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                      • 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 文学论文 > 赖特《土生子》的存在主义哲学探究

                        赖特《土生子》的存在主义哲学探究

                        时间:2019-03-16 13:31作者:闫美言
                        本文导读:这是一篇关于赖特《土生子》的存在主义哲学探究的文章,赖特从小就在一个充满敌意、备受歧视的环境中成长起来,作为社会的“弃儿”和“局外人,”他对白人世界又恨又怕。他曾在自传中这样写道:“是我这一辈子所过的生活,使我向往现代小说中的现实主义。”

                          摘    要: 理查·赖特的《土生子》塑造了敢于反抗、具有反叛精神的新黑人形象——别格。作为一个“局外人”,赖特用现实主义的笔触深刻挖掘美国大城市的阴暗面和底层黑人的生活面貌。通过别格这一形象的塑造,赖特以小见大,映射了美国黑人的悲惨生活。本文运用萨特的存在主义理论,从三个方面:别格的生活、别格的行动和别格受刑来解读文本,最后得出结论:别格是美国社会畸形发展的产物,他在荒谬的世界里过着痛苦的人生,通过暴力寻找自由和自我价值,最终没能逃脱悲惨命运。

                          关键词:棋牌大全下载安装 《土生子》; 存在; 选择; 责任;

                        棋牌大全下载安装   LAITECONGXIAOJIUZAIYIGECHONGMANDIYI、BEISHOUQISHIDEHUANJINGZHONGCHENGZHANGQILAI,ZUOWEISHEHUIDE“QIER”HE“JUWAIREN,”TADUIBAIRENSHIJIEYOUHENYOUPA。TACENGZAIZICHUANZHONGZHEIYANGXIEDAO:“SHIWOZHEIYIBEIZISUOGUODESHENGHUO,SHIWOXIANGWANGXIANDAIXIAOSHUOZHONGDEXIANSHIZHUYI。”[[1]:494]LAITEYONGMINRUIDESHIJIAOCHUJISHENGHUODEDIYUN,TADE《TUSHENGZI》BEIGONGRENWEISHIHEIRENWENXUEDELICHENGBEI。XIAOSHUOYIYIGEHEIRENQINGNIANFANZUIWEIZHUXIAN,FENSANZHANG:KONGJU、TAOPAO、MINGYUN,JIANGSHULEZHURENGONGBIEGEDEBEICANMINGYUN,TONGPIANDOUCHONGMANZHEYIGESHENGHUOZAISHEHUIDICENGBEIYAPOMINZUDECHOUHEN。LAITESHUO:“BABIEGEDEXINGGECHENGYIQIANERBAIWAN,JIUDECHUHEIRENMINZUDEXINLI。”[[1]:494]LAITEKAIQILE“CHENGSHIXIANSHIZHUYI”HE“MEIGUOKANGYIXIAOSHUO”DEXIANHE,DUIMEIGUOHEIRENWENXUEJUYOUBUKEMOMIEDEGONGXIAN。

                          CUNZAIZHUYIZHEXUECHANSHENGYUERZHANHOU,RENMENDUISHIJIEDEPUBIANSHIWANG,DUIXIANCUNJIAZHIGUANNIANDEHUAIYI、PANGHUANGBUDINGHEBUZHISUOGUIDEQINGXUYUCUNZAIZHUYIDELINIANHENQIHE。YOURENSHUO,CUNZAIZHUYIZHEXUESHIYIZHONGBEIGUANZHEXUE。CUNZAIZHUYIRENWEI“CUNZAIXIANYUBENZHI”,SATEHENZHONGSHIGERENDEXINLITIYAN,RENWEICUNZAISHITONGGUOKUNAOHUOEXINDENGNEIXINDETIYANZHIJIEBAWODE。[[3]:424]CUNZAIZHUYIWENXUE“XUNZHAOZIWO”,BIAOXIANSHIJIEDEHUANGDANHERENJIGUANXIDEGEMO。ZUOWEISHAOSHUZUYIQUNTI,WULUNSHILAITEHAISHIBIEGE,TAMENYINZAISHEHUISHENGHUOYUGERENDEJINGSHENSHIJIEZHAOBUDAOZIJIDEWEIZHI,ERGANDAOTONGKUHEWUZHU。

                          一、荒谬的存在:别格的生活

                          CUNZAIZHUYIRENWEI,“SHIJIESHIHUANGMIUDE,RENSHENGSHITONGKUDE。”RENBUNENGTAOBITADEJIEJI、MINZUHEJIATINGDEMINGYUN,RENSHITONGGUOTADEZHONGZU、JIEJI、LISHI、YICHUAN、GERENJINGKUANG、HOUTIANXIGUANHESHENGHUOZHONGDEDAXIAOSHIJIANERBEIZAOJIUDE。[[2]:618]BIEGESHENGZAIDICENGJIEJI、HEIRENMINZU、PINKUJIATING,XIAOSHUOKAIPIANJIUZHANXIANLEZAIZHEIYANGDEHUANJINGZHONGBIEGEDEZIWOCUNZAI,TADEJIXINGXINLIRANGTACANREN、LENGMO、BAOLI。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   BIEGEYIJIASIKOUZHUZAIZULAIDEPOJIUDEXIAOFANGJIANLI,SHENGHUOKUNKU,NANYIWEICHISHENGJI,LAOSHUCHENGZAI。CANRENDEBIEGETUSHOUZHUOZHULAOSHU,PINMINGJIANGLAOSHUDENAODAIQIAOSUI。TADEMUQINDUITAZHENGTIANWUSUOSHISHI、YOUSHOUHAOXIANSHIWANGTOUDING,BIEGEZENGHENZHEIGEJIA。TADESHENGHUOYIZHIYILAIDOUSHIDUOBI,TAZANGZAIQIANGBIHEWEIMUDEHOUMIAN,TABUSHIBUZHIDAOYIJIARENDEQIKU,DANSHITAQUEWUNENGWEILI,KANDAOJIARENDEBEICAN,BIEGEJUEDECHIRU、KONGJUHEJUEWANG。

                          SATESHUO:“CHIRUSHIWOZAITARENMIANQIANDUIZIJIDECHIRU”[[3]:449]“KONGJUSHIDUISHIJIESHANGCUNZAIDEKONGJU”[[3]:435]“JUEWANGSHIZHINENGBAZIJISUOYOUDEYIKAOXIANZHIZAIZIJIYIZHIFANWEINEI,MEIYOUQITAKENENGXINGQUSHIYINGWODEYIZHI。”[[4]:17]BIEGECHIRUYUZIJIMINGMINGSHIJIALIDEDINGLIANGZHUQUEBUNENGWEIZHEIGEJIAZUOXIESHENME,TAKONGJUZHEIGEBUGONGDEBAIRENSHEHUI,JUEWANGYUZHEIYANGDEZIJIMEIYOURENHEJIHUI。BIEGETONGHENZHEIYANGDEZIJI。TABATADEZHENMIANMUZANGZAIHOUHOUDEQIAOLI,BUQUGANZHIHESIKAO,YINWEIYIDANZHEIYANGZUOLE,TADOUBUZHIDAOZIJIHUIZUOCHUSHENMEJIDUANDESHILAI。JIALIMEITIANWUJINDEZHENGCHAOHEJIAORANGRANGTAFANNIZHIJI。DUIYUCHUZAISHEHUIDICENGDEBIEGELAISHUO,TAMEIYOURENHEJIHUI,TASHENMEYEMEIYOU,SHENMEYEGANBUCHENG,TACENGYOUGUOMENGXIANG,TAXIANGKAIFEIJI,DANGHAIJUN、LUJUN,ZUOSHENGYI,TAXIANGYAOXINGFU,DANSHITADESHENFENGAOSUTAZHEIYIQIEDOUSHISHEWANG。“YOUYIBANSHIJIAN,WOJUEDEZIJIXIANGBEIGUANZAIJIANYULIYIYANG,WOHAOXIANGZAISHIJIEDEWAIBIAN,BAZHELIBAYANERWANGLIQIAO……”[[1]:21]BIEGERONGRUBULEZHEIGESHEHUI,TABEIPAICHIZAIWAI,TADESHENGHUOJIEZOUZHISHENGXIALENGMOHEBAOLI。BIEGEJIUSHIZAIHUANGMIUDESHIJIELITONGKUSHENGHUODEYIGEGETI。

                          二、自由选择:别格的行动

                          萨特说:“一个人不多不少就是他的一系列行径;他是构成这些行径的总和、组织和一套关系。”[[4]:19]存在主义哲学是一种行动哲学。别格通过行动构建自己,在两次杀人的行动中做出自由选择。
                         

                        赖特《土生子》的存在主义哲学探究
                         

                          BIEGEZAIFUYOUDEBAIRENDAOERDUNJIALIGONGZUO,QUEYINYICIYIWAISHASILEDAOERDUNJIADENVER——MALI。SHIFADANGWAN,TAPABEIDAOERDUNTAITAIFAXIANERDIULEGONGZUO,BIANSHISHOUYONGZHENTOUWUSILEMALI,WEILEXIAOMIEZHENGJU,TAYONGHUOLUFENSHAOLESHITI。TONGWEIREN,WEISHENMEZIJIZHINENGQUANSUOZAICHENGSHIDEJIAOLUO,ERSUOYOUDEYIQIEDOUJILEBAIREN,WEISHENMEHEIRENJIUDEGUOZHEIYANGDESHENGHUO?BIEGEZHUJIANDUIZIJIDEXINGWEICHANSHENGLEYIZHONGZIHAOGAN,BEIPOGUOZHEIYANGDESHENGHUO,ZHENGSHIYINWEITAMENYIBEIZIYEBUCENGGANGUOSHENMELEBUQIDESHI。“TADEXINGWEIWEITACHUANGZAOLEYIZHONGXINDESHENGHUO,ZAITAYUTAHAIPADESHIJIEZHIJIANZHUQIYIDAOBAOHUPINGZHANG。”[[1]:122]YEXUSHISHOUSHAREN、OURANFANZUISHITASHENGHUODEBIRANJIEJU,BIEGEDIYICICHENGWEIZIJIRENSHENGDEZHUREN,JIANGMINGYUNZHANGWOZAIZIJISHOULI。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   YIZHIYILAI,BIEGEDOUHENWUZHU。“TAXUEHUIHANJIAO,DANMEIRENTINGTA;TAXUEHUIZOULU,QUEKANBUJIANJIAOXIADETUDI;TAKEWANGSHOUWOWUQI,QUEFAXIANWUQISHIYINXINGDE。”[[1]:150]SHALEMALI,RANGTASHENGBURUSI,HOULONGBEIJINJINEZHUDEGANJUEYILITAERQU。TADECHUJING,TADUIJIANHEMALIDECHOUHEN,TADUIYINZIJISHIHEIRENERMINGAN、XIUCHIHEZENGHENDEQINGGANRUANHUALENGQUE。TABAZUIXINGJIAHUOZAIJIANSHENSHANG,BIPOBEIXIDAIZHEKONGHEXINXIANGDAOERDUNJIALESUOYIWANYUANSHUJIN。SHIQINGBAILUHOU,BIEGEKAISHITAOMING,TAOSHITAZHEIYIBEIZIZAISHUXIBUGUODE。DANGBEIXIDEZHISHIQINGDEZHENXIANGHOU,BIEGEYONGZHUANTOUPAISILETA。DUIYUHUOZAIBAIRENSHIJIEZHIWAIDEBIEGELAISHUO,LIANGCISHARENSHITAZHEIYIBEIZIZUIYOUYIYIDESHI。YINWEITABUZAIDUOZANG,ERSHIYOUJIHUIZAIZIJIDEXINGDONGHOUGUOLIHUOXIAQU,TADEYIZHICONGWEIZHEIYANGZIYOUGUO。SATESHUO:“RENBEI·QIZAISHIJIEZHONG,SHIGUDUDE,WUZHUDE。”[[2]:711]BIEGEZAIJIXINGDESHEHUILIYIHUALE,TAYUZHEIGESHIJIEGEGEBURU,TAXIANGYUBIERENRONGWEIYITI,CHENGWEISHIJIEDEYIBUFEN,HUODEYUBIERENYIYANGDESHENGHUOJIHUI。BIEGEXUANZEBUZAIKONGJU,BUZAINILAISHUNSHOU,JIBIANSHITAOMING,YEYAOZUOZIJIRENSHENGDEZHUREN。

                          三、承担责任:别格受刑

                          CUNZAIZHUYIDEHEXIN:ZIYOUCHENGDANZERENDEJUEDINGXING。SATESHUO:“RENYOUYUMINGDINGSHIZIYOU,BAZHENGGESHIJIEDEZHONGLIANGDANZAIJIANSHANG,TADUIZUOWEICUNZAIFANGSHIDESHIJIEHETABENSHENSHIYOUZERENDE。”[[2]:708]BIEGEZUIZHONGHAISHIWEIZIJIDEXINGWEICHENGDANLEHOUGUO。

                          SHISHOUSHARENDEZUIXINGRANGTACHUZAICHENGDANDAODEZUIZEDEJINGYU,DANTADIYICIGANDAOZIYOU。TADEDONGJISHISHENME?SHITADEZHENGGESHENGHUO,SHITANEIXINDECHOUHEN,SHITAHEZHEIGESHIJIEZHIJIANDEYITIAOHONGGOU。ZHEIGESHIJIESHIANGZANGWOCHUODE,SHALEBAIRENGUNIANGSHIFANZUI,ERHEIRENGUNIANGDEMINGJIUBUSHIMING,“ZAIBAIRENYANLIMEIYIGEHEIRENDOUSHIYOUZUIDE,SHISHARENFAN,SHIGOU。”[[1]:292]SUOYIBIEGECONGBUXIANGTAMUQINHEBEIXINEIYANG,YONGZONGJIAOHEJIUJINGMAZUIZIJI。TAMUQINDATANTETANKUNAN、XIWANGHERENSHIZHIWAIDEAI,TASHENZHIGUIXIALAIQIUDAOERDUNTAITAI,“TACONGLAIBUCENGYOUGUOJIHUI!TAZHISHIYIGEHAIZI!”[[1]:349]BEIWEIDAOCHENAILIDEMUQINWEILEZHEIGEJIAPINJINLEQUANLI,ZUIZHONGYEMEINENGWANHUIBIEGEBEICHUYISIXINGDEJIEJU。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   MIANDUIMINGYUNDESHENPAN,BIEGEBUZAIKONGJU,TAZHIDAOCHOUHENWUJIYUSHI。CONGYUMAIKESIDESHENDUJIAOLIUZHONG,BIEGEDUIZHEIGESHIJIEHAISHIYOULIULIANYUBUSHEDE。“BUSHITABUXIANGHUOXIAQU,BUSHITATAIRUO,ERSHIZHEIGESHIJIETAIQIANG,TAYIZAINULICHUANGZAOYIGETAKEYISHENGHUODESHIJIE,QUEYIZAISHIBAI。”[[1]:400]BIEGEZHISHIQIANBAIWANHEIRENZHONGDEYIXIAOBUFEN,TAMENZAIZHANGDAERBAIDUONIANDEMANZHANGSUIYUELIGUOZHEFEIRENDESHENGHUO。“BIEGEZUIXINGDEOURANXINGBIAOXIANWEITURANYONGBAOLIJIANGZHEYANTASHENGHUODENEITIAOWEIMUSIPOYIGEDONG,TADEFENNUHESHOUQISHIDEGANQINGJIUCONGDONGLIYIYONGERCHU,ZHAODAOLEKEGUAN、JUTIDEXINGSHI。”[[1]:452]XIAOSHUODEJIEWEIZHEIYANGXIEDAO:“TAJINZUANZHEZHALAN,LUCHUYIGEDANDANDE、WAINIUDEKUXIAO。”[[1]:491]BIEGEDERENSHENGSHIYICHUBEIJU,TAZAIXINGDONGZHONGGANSHOUZIYOU,FAXIANZIWO,DANYECHENGDANLEZERENHEHOUGUO。

                          四、结语

                        棋牌大全下载安装   BIEGEDESUZAOYIGAICHUANTONGNILAISHUNSHOUDEHEIRENXINGXIANG,TASHIJIXINGMEIGUOSHEHUIDECHANWU,ZAIBAOLIZHONGXUNZHAOZIYOUHEZIWOJIAZHIDEBIEGEZUIZHONGZOUXIANGLERENSHENGDEBEIJU。BENWENYUNYONGCUNZAIZHUYI,FENXILEZAIHUANGMIUSHIJIEZHONGBIEGEDETONGKURENSHENG;TONGGUOZIYOUXUANZE,LIANGCISHARENDEBIEGEHUODELEZIYOU;ZUIZHONGBIEGECHENGDANLEZIJIXINGWEIDEHOUGUO,BEICHUYISIXING,YUZHEIGERANGTATONGHEN、JUEWANGHEKONGJUDESHIJIEDACHENGHEJIE。

                          参考文献

                          [1]理查·赖特着,施咸荣译.土生子[M].上海:上海译文出版社,1982.
                          [2]萨特着,陈宣良译.存在与虚无[M].北京:三联书店,1986.
                          [3]徐崇温主编.存在主义哲学[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,1986.
                        棋牌大全下载安装   [4]萨特着,周熙良汤永宽译.存在主义是一种人道主义[M].上海:上海译文出版社,1988.

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