSHANGKAN,ERGEZHONGDE“ER”ZHICHULEQIZHUYAOJIESHOUDUIXIANGSHIERTONG;“GE”ZEBIAOMINGERGELANGLANGSHANGKOUDETEDIAN。ZAIOUMEIDENGGUOJIA,ERGEBEICHENGWEI“Nursery Rhymes”,“Nursery”JI“YOUERYUAN”“YINGERSHI”,SHUOMINGZHEIYILEIZUOPINDEZHUYAOJIESHOUZHESHIERTONG,YOUQISHIYOUXIAODEERTONG。“Rhymes”JI“YUNWEN”“YAYUNCI”DENG,ZHICHUQIYINYUNDETEZHENG。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIZHONGGUO,ZUIZAODEERGEJIZISHIMINGDAIWENRENLVKUNSOUJIZHENGLIDE《YANXIAOERYU》。ZHIHOULUXUCHUXIANLE《TIANLAIJI》《GUANGTIANLAIJI》《RUZIGE》DENGWENRENSOUJIZHENGLIDEERGEJI。ZAIOUMEIGUOJIA,《EMAMATONGYAOJI》(Mother Goose Rhymes)SHIJIAYUHUXIAODEERGEJI,GAIJISHOULULEDALIANGLIUCHUANGUANGFANDEERGE,ZAIOUMEIHENDUOGUOJIAYINGXIANGDAERSHENYUAN,KEYIKANZUOSHIXIFANGOUMEIGUOJIAJINGDIANERGEDEJIDACHENGZHE。ZHENGRUKatherine Gridly BuddySUOSHUO:“And whether the hallowed name of Mother Goose be of French,English or American origin matters little,so long as the magic of the melodies themselves continues to hold the children of the generations to come.”[1](SHENSHENGDEEMAMA,WULUNTAYUANYUFAGUO、YINGGUOHUOZHEMEIGUO,TADEXUANLVDEMOLIXIYINLEYIDAIYOUYIDAIDEHAIZI。)SUIRANZHONGXIFANGWENHUACUNZAIXUDUOCHAYI,DANSHIZAIERGELINGYU,ZHONGXIFANGERGEKEYISHUOSHIGONGTONGXINGDAYUCHAYIXINGDE。

                          一

                          ZHUIQIUYUNLVGANSHIZHONGWAIERGEDEGONGXING。SHOUXIAN,JIANGJIUYAYUNSHIZHONGWAIERGEZHUIQIUYUNLVGANDEZUICHANGJIANDEFANGSHI。YAYUNDEJUTIXINGSHIZAIZHONGWAIERGEZHONGDOUCHENGXIANCHUDUOYANGHUADETEDIAN,LIRUYIYUNDAODI、HUANYUN、GEXINGYAYUNDENG。ZHEIXIEBUTONGDEYAYUNFANGSHIZAOCHENGLEZHONGWAIERGESHENGDONGHUOPODEYUNLVGAN。JUTIDISHUO,LIRUZHONGGUOERGE《XING》:MANTIANXING,/LIANGJINGJING,/HAOXIANGQINGSHIBANSHANGDINGTONGDING。[2]38ZAIKANXIFANGERGEGray Goose And Gander:Gray goose and gander,/Waft your wings together,/And carry the good king's daughter,/Over the one-strand river.[3]86-87ZHEILIANGSHOUERGEDEYAYUNFANGSHIDOUSHIDIANXINGDEYIYUNDAODI。ZAIERGE《XING》ZHONG,SANJUJUMODEZI“XING”“JING”“DING”DEYUNMUDOUSHI“ing”,GOUCHENGYIYUNDAODI。ZAIERGEGray Goose And GanderZHONG,SIJUDEJUMODANCI“gander”“together”“daughter”“river”DEZUIHOUYIGEFAYINYINJIEDOUSHIYUANYIN“er”,ERQIEFAYINWANQUANXIANGTONG,SHUYU“complete rhymes”,ZHEISHIERGEXINGCHENGYIGETONGYIDEYUNLVJIEGOU,NIANQILAILANGLANGSHANGKOU,QIARUKenneth KothSUOSHUO:“These complete rhymes are the kind that traditionally come at the ends of lines,and along with adding music to the poem help to give it an organization.”[4](QUANYUNLVSHIYIZHONGCHUANTONGDELEIXING,SHIJUDEMEIXINGDEZUIMOBANSUIZHEYUNLV,SHIQICHENGWEIWANZHENGDEZUZHIHUOJIEGOU。)

                          换韵也是中外儿歌中常见的押韵方式。所谓换韵,即在一首儿歌中,不止一个韵脚,一般有两至三个,或者更多。换韵的押韵方式使儿歌的节奏更加活泼。例如中国儿歌《小耗子》:小耗子,上缸沿;/拿小瓢,擀白面;/烙白饼,卷瓜菜;/吃不吃,吃两筷。[2]11又如西方儿歌Cakle:Cakle,cakle,Mother Goose,/Have you any feathers loose?/Truly have I,pretty fellow,/Quite enough to fill a pillow.[3]20-21显然,这两首儿歌都采用了中途换韵的押韵方式。前两句一个韵脚,后两句换为另一个韵脚。第一首儿歌《小耗子》中,“沿”和“面”的韵母都是“an”,而“菜”和“筷”的韵母是“ai”。第二首儿歌Cakle的前两句的最末的单词“goose”和“loose”的后两个音节是一样的,而且发音相同,只是辅音不同;后两句的末尾单词“fellow”和“pillow”的后两个音节也是完全一样,而且发音也相同。这样两首儿歌就出现了两个不同的韵脚。前两句构成一个节点,后两句构成另一个节点,每个节点各自押不同的韵脚,形成统一的节奏感。两个节点并列在一起,使儿歌的节奏在统一中发生变化,显得更为自由。
                         

                        中西方儿歌中的相同点分析
                         

                          GEXINGYAYUNSHIJISHANGYESHUYUHUANYUNDEYIZHONG,BUGUOHEYUNJIAODEQIANHOUBIANHUAXIANGBI,GEXINGYAYUNDEFANGSHIXIANDEGENGJIALINGHUODUOBIAN。GEXINGYAYUNBAOKUOGUIZEDEGEXINGYAYUNHEBUGUIZEDEGEXINGYAYUN。ZHEILIANGZHONGFANGSHIZAIZHONGWAIERGEZHONGDOUBIJIAOCHANGJIAN。LIRUZHONGGUOERGE《YANZILAI》:YANZILAI,/HAOZHONGTIAN;/HONGYANLAI,/HAOGUONIAN。[2]318YOURUI See the Moon:I see the moon,/And moon sees me;/God bless the moon,/And God bless me.[3]82ZHEILIANGSHOUERGEDOUSHIGUIZEDEGEXINGYAYUN,JIDANSHUJUHEOUSHUJUFENBIEYAXIANGTONGDEYUNJIAO,GEXINGGENGTI。LIRU《YANZILAI》ZHONGDEDIYI、SANJUDEJUMOZIDOUSHI“LAI”,SHENGMUHEYUNMUWANQUANXIANGTONG,LIANGJUXINGCHENGYIGEYUNJIAO;DIER、SIJUDEJUMOZIFENBIESHI“TIAN”HE“NIAN”,YUNMUDOUSHI“an”,XINGCHENGLINGYIGEYUNJIAO。DIERSHOUERGEI See the MoonYESHIRUCI。DIYI、SANJUDEZUIMOYIGEDANCIDOUSHI“moon”;DIER、SIJUDEZUIMOYIGEDANCIDOUSHI“me”,ZHEIYANGJIUFENBIEXINGCHENGLELIANGGEBUTONGDEYUNJIAO,GEXINGJIAOTIBIANHUA。ZHEIZHONGGUIZEDEGEXINGYAYUNYIFANGMIANTONGGUOYUNJIAODEYIZHIQIANGDIAOLEERGEDEYUNLVGAN,LINGYIFANGMIAN,YOUGUILVDEGENGTIYOUSHIERGEDEJIEZOUZAIBIANHUAZHONGCHENGXIANCHUYIZHONGJIEZOUGAN。

                          QICI,ZHONGFUSHIZHONGWAIERGETUCHUYUNLVGANDEZHONGYAOTUJING。YIFANGMIAN,ZHONGFUSHIERGECHENGXIANCHUTONGYIDEYINJIE,XINGCHENGXIANMINGDEJIEZOUGAN;LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZHONGFUSHIERGEJUYOUHUIHUANFANFUDEXUANLV。LIRUZHONGGUOERGE《YUELIANGLIANG》:YUELIANGLIANG,YUELIANGLIANG,/JIAJIANANNANCHULAIBAIXIANGXIANG。/BAIXIANGXIANG,BAIXIANGXIANG,/SHIZHEYICHUANXIAOPAOZHANG/———PINGPINGPING,PINGPINGPING,/PINGPINGPINGPINGHAOXIANGFANGYANGQIANG;/FANGWANPAOZHANGKANYUELIANG。[2]61YOURU《YANHUJIAO》:YANHUJIAO,/YANHUAJIAO,SANGETONGQIANYIDABAO。[2]224ZHEILIANGSHOUERGEDOUYUNYONGLEZHONGFUDESHOUFA。DIYISHOU《YUELIANGLIANG》DEDIYI、SAN、WUJUZHONGDEQIANHOULIANGGECISHIWANQUANZHONGFUDE,YINCIXIANGTONGDEZISHUHEXIANGTONGDEFAYINYINJIESHIERGEXINGCHENGYIZHIDEJIEPAIHEYUNLV。DIERSHOUERGE《YANHUJIAO》DEQIANLIANGJUJIBENZHONGFU。LIANGJUDEZISHUSHIXIANGTONGDE,ZHONGJIANDEYIGEZIYOUBIANHUA,DIYIJUZHONGJIANDEZISHI“HU”,DIERJUZHONGJIANDEZISHI“HUA”。BUGUOZHEILIANGGEZISHISHUANGSHENGZI,YINYUNXIANGJIN,YINCILIANGGEJUZIZAIFAYINSHANGXIANGJIN。ZHEIYANG,LIANGGEDEJUZIDEZHONGFUTUCHULEERGEDEJIEZOUGAN。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   XIFANGERGEYESHANZHANGYUNYONGZHONGFUDEFANGFABIAOXIANERGEDEYUNLVGAN。LIRUShoo Fly,Don't Bother Me:Shoo fly,don't bother me,/Shoo fly,don't bother me,/Shoo fly,don't bother me,/I belong to somebody.[3]11YOURUSally Go Round the Sun:Sally go round the sun,/Sally go round the moon,/Sally go round the chimney pots on a Sunday afternoon.[3]80DIYISHOUERGEShoo Fly,Don't Bother MeDEQIANSANGEJUZIWANQUANXIANGTONG,ZHEIZHONGZHONGFUDESHOUFAZAIYIYISHANGQIDAOLEQIANGDIAODEZUOYONG。ZAIXINGSHISHANG,BUDUANDIZHONGFUSUOXINGCHENGDEYINYUNSHANGDEFUTATUXIANLEERGEDEJIEZOUGAN。DIERSHOUSally Go Round the SunDEQIANSANGEJUZISHIZHUYUHEWEIYUDEZHONGFU,BINYUBUTONG。ZHUWEIYUDEZHONGFUSHIERGECHENGXIANCHUYINYUNSHANGDEHEXIEYIZHI,ERBINYUDEBIANHUABINGMEIYOUCONGZHENGTISHANGYINGXIANGERGEDEYUNLVGAN,ERQIEFENGFULEERGEDENEIRONG。

                          ZHONGFUDESHOUFAZAIZHONGWAIERGEZHONGHAIYOUYIZHONGTESHUDEBIAOXIANXINGSHI,JIYILIANSUODIAODE“SUIYUNJIEHE”DEZHONGFUFANGSHIBIAOXIANCHUERGEDEYUNLVGAN。LIRUZHONGGUOERGE《YUELIANGMAOMAO》:YUELIANGMAOMAO,YAOCHIMAOTAO;/MAOTAOJIEZI,YAOCHIGUAZI;/GUAZIBOQIAO,YAOCHILINGJIAO;/LINGJIAOLIANGTOUJIAN,PIGUQIAOSHANGTIAN。[2]14YOURU《NIDAN》:NIDAN,NIDAN,CUOCUO,/LITOUZHUGEGEGE;/GEGECHULAIDATIE,/LITOUZHUGEJIEJIE;/JIEJIECHULAISHUTOU,/LITOUZHUGESUNHOU,/SUNHOUCHULAIDIANDENG,/SHAOLEBIZIYANJING。[2]13ZHEILIANGSHOUERGEDOUSHIDIANXINGDELIANSUODIAO,GOUCHENGZHENGSHOUERGEDEXIANSUOBUSHIYIYISHANGDELIANGUAN,ERSHIYINYUNSHANGDEHUIHUANHEXIANJIE。ZHEIZHONGXIANJIEZHUYAOSHITONGGUOZHONGFULAIWANCHENGDE。LIRUDIYISHOU《YUELIANGMAOMAO》,“MAOTAO”“GUAZI”“LINGJIAO”DEQIANHOUZHONGFU,JIXIANJIELEQIANHOU“YIBUXIANGGUAN”DEJUZI,ZUCHENGYISHOUWANZHENGDEERGE,ERQIESHIERGEJUYOUHUIHUANFANFUDEYUNLVGAN。DIERSHOUERGE《NIDAN》ZHONGDE“GEGE”“JIEJIE”HE“SUNHOU”DEZHONGFUYISHIQIDAOXIANGTONGDEZUOYONG。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   XIFANGERGEZHONGYEYOULEISIDELIANYUNERGE(Chain Rhymes),JITONGGUOZICIDEZHONGFUXIANJIEJUZI,GOUCHENGPIANZHANG。LIRUAnna Elise,She Jumped with Surprise:Anna Elise,she jumped with surprise;/The surprise was so quick,it played her trick;/The trick was so rare,she jumped in a chair;/The chair was so frail,she jumped in a pail;/The pail was so wet,she jumped in a net;/The net was so small,she jumped on the ball;/The ball was so round,she jumped on the ground;/And ever since then,she's been turning around.[5]173YOURUThe King of the Kingdom:This is a key of the kingdom:/In that kingdom there is a city,/In that city there is a town,/In that town there is a street,/In that street there is a lane,/In that lane there is a yard,/In that yard there is a house,/In that house there is a room,/In that room there is a bed,/In that bed there is a basket,/In that basket there are some flowers./Flowers in the basket,/Basket in the room,/Room in the house,/House in the yard,/Yard in the lane,/Lane in the street,/Street in the town,/Town in the city,/City in the kingdom:/And this is the key of the kingdom.[6]

                          ZHEILIANGSHOUERGEBINGBUSHIYIYIYIQUSHENG,DIYISHOUAnna Elise,She Jumped with SurpriseKUAZHANGDIXIEYIGENVHAIYINWEIJINGQIDAOZHIBUDUANDITIAO;DIERSHOUThe King of the KingdomYONGCENGCENGBOSUNDESHOUFACONGDADAOXIAOXIEYIGEWANGGUODEXIANSUO,RANHOUYOUFANGUOLAICONGXIAODAODAZAIFUSHUYIBIAN。LIANGSHOUERGEDELIANGDIANZAIYUZICIDEQIANHOUZHONGFUXIANJIE,LIRUDIYISHOUERGEZHONGDE“trick”“chair”“pail”“net”“ball”DEZHONGFUXIANJIE,DIERSHOUERGEZHONGDE“city”“town”“street”“lane”“yard”“house”“room”“bed”“basket”“flower”DEZHONGFULIANGUAN,ZHEIBUJINCHUANLIANQIKANSHANGQUBINGWUYIYIDEQIANHOUJUZI,ERQIEZAOCHENGERGEHUIHUANFANFUDEYUNLVGAN。

                          二

                          ZAIYOUXIXINGFANGMIAN,ZHONGWAIERGEBIAOXIANCHULEMINGXIANDEGONGXING。ERGEHEYOUXIYOUZHEMIQIEDELIANXI。ZAIZHONGWAIBUTONGLEIXINGDEERGEZHONG,YOUDEERGEZHIJIEPEIHELEERTONGDEYOUXI,QIMINGXIANDEDONGZUOXINGMANZULEERTONGSHENTIBANYANDEYUANWANG,RUYOUXIERGE;YOUDEERGEQIAOMIAODISHEZHIYUYANDENANTI,YIYOUXIDEFANGSHIJIFALEERTONGKEFUNANTIDEXINLI,RURAOKOULING;YOUDEERGEYIJINGCAIDEXINGSHIXIYINERTONGCANYUQIZHONGBINGTIHUIDAOJINGCAIDELEQU,RUMIYUGE。

                          SHOUXIAN,YOUXIERGESHIWEILEPEIHEERTONGDEYOUXIERCHANSHENGDE。ERGEDEDONGZUOXINGJIDUIERTONGDEYOUXIQIZHIDAOZUOYONG,YOUZENGJIALEYOUXIDEQUWEI。LIRUZHONGGUOERGE《CHAOCANDOU》:CHAOCANDOU,/CHAOWANDOU,/GULIUGULIUFANGENDOU。1[2]199YOURU《YIGEHU》:YIGEHU,/YIGECHAI,/YIGEANZHEYIGETIAO。2[2]122HENXIANRAN,ZHEILIANGSHOUERGEDEZHUYAOZUOYONGHEMUDESHIWEILEPEIHEYOUXI。ERGEZHONGDEDONGCI,RU“CHAO”“FAN”“AN”“TIAO”,YIFANGMIANWEIERTONGYINGZAOCHUTEDINGDEYOUXIFENWEIHEKONGJIAN,YINWEI“YOUXISHIZAIMOUYISHIKONGXIANZHINEI‘YANWAN’DE。TABAOHANZHEZIJIDEGUOCHENGHEYIYI”[7];LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZHEIXIEDONGCIZHIDAOZHEERTONGZAIYOUXIZHONGDEJUTIDONGZUO,BINGSHIERTONGZAIYOUXIZHONGDEDONGZUOYIZHI,CUCHENGYOUXIDESHUNLIJINXING,RANGERTONGZAIZHEIZHONGJITIDEDONGZUOPEIHEZHONGHUODEYUYUEDETIYANHEDUIGUIZE、GUIFANDERENSHI。

                          XIFANGERGEZHONGBUSHAOYOUXIERGE(Playtime Rhymes)YESHIWEIPEIHEERTONGYOUXIERCHANSHENGDE。LIRUHow Many Miles is It to Babylon?:How many miles is it to Babylon?/Three score miles and ten./Can I get there by candle-light?/Yes,and back again!/If your heels are nimble and light,/You may get there by candlelight.[1]33YOUXIANYIXIAYAOQIUCAOZUO:NANHAIHENVHAIZHANCHENGYIDUI,MEIYIWEIZHUAZHUTAQIANYIWEITONGBANDEYIFUXIABAI,ZOUJINLINGWAILIANGWEIGONGTONGJUQISHOUDACHENGYIGEGONGMENDETONGBAN。ZAIDUIHUAWANCHENGZHIHOU,ZHEIGEDUIWUTONGGUOGONGMEN,RUGUOKENENGDEHUA,DUIWUDEZUIHOUYIGERENHUIBEITURANJIANGDIDEGONGMENZHUAZHU。CONGZHEISHOUERGEDEGUIZEJIESHAOZHONGKEYIKANCHU,ZHEISHIYISHOUDIANXINGDEYOUXIERGE。CONGZIMIANSHANGKAN,ERGEMEIYOUMINGXIANDEDONGZUOXING,ERSHITONGGUOWENDADEDUIHUALAIJINXINGYOUXI。YEJIUSHISHUO,YOUXIDEGUOCHENGSHIGENJUWENHEDAERJINXING。YIWENYIDAJIGUIFANLEERTONGDEYOUXIDONGZUO,YEJUEDINGLEYOUXIDEJIEZOU。TONGSHI,RAOYOUQUWEIDEDUIHUAWEIYOUXIYINGZAOCHULEXIANGYINGDEQINGJING,BINGYINDAOERTONGJINRUYOUXI,ERQIEJIAOXIADEHUIDACHONGFENTIXIANLEYOUXIDEQUWEIXING。

                          QICI,RAOKOULINGSHIYIZHONGYUYANZHILIYOUXI。ZAIZHONGWAIERGEZHONGCUNZAIZHEDALIANGDERAOKOULING。RAOKOULINGDE“RAOKOU”JITIXIANLEZHEILEIERGEDEYOUXITEDIAN,JITONGGUOBAFAYINXIANGTONGHUOXIANGJINDEZICIFANGZAIYIQI,ZAOCHENGNIANSONGSHANGDENANDUHEQUWEI,YIDADAOYOUXIDEXIAOGUO。LIRUZHONGGUOERGE《MENHOUYOUGEPEN》:MENHOUYOUGEPEN,/PENLIYOUGEPING。/PINGLONGPANGLANGYISHENGXIANG,/PENPENGPING,PINGPENGPEN,/YEBUZHISHIPENPENGPING,/YEBUZHISHIPINGPENGPEN。[2]69YOURU《JIUHUANYOU》:YIHULUJIUJIULIANGLIU,/YIHULUYOULIULIANGJIU,/LIULIANGJIUDEYOU,/YAOHUANJIULIANGLIUDEJIU,/JIULIANGLIUDEJIU,/BUHUANLIULIANGJIUDEYOU。[2]75ZAIDIYISHOURAOKOULING《MENHOUYOUGEPEN》ZHONG,“PEN”“PENG”“PING”SHISHUANGSHENGZI,SHENGMUDOUSHI“P”,ERQIEYUNMUFAYINXIANGJIN。YINCISANGEZIFANGZAIYIQIJIUZAOCHENGLENIANSONGSHANGDEAOKOU。DIERSHOU《JIUHUANYOU》ZHONG,BUJINSHI“JIU”“YOU”“JIU”“LIU”SIGEYUNMUFAYINXIANGTONGDEZIFANGZAIYIQI,ERQIE“LIULIANGJIU”HE“JIULIANGLIU”LIANGGEFAYINXIANGJINDECIZUPINFANCHUXIAN,ZHEICONGBUTONGFANGMIANTUCHULERAOKOULINGAOKOUDETEDIAN。ERZHEIZHONG“AOKOU”,QIAQIASHIERGEYOUXIXINGDETIXIAN。ERTONGZAINIANSONGDEGUOCHENGZHONGKEYIGANSHOUDAOWENZIDEYOUQUZUHEDAILAIDEQUWEI,ERQIEHAIKEYIZAIHUXIANGDENIANSONGZHONGTIHUIJINGZHENGDELEQU,ZHEIYESHIYOUXIXINGDEYIZHONGTIXIAN。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   XIFANGERGEZHONGDERAOKOULING(tongue twister)ZHONGDE“twister”SHUOMINGLEERGEYOUXIXINGDETEDIAN,ER“tongue”ZEBIAOMINGZHEISHIYIZHONGHESHETOUYOUGUANDEYOUXI,JIYUYANDEYOUXI。LIRUFrom Wibbleton to Wobbleton is Fifteen Miles:From Wibbleton to Wobbleton is fifteen miles,/From Wobbleton to Wibbleton is fifteen miles,/From Wibbleton to Wobbleton,/From Wobbleton to Wibbleton,/From Wibbleton to Wobbleton is fifteen miles.[3]39YOURUPeter Piper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers:Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,/A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked,/If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,/Where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?[8]80ZAIZHEILIANGSHOURAOKOULINGZHONG,ZAOCHENGCHANRAODEYOUXIXIAOGUODEGUANJIANCISHOUXIANDOUSHISHUANGSHENGCI(alliteration)LIRUDIYISHOUZHONGDE“wibbleton”HE“wobbleton”YIJIDIERSHOUZHONGDE“Peter Piper”“picked”“peck”“peppers”,RUOGANDESHUANGSHENGCIBINGLIEZAIYIQI,XIANGJINDEFAYINJIUHUIXINGCHENGNIANSONGSHANGDEYOUQUWEIDENANTI。CIWAI,ZAIDIYISHOURAOKOULINGZHONGDE“wibbleton”HE“wobbleton”ZHIYOUYIGEYINJIEBUTONG:“i”HE“o”。ZHEIJIUSHILIANGGEDANCIDEFAYINGENGJIAJINSI。ZAIDIERSHOURAOKOULINGZHONG,“Piper”HE“peppers”YEZHISHIDIYIGEYUANYINZIMUBUTONG,FAYINBUTONG;“picked”HE“pickled”XIANGBIJIAO,“pickled”BI“picked”DUOLEYIGEFUYINZIMU“L”DEFAYIN,YINCILIANGGEDANCIDEFAYINYEXIANGJIN,ZHEIXIETEDIANDOUZENGJIAERGEZAIYUYANSHANGDECHANRAOXIAOGUO,TUCHULEERGEDEYOUXIXING。

                          DISAN,MIYUERGESHIERGEZHONGSHENSHOUERTONGXIAIDEYIZHONGLEIXING。MIYUDEMEILIZAIYUQIJINGCAIDETEDIAN,ZHEIYESHIMIYUDEYOUXIXINGDEZHUYAOBIAOXIAN。ZAIZHONGWAIERGEZHONGDOUCUNZAIDALIANGDEMIYUERGE。LIRU《QIANTIAOXIAN,WANTIAOXIAN》:QIANTIAOXIAN,/WANTIAOXIAN,/DIAODAOSHUILIKANBUJIAN。[8]18YOURU《XIONGDIQIBAGE》:XIONGDIQIBAGE,/WEIZHEZHUZIZUO,/DAJIAYIFENJIA,/YIFUJIUCHEPO。[8]35ZAIZHEILIANGSHOUMIYUERGEZHONG,DUISHIWUDETEZHENGDEJIANJIEXINGXIANGDEMIAOHUIYIFANGMIANZENGJIALEERGEBENSHENDEWENXUEXING,LINGYIFANGMIANYESHIJINGCAIBIANDEGENGJIAYOUQUWEI,JIFAERTONGCAIMIDEXINGQU。XIYINERTONGCAIMISHIMIYUERGEZHUYAODEMUDE,YESHIMIYUERGEYOUXIXINGDEZHONGYAOTIXIAN。

                          XIFANGERGEYEBUFAMIYUERGE(Riddle Rhymes)。LIRUAs I Went Over Lincoln Bridge:As I went over Lincoln Bridge,/I met Mister Rusticap;/Pins and needles on his back,/A-going to Thorney Fair.[8]39YOURUPurple,Yellow,Red and Green:Purple,yellow,red and green,/The king cannot reach it,nor the queen;/Nor can old Noll,whose power's so great:/Tell me this riddle while I count eight.[8]57ZHEILIANGSHOUMIYUERGEDOUYOUYIGEGUANJIANDEJUZIJICAIMIZHEXIANGYINGDETISHI。DIYISHOUAs I Went Over Lincoln BridgeDEDISANJUDIANMINGLESHIWUDEWAIBUTEDIAN;DIERSHOUPurple,Yellow,Red and GreenCONGYANSEDEJIAODUTUCHULESHIWUDEXIANYAOTEZHENG。BUGUO,ZHEILIANGGEGUANJIANJUZIYUQITADEHEMIDIGUANLIANBUDUODEJUZIBINGLIEZAIYIQI,YOUYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGZENGJIALECAIMIDENANDUHELEQU。YOUQIDIERSHOUDEZUIHOUYIGEJUZI,HEMIDIBINGWUGUANLIAN,QUEYINGZAOCHULEJINGCAIDEFENWEI,QIANGDIAOLEERGEDEYOUXIXING。

                          三

                        棋牌大全下载安装   JIAOYUXINGSHIZHONGWAIERGEDEGONGTONGTEDIAN。ERGEDEJIAOHUIZUOYONGZAIBUTONGDESHIQIYOUBUTONGDEBIAOXIAN。ZAIZHONGGUO,LVKUNSOUJI《YANXIAOERYU》ZHUYAOSHIWEILE“MENGYIYANGZHENG”,ZHEIJISHUOMINGLELVKUNSOUJIDEYITU,YEBIAOMINGERGEBENSHENJIUYUNHANZHEJIAOYUXING。XIFANGERGEZI19SHIJIYILAI,YEDADUOBIAOXIANCHULEMINGXIANDEJIAOYUXING。LIRUKaren L.KilcupHEAngela SorbySHUO:“the genre of children's poetry often sought to teach lessons.”[9]3ERQIE,“Many nine-teeth-century verses depict children at play while negotiating what it means to play and how play should be valued.”[10]5(ERGETONGCHANGSHITUJIRENYIJIAOXUN。XUDUO19SHIJIDESHIMIAOSHUHAIZIDEYOUXI,TONGSHIGAOSUHAIZIYOUXIYIWEIZHESHENMEYIJIZENMEWANCAISHIYOUJIAZHIDE。)

                          ERGEDEJIAOYUXINGTIXIANZAIBUTONGDEFANGMIAN,LIRUZHISHI、NENGLI、PINGEDENGDUOMIANDEJIAOYU。SHOUXIAN,ZAIZHISHIJIAOYUFANGMIAN,ZHONGWAIERGEDOUYOUYILEIYIJIAOERTONGSHUSHUWEIZHUYAOMUDEDESHUSHUGE。LIRUZHONGGUOERGE《WUZHIGE》:YIERSANSIWU,/SHANGSHANDALAOHU。/LAOHUDABUDAO,/DADAOXIAOSONGSHU。/SONGSHUYOUJIZHI,/RANGWOSHUYISHU。/SHULAIYOUSHUQU,/YIERSANSIWU。[2]336ERGEBASHUZIDEPAILIEHEYIDINGDEGUSHIJIEHEQILAI,ZAIJIASHANGLANGLANGSHANGKOUDEJIEZOU,SHIKUZAODESHUSHUBIANDESHENGDONGYOUQU。

                          XIFANGERGEZHONGYEYOUBUSHAODESHUSHUGE。LIRUOne,Two,Three,Four:One,two,three,four,/Mary at the cottage door;/Five,six,seven,eight,/Eating cherries off a plate;/O-u-t,spells out![8]47YOURUOne For Sorrow:One for sorrow/Two for joy/Three for a girl/Four for a boy/Five for silver/Six for gold/Seven for a secret/Ne'er to be told.[3]69DIYISHOUERGEOne,Two,Three,FourBASHUSHUHEMaryCHICAOMEIDECHANGJINGJIEHEQILAI。MaryYIBIANCHIYIBIANSHU。SHENGDONGDECHANGJINGZENGTIANLESHUSHUDEQUWEIXING。DIERSHOUOne For SorrowSHIBASHUZIHEPUKEPAISHANGDETUANLIANXIQILAI,ZUCHENGYIGESHUZIXULIEBINGFUYUSHUZIBUTONGDEYIYI。RUGUOZAIJIEHECHATUNIANERGE,NEIMESHUSHUJIUCHENGLEYIGEFEICHANGYOUQUDEGUOCHENG。

                          CHULEDANCHUNDESHUSHU,SHUSHUGEHAIWANGWANGSHEJISHUZIDEJISUAN。HESHUSHUYIYANG,ZHEIGEJISUANDEGUOCHENGBUSHICHOUXIANGDE,ERSHIHEJUTIDESHIWULIANXIQILAI。LIRUZHONGGUOERGE《SHUHAMA》:YIGEHAMAYIZHANGZUI,/LIANGZHIYANJINGSITIAOTUI,/PUTONGYISHENGTIAOXIASHUI。//LIANGGEHAMALIANGZHANGZUI,/SIZHIYANJINGBATIAOTUI,/PUTONGPUTONGTIAOXIASHUI。[2]354

                          ZHEISHOUERGESHIGUANYUCHENGFAJISUANDE,JISUANHAMASHENSHANGDEQIGUANSHULIANG。YOUYUHAMADEZUI、YANJINGHETUIZHENGHAOSHICHENGBEIDIZENGJIA,SUOYIERGEQIAOMIAODILIYONGZHEIGETEDIAN,BACHOUXIANGDANDIAODECHENGFAJISUANHEHAMALIANXIQILAI,CONGERSHIJISUANGUOCHENGSHENGDONGYOUQU,RANGERTONGGENGYOUXINGQUXUEXIJISUAN。

                          XIFANGERGEZHONGGUANYUJISUANDEERGEYEPOYOUQUWEI。LIRUChook,Chook,Chook,Chook:Chook,chook,chook,chook,/Good morning,Mrs.Hen./How many chickens have you got?/Madam,I've got ten/Four of them are yellow,/And four of them are brown,/And two of them are Speckled red,/The nicest in the town.[3]71ZHEISHIHEJIANFAJISUANYOUGUANDEERGE,JISUANDESHIXIAOJIDESHULIANG。ZHENDUI“How many chickens”DETIWEN,MUJIXIANHUIDALEXIAOJIDEZONGSHUSHI10ZHI,RANHOUZAIJINYIBUHUIDA,10ZHIXIAOJIZHONGYOU4ZHISHIHUANGSEDE,4ZHISHIZONGSEDE,SHENGXIALIANGZHISHIHONGSEDAIBANDIANDEPIAOLIANGXIAOJI。XIAOJIDECHUXIANYIJIBUTONGYANSEDEQUFEN,SHIJISUANGUOCHENGGENGYOUXIYINLI。ZHENGRUIona OpieSUOSHUO:“What pleasanter way to learn your numbers than through the black sheep's allocation of his bags of wool,or the enumeration of Mrs.Hen's diversely colored chickens.”[3](TONGGUOZHEIZHIHEIYANGFENPEITADEZHUANGYANGMAODEDAIZIHUOZHEHANSINVSHIDEBUTONGYANSEDEXIAOJIXUEXISHUZISHIGENGYOUQUDETUJING。)

                          QICI,CHUANBOYIDINGDERICHANGSHENGHUOZHISHIYESHIZHONGWAIERGEJIAOYUXINGDEJUTITIXIAN。ZHONGWAIERGESHEJIDEZHISHIFANWEIJIAOGUANG,BAOKUOSHENGHUOZHONGCHANGJIANDESHIWU、TIANWENQIXIANGDENGFANGMIAN。TONGGUOERGEDEXINGSHIJINXINGXIANGGUANZHISHIDECHUANBO,KEYIRANGERTONGZAIKUAILEZHONGXUEXIHEBAWO。LIRUZHONGGUOERGE《SANYUELI》:SANYUELI,/TAOHUAHONG,/TAOZIKAIHUALIZIHONG,/LIZISHUSHANGGUADENGLONG。[2]15YOURU《XIAOBAITU》:XIAOBAITU,ZHENLINGQIAO,/HONGYANJING,BAIPIAO;/QIANTUIDUANYOUXIAO,/HOUTUIZHANGYOUGAO,/ZOUQILULAIBENGYOUTIAO。[2]91ZHEILIANGSHOUERGESHIGUANYUDONGZHIWUDE。DIYISHOUSHEJIGUOSHUDESHENGZHANGJIJIE。ZAIQINGKUAIDEJIEZOUZHONG,ERTONGKEYILEJIEDAOTAOSHUKAIHUAHELISHUJIEGUODESHIJIE。DIERSHOUERGEZHUAZHULEXIAOBAITUDETUCHUTEDIANHEXIXING,TONGGUOJIANJIEERLANGLANGSHANGKOUDEWENZICHUANDIJIERTONG。YIERGEDEXINGSHICHUANBOZHISHI,QIQUWEIXINGYUANYUANCHAOGUOLECHANGGUIDEZHISHICHUANSHOU。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   ZHISHIDECHUANBOZAIXIFANGERGEZHONGYESHICHANGJIANDE。LIRUI'm A Little Teapot:I'm a little teapot,short and stout;/Here is my handle,here is my spout./When I see the teacups,hear my shout:/Tip me up and pour me out![10]86YOURUFive Little Peas in A Pod Pressed:Five little peas in a pea pod pressed,/One grew,two grew,and so did all the rest./They grew and grew and they did not stop,/Until all of a sudden the pod went……/Pop![10]87DIYISHOUERGESHIJIESHAOCHAHUDETEDIAN。RUGUOJIEHECHATU,ZHEISHOUERGEHUIGENGJIAYOUQU:YIZHIXIAOXIONGYOUSHOUCHAYAO,ZUOSHOUXIANGSHANGSHENJU,BANCHENGYIZHICHAHUDEMOYANG。ZHEIYOULIYUERTONGQUMOFANG,BINGZAISHENTIBANYANDEGUOCHENGZHONG,GENGXINGXIANGDILEJIECHAHUDEJIEGOUHEYONGTU。DIERSHOUERGEYONGSHENGDONGHUOPODEYUYANYIJINIRENHUADEFANGSHIBIAOXIANLEDOUZIDESHENGZHANGGUOCHENG。ZUIHOUYIGENISHENGCIDEYUNYONGXINGXIANGDIXIECHULEDOUZICHENGSHUDEQINGXING。

                          CIWAI,ZHISHIDECHUANBOZAIERGEZHONGHAIBAOKUOTIANWENQIXIANGFANGMIANDEZHISHI。GAOSHENDETIANWENQIXIANGZHISHIZAIERGEZHONGWANGWANGBIAOXIANDEXINGXIANGERSHENGDONG,BIANYUERTONGLIJIE。LIRUZHONGGUOERGE《YUEERYUAN》:CHUYIYIGENXIAN,/CHUERKANDEJIAN;/CHUSANCHUSIXIANGEMEI,/SHIWUSHILIUYUANYOUYUAN。[2]253YOURU《JIUJIUGE》:YIJIUERJIUBUCHUSHOU,/SANJIUSIJIULINGSHANGZOU,/WUJIULIUJIUYANHEKANLIU,/QIJIUHEKAI,BAJIUYANLAI,/JIUJIUBASHIYI,/JIALIZUOFANDILICHI。[2]197DIYISHOUERGETONGGUOXINGXIANGERTIEQIEDEBIYU,GAOSUERTONGYUELIANGYINGQUEDEBIANHUAYIJIBIANHUADESHIJIAN。DIERSHOUERGESHIGENJUCHUANTONGNONGLIDESHIJIANTUCHUBUTONGJIEQIDEQIHOUTEZHENG、ZIRANDEBIANHUAYIJIRENMENDESHENGCHANHUODONG,YUYANJIANLIANERFUYOUJIEZOUGAN。

                          XIFANGERGETONGCHANGYESHIJIEZHUJUTIXINGXIANGDEBIAODAFANGSHIXIANGERTONGCHUANDIYOUGUANQIXIANGDEZHISHI。LIRURed Sky at Night:Red sky at night,/Shepherd's delight;/Red sky in the morning,/Shepherd's warning.[11]19YOURUIf Bees Stay at Home:If bee stay at home,/Rain will soon come:/If they fly away,/Fine will be the day.[11]20ZHEILIANGSHOUERGEDOUSHITONGGUOJUTIDELIZILAIJIESHIXIANGGUANDEQIXIANGZHISHI。DIYISHOUERGEYIMUYANGRENDEBUTONGXINQINGLAIJIESHICHAOXIAHEWANXIASUOYUSHIDEBUTONGTIANQI。DIERSHOUERGEYIMIFENGBUTONGDEXINGJINGLAIXIETIANQIDEBIANHUA,FEICHANGJUTIZHIGUAN、QIANXIANYIDONG。CIWAI,DUIBISHOUFADEYUNYONGYESHIZHISHIDECHUANBOGENGJIASHENGDONGYOUQU。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   DISAN,CHULEGEZHONGZHISHIDECHUANBO,PINGEDEPEIYANGYESHIZHONGWAIERGEDEJIAOYUXINGDEGONGTONGTIXIAN。ERTONGDECHENGZHANGCHUYUZHUJIANSHEHUIGUIFANHUADEGUOCHENGZHONG。ZHONGWAIERGETONGGUOSHENGDONGHUOPODEXINGSHIXIANGERTONGCHUANSHUYIDINGDESHEHUIGUIFANHEDAODEGUANNIAN,YICUCHENGTAMENGENGHAODIZOUXIANGSHEHUIHUA。ERGEZHONGDEPINGEPEIYANGZHUYAOTIXIANZAIPEIYANGLIANGHAODEDAODEPINZHIHEYANGCHENGLIANGHAODEXIGUAN。LIRUZHONGGUOERGE《PAIPAIZUO》:PAIPAIZUO,/CHIGUOGUO,/XIAOXIAODUPICHIWUDUO。[2]25YOURU《YINGHUOCHONG》:YINGHUOCHONG,YINGHUOCHONG,/FEIDAOXILAIFEIDAODONG,/XIANGBIDUZHONGYOULAZHU,/YEYEDIANDENGLONG。/QINGNIFEIDAOWOSHUFANGLI。/ZHAOZHEWOFANSHUHAOYONGGONG。[2]32ZHEILIANGSHOUERGEDOUSHIGUANYUPINZHIPEIYANGDE。DIYISHOU《PAIPAIZUO》QIANGDIAODESHIWUTAN。TANSHIYIZHONGENIAN,XIAOTANZEHUIDAOZHIDATAN。ERGECONGRICHANGSHENGHUOZHONGDEXIAOSHIXIEQI,GAOJIEERTONGBUYAOTANCHI。DIERSHOUERGE《YINGHUOCHONG》TUCHUDESHIQINFEN,QINFENSHIYIZHONGYOUXIUDEPINZHI。ERGECONGCHANGJIANDEYINGHUOCHONGRUSHOU,YOUYINGHUOCHONGXIEDAOZHAOMING,ZAIXIEDAOYONGGONGDUSHU,CENGCENGDIJIN,DIANMINGZHUZHI。

                          XIFANGERGETONGYANGZHUZHONGDUIPINGEDEPEIYANG,LIRULittle Girl,Little Girl:Little girl,little girl,/Where have you been?/I've been to see grandmother/Over the green/What did she give you?/Milk in a can/What did you say for it?/Thank you,Grandam.[11]35ZHEISHOUERGETONGGUOHUOPOYOUQUDEYIWENYIDADEFANGSHIJIAOYUERTONGYAOYANGCHENGYOULIMAODEHAOPINZHI,JIDANGJIESHOUBIERENDEJIYUSHI,YAOJISHIBIAODAZHENCHENGDEXIEYI。ERGEDESANGEWENTIHUANHUANXIANGKOU,ZUIMOYIJUDIANCHUTIZHI。

                          YOUXIEXIFANGERGEHUIZAIERGEDEMOWEIMINGQUEDIZHICHUYUNHANZAIQIZHONGDEJIAOYUYIYI,LEISIYU《YISUOYUYAN》ZHONGDUIYUYIDEDIANMING。LIRUThere Was an Old Woman Lived Under a Hill:There was an old woman lived under a hill,/And if she's not gone,she lives there still./Baked apples she sold,and cranberry pies,/And she's the old woman that never told lies.[8]28……Moral:This is self-evident proposition which is the very essence of truth.None will presume to contradict this.(ZHEIYIJUSHIXIEZAIERGEHOUMIANDEYUYI,TIXIANERGEDEJIAOYUXING。YISISHI———YUYI:ZHEIXIANRANSHIYIGEGUANYUCHENGSHIDELIZI,MEIYOURENHUIQUFANBOTA。)ZHEISHOUERGEDOUZAIMOWEIDIANCHULEYUYI,CHONGFENXIANSHILE19SHIJIYIQIANXIFANGERGEDEJIAOYUXINGDETEDIAN。ERGEXIANSHIXIELELAOFURENDEZHUCHUYIJIRICHANGSHENGHUO,ZENGJIAERGEDEQUWEIXING。ZUIHOUYIJUSHIGUANJIANDEJUZI,XIECHULELAOFURENCONGBUSHUOHUANGDEPINXING,CONGERGAOJIEERTONGYAOCHENGSHI。ZHENGRUMax Van ManenHEBas LeveringSUOSHUO:“Natural growth of the child's body cannot be separated from social-psychological growth and socialization of norms,roles and conventions.”[12](HAIZISHENTIDEZIRANCHENGZHANGBUNENGHEQISHEHUIXINLIDECHENGZHANGYIJIGUIFAN、JIAOSEHEXISUDESHEHUIHUAGELIE。)CUJINERTONGYANGCHENGLIANGHAODESHENGHUOXIGUANTIXIANLESHIZHONGWAIERGEZHONGPINGEPEIYANGDEJIBENYAOQIU。HAODEPINZHIDEPEIYANGSHICHENGRENSHEHUIDUIERTONGDEYIZHONGJIBENDEYUESHUHEGUIFAN,SHIERTONGBEICHENGRENSHEHUIJIENADEBIRANTIAOJIAN。

                          

                          YOUMOXINGSHIZHONGWAIERGEDEYIGEXIANZHEDEGONGTONGTEDIAN。ZHONGWAIERGEDOUYUANYUCHUANTONGDEMINJIANSHEHUI,YOUMOXINGYIFANGMIANTIXIANLEMINZHONGDEZHIHUI,LINGYIFANGMIANYOUQIAHAOQIHEHEMANZULEERTONGDEXINLI。YINCIYOUMOERGESHENSHOUERTONGXIHUAN。

                          SHOUXIAN,ZHONGWAIERGEDOUBUFAJUYOUYOUMOSECAIDEERGE。LIRUZHONGGUOERGE《YIGEXING》:YIGEXING,LIANGGEXING,/TIANDINGSHANG,GUAYOUPING;/YOUPINGPO,LIANGBANGE;/ZHUDASHUI,GOUSHAOGUO,/TUZIXISHOUNIEWOWO,/LAOSHUKAIMENXIAOSIWO。[2]233YOURU《JINQIANHUA》:JINQIANHUA,/SHIBADUO,/DAYIMA,/LAIJIEWO,/ZHUNACHAI,/GOUSHAOHUO,MAOERZHUFANXIAOSIWO。[2]311ZHEILIANGSHOUERGEZAINEIRONGSHANGYOUMINGXIANDEXIANGSI,MIAOXIEDECHANGJINGHUAJIKEXIAO。QISHI,LIANGSHOUERGEXIEDEDOUSHIRICHANGDELAOZUO。BUGUO,DANGZHEIXIELAOZUOYOUDONGWULAICHENGDANSHI,JIUXIANDEHUANGDANERHUAJILE。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   XIFANGERGEZHONG,YOUMOXINGDEERGEYESHICHANGJIANDE。LIRUThere Was a Crooked Man:There was a crooked man,/And he walked a crooked mile,/He found s crooked sixpence/Against a crooked stile/He bought a crooked cat,/Which caught a crooked mouse./And they all lived together/In a little crooked house.[3]42ZAIZHEISHOUERGELI,SUOYOUDEDONGXIDOUSHIWANQUDE,BAOKUOREN、DONGWU、QIANBI、FANGZIDENG。ZHEIXIEWANQU、WAIWAINIUNIUDEDONGXIFANGZAIYIQI,JIUGOUCHENGLEYIGEHUAJIKEXIAODESHIJIE。BUGUO,YEYOURENDUIZHEISHOUERGEZUOCHULEGENGJIAXIANSHIDEJIESHI。

                          YOURUFather and Mother:Father and Mother,/And Uncle John,/Went to market one by one;/Father fell off———!/And Mother fell off———!/But Uncle John———/Went on,and on,/And on,And on……/And on,and on……[3]31-32ZHEISHOUERGEYIKUAZHANGDEDONGZUOMIAOXIEYINGZAOCHULEHUAJIYOUMODEXIAOGUO。YOUQISHIUncle JohnYIZHIZOU、YIZHIZOU、YIZHIZOUDEDONGZUO,XIANDEYOUWEIHUANGDANKEXIAO。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   QICI,ZHONGWAIERGEZHONGDOUYOUYILEITESHUDEERGEXINGSHICHONGFENTIXIANLEERGEDEYOUMOXINGTEDIAN。ZAIZHONGGUOERGEZHONG,ZHEILEIERGEBEICHENGWEIDIANDAOGE,ZAIXIFANGERGEZHONGZEBEICHENGWEINonsense Rhymes。DIANDAOGEZHUYAOTONGGUOLUOJI、SHILIDEDIANDAO、CUOWEILAICHANSHENGHUANGDANYOUMODEXIAOGUO。LIRU《XIQIXIQIZHENXIQI》:XIQIXIQIZHENXIQI,/MAQUECAISILAOMUJI,/MAYISHENZHANGSANCHILIU,/BASHISUIDELAOTOUERZUOZAIYAOCHELI。[2]130YOURU《DONGXIJIE》:DONGXIJIE,NANBEIZOU,/CHUMENKANJIANRENYAOGOU,/NAQIGOULAIDAZHUANTOU,/YOUPAZHUANTOUYAOLESHOU。[2]131ZAIRU《CHEHUANGGE》:ZICONGWEICHANGCHEHUANGGE,/FENGCHUIYANSHIGUNSHANGPO。/QUSHIKANJIANNIUSHENGDAN,/ZHUANLAIKANJIANMAZHANGJIAO。/SILIANGMIANHUACHENLESHUI,/YIFUMOZIQIUGUOHE。[2]307ZHEISANSHOUERGESHIDIANXINGDEDIANDAOGE,QITUCHUTEDIANSHITUIFANCHANGGUIDELUOJI,JIANLIQIYIGEDIANDAODESHIJIE。LIRU“MAQUECAISILAOMUJI”“RENYAOGOU”“NIUSHENGDAN”DENGDENGDOUWEIBEIHEDIANFULESHIWUDECHANGLIHERENMENZHENGCHANGDELUOJISIWEI,YINERXIANDEHUANGDANBUJING、HUAJIKEXIAO。

                          NonsenseZAIXIFANGLILAIYOUBUTONGDELIJIEHEJIESHI。ZAI17SHIJI,“The word‘nonsense'was predominantly used in the literal sense of first OED definition:‘That which is not sense;Spoken or written words which make no sense or convey absurd ideas.’”[5]166。(“nonsense”ZHEIGECIZUICHUZAINIUJINZIDIANZHONGDEZIMIANYISISHI:“MEIYOUYIYI”,SHUODEHUOZHEXIEDECIMEIYOUYIYIHUOZHEBIAODAHUANGDANDEXIANGFA。)YEJIUSHISHUO,ZAI17SHIJINIUJINYINGYUZIDIANZHONG,CONGZIMIANSHANGLIJIE,nonsenseJIMEIYOUYIYI、MEIYOUYISI,HUOZHECHUANDAYIZHONGHUANGDANDEXIANGFA。NEIME,nonsense rhymesKEYILIJIEWEIBUBIAODARENHEYIYIDEHUOZHEBIAODAHUANGDANXIANGFADEERGE。QIZHONG,YIJUYOUHUANGDANYOUMOSECAIDEERGEJUDUO。LIRUA Diller,A Dollar:Adiller,a dollar,/A ten o'clock scholar,/What makes you come so soon?/You used to come at ten o'clock,/But now you come at noon.[11]10YOURUJerry Hall:Jerry Hall,/He is so small,/A rat could eat him,/Hat and all.[11]35ZHEILIANGSHOUNonsense RhymesDOUBIAODALEHUANGDANDESIXIANG。DIYISHOUERGESHUYUZHENGHUAFANSHUO,YINWEI10DIANSHIZAOYUZHONGWU(noon)DE,NEIGESHIDIANXIANSHENGten o'clock scholarTONGCHANGSHISHIDIANDAODA,KESHIXIANZAISHIZHONGWUDAODA,ERGELIQUEWENTAWEISHENMELAIDEZHEIMEKUAI。ZHEIGEWEIBEISHIJIANLUOJIDEWENHUAZAOCHENGLEERGEDEYOUMOXIAOGUO。DIERSHOUERGEYUNYONGJIQIKUAZHANGDESHOUFABIAOSHULEYIJIANXIANSHISHENGHUOZHONGBUKENENGFASHENGDESHIQINGERXIANDEHUANGDANBUJING。ZAIKANI'll Tell You a Story:I'll tell you a story/About Jack a Nory,/And now my story's begun;/I'll tell you another/Of Jack and his brother,/And now my story is done.[5]179ZHEISHOUnonsense rhymeHEQIANLIANGSHOUYOUSUOBUTONG,TADEYOUMOBINGBUSHILAIZIYUQIHUANGDANDEZHUYI,ERSHIZAIYUTADEBIAODAHAOWUYIYI。ZHENGRUAlan WattsSUOSHUO:“It's humor doesn't consist in anything that it means,but rather in what it doesn't.”[13](TADEYOUMOBUZAIYUTABIAODALESHENME,ERQIAQIAZAIYUTAMEIYOUBIAODASHENME。)YEJIUSHISHUO,ZHENGSHIERGEDEWUYIYIBIAODAZAOCHENGQIYOUMODETEDIAN。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,ZHONGWAIERGE,YOUQISHICHUANTONGDEZHONGWAIERGE,JINGUANSHOUDAOBUTONGWENHUA、SHENMEI、DIYU、MINZUDENGGEZHONGYINSUDEYINGXIANGERZAIJUTINEIRONGSHANGCUNZAIZHEQIANCHAWANBIE,DANSHILIANGZHERENGRANCHENGXIANCHUMINGXIANDEGONGXING。ZHEIJISHUOMINGLEWENHUA、WENXUEZHIJIANDEGONGXING,TONGSHIYEBIAOMINGLEERGEDEBENZHITEZHENG。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   (BENLUNWENSHIZUOZHE2016—2017NIANZAIMEIGUOMAKAITEDAXUEFANGXUEQIJIANDEYIGEYANJIUJIEGUO。)

                          参考文献

                          [1]SMITH J W. Mother Goose—A Careful and Full Selection of the Rhymes with Numerous Illustrations in Full Color and Black and White[M]. New York:Derrydale Books Crown Publishers,1986.
                          [2] 鲁兵,张美妮.中国幼儿文学集成:儿歌[M].重庆:重庆出版社,1990.
                          [3]OPIE I. My Very First:Mother Goose[M]. Massachusetts:Candlewick Press,1996.
                          [4]KOCH K. Making Your Own Days—the Pleasures of Reading and Writing Poetry[M]. New York:Simon&Schuster Inc,1998:40.
                          [5]GREEN R L,FOLKARD C,et al. The Book of Nonsense[M]. London:J. M. DENT&SONS LTD,1956.
                          [6]FOREMAN M. Michael Foreman's Mother Goose[M].Orlando Florida:Walker Books Limited,1991:146-47.
                          [7] 胡伊青加.人:游戏者[M].成穷,译.贵阳:贵州人民出版社,1998:2.
                          [8] 李季.儿童经典谜语大全[M].修订本.沈阳:辽宁少年儿童出版社,2017.
                          [9]KAREN L,KILCUP,SORBY A. Over the River and Through the Wood—An anthology of Nine-teenth-Century American Children's Poetry[M]. Maryland:Johns Hopkins University Press,2014.
                          [10]FOREMAN M. Michael Foreman's Playtime Rhymes[M]. Massachusetts:Candlewick Press,2002.
                          [11]DEPAOLA T. Tomie Depaola's Mother Goose[M].New York:G. P. Putnam's Sons,1985.
                          [12]MANEN M V,LEVERING B. Childhood's Secret—Intimacy,Privacy,and the Self-Reconsidered[M]. New York:Columbia University,1996:139.
                          [13]WATTS A. Nonsense[M]. New York:A Division of Sequoia-Elsevier Publishing Company,1977:41.

                          ZHUSHI

                          1这是一首游戏儿歌。唱时,两个儿童对立,拉手摇晃,再同时将一边手臂扬起,头从臂下翻过去。
                        棋牌大全下载安装   2这是一首游戏儿歌。玩时,一个儿童弯下腰,手撑膝盖,另一个儿童从他身上跳过去。

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