棋牌大全下载安装

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                1. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 文学论文 > 小说《卡门》文章结构的叙事艺术特色

                  小说《卡门》文章结构的叙事艺术特色

                  时间:2019-03-20 13:33作者:刘昕玥
                  本文导读:这是一篇关于小说《卡门》文章结构的叙事艺术特色的文章,中篇小说《卡门》是现实主义作家梅里美的代表作,它融汇了作者对于当时社会和人性的思考。这部作品具有较强的社会影响力与文学艺术魅力。自问世起,《卡门》便吸引了法国乃至国外学者的广泛关注和热烈研究。

                    摘    要:棋牌大全下载安装 法国现实主义作家梅里美的代表作《卡门》虽然是一部中篇小说,但是其结构巧妙、情节紧凑,堪称法国文学史上的里程碑之作。基于此,运用法国叙事学家热拉尔·热奈特的叙事学理论,对《卡门》的文章结构进行深刻的剖析和解读。

                    关键词: 《卡门》; 热奈特; 叙事学; 结构主义;

                    Abstract: Although the French realistic writer Merimee's masterpiece Carmen is a novella, it is a milestone in the history of French literature because of its ingenious structure and compact plot. Based on this, using the narrative theory of the French narratologist Gerard Genette, this paper deeply analyzes and interprets the structure of Carmen.

                    Keyword:棋牌大全下载安装 Carmen; Genette; narratology; structuralism;

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                    一、热奈特的《叙事话语 新叙事话语》

                    RENAITEDEXUSHIXUELILUNQUANBUDOUSHOULUZAI《XUSHIHUAYU XINXUSHIHUAYU》ZHEIBENSHUZHONG。ZAI《XUSHIHUAYU XINXUSHIHUAYU》ZHONG,RENAITESHOUXIANTICHUDEZHONGDIANWENTIJIUSHI,XUSHIYOUZHANGQIBEIRENHUSHIDESANCENGHANYI:GUSHI、XUSHIHEXUSHU。GUSHISHISUOZHI,SHIXUSHUDENEIRONG;XUSHISHINENGZHI,SHIBENYISHANGDEXUSHI;XUSHUSHIXUSHUXINGWEIHEGAIXINGWEISUOCHUDEZONGQINGJING。ZHEISHIZHEIBENSHUZHONGZUIJIBENYESHIZUIZHONGYAODEGAINIAN,TADIANDINGLERENAITEXUSHIXUELILUNDEJICHU。ZHIHOU,RENAITECONGYUFAFANCHOUCHUFA,ZAICISHUZHONGBAXUSHILILUNFENWEILESANDALEI,FENBIESHISHIJIAN、YUSHIHEYUTAI。TARENWEISHIJIAN、YUSHIHEYUTAIYUXUSHIDESANCENGHANYI,SHIYIYIZHONGFUZAFANGSHIJIAOCHAZAIYIQIDE,QIANZHESHIJISHANGBIAOSHIDESHIGUSHI、XUSHIHEXUSHUZHIJIANDEDUOZHONGGUANXI。YUSHI,RENAITECONGXUSHILILUNDESANDALEICHUFA,ZAIHOUWENZHONGDUIQIJINXINGGENGWEIXIANGXIHEQINGXIDEHUAFENYUDINGYI,YIYANJIUCHUGENGSHENKE、GENGZHUNQUEDEXUSHIXUELILUN。XIAWENJIANGCONGYUTAIFANGMIANXIANGXIFENXI《KAMEN》ZHEIBUXIAOSHUO。

                    二、用语态理论分析《卡门》

                  棋牌大全下载安装   YUTAIDEHANYI,ANZHAOWANGDELIAISISUOSHUO,JIUSHI“YANYUXINGWEIYUZHUYUDEGUANXI”。RENAITEZHISUOYIXUANZE“YUTAI”ZHEIGECILAIBIAODACIGAINIAN,SHIYINWEITARENTONGBENWEINISITEDEGUANDIAN,RENWEI“YANYUZHONGCUNZAIZHUGUANXING”[1],SUOYITARENWEIYAOFENXIJUZIYUCHANSHENGZHEIXIEJUZIDEZHUTIZHIJIANDEGUANXI,ERBUJINJINSHIFENXIJUZI。ZAIYANJIUYUTAIDEZHEIYIZHANGJIEZHONG,RENAITETICHU,YINGXIANGYUTAIDESANGEYINSUFENBIESHIXUSHUSHIJIAN、XUSHUCENGHERENCHENG(XUSHUZHE)。XIAWENZHONG,WOMENJIANGZHUYAOYUNYONGXUSHUCENGLILUNHEXUSHUZHELILUNDUI《KAMEN》JINXINGXIANGJINDEJIEDU。

                    (一)叙述层

                    叙述层通常由叙述行为来分层,分为故事外层、故事内层和元故事层。在小说《卡门》中,开篇的“我”——一名业余历史学家即将要发表一篇学术论文,在提到论文的研究成果之前“我”要给大家讲一个故事。到此为止,是小说的第一个叙述层,就是热奈特定义的故事外层。根据热奈特的理论叙述行为与其叙述的内容不在一个叙述层中,所以下面的情节将开启另一个叙述层:1830年初秋,“我”(业余历史学家)开始了一次旅行考察,途中结识了男主人公唐·何塞和女主人公卡门,后来“我”去看望要被行刑的唐·何塞,他给我讲述他的悲惨经历。这一段情节是故事外层中叙述行为的对应内容,被热奈特称作故事内层,也是整个故事的第二层,而之所以在此断开是因为此处出现了又一个叙述行为:唐·何塞为“我”(业余历史学家)讲述他的经历,因此小说的下文中唐·何塞与卡门之间发生的一系列事件是整个故事的第三层,也就是元故事层。需要注意的是,元故事层也是故事内层的一种,是为了区分第二层与第三层、第四层、第五层等等才产生了名称上的区别,当然从第三层开始之后的叙述层就都统称为元故事层了。在《卡门》中,叙述层的分层并没有到此为止,在唐·何塞叙述故事的过程中也出现了好几次其他人叙述其他故事的情况,这些小的故事都并列在整个故事的第四层中,当然它们也都称为元故事层。
                   

                  小说《卡门》文章结构的叙事艺术特色
                   

                  棋牌大全下载安装   SUOYI,ZHENGTILAIKAN,《KAMEN》DEDIYIXUSHIDEXUSHIZHUTISHIZUOWEIYEYULISHIXUEJIADE“WO”,SHIGUSHIWAIZHUTI;DIERXUSHI(BAOHANYUANGUSHI)CAISHIGUSHIZHUTI。NEIMEZUOZHEWEIXIAOSHUOSHEJIZHEIYANGYIGEFUZADEJIEGOUSHIWEISHENMENI?

                    1.故事外层

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                    2.故事内层与元故事层

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                    (二)叙述者

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                    XUSHUZHE,GUMINGSIYI,JIUSHIZAIWENZHONGSHISHIXUSHUZHEIYIXINGWEIDERENWU。ZAI《KAMEN》ZHONG,JIEHESHANGWENZHONGWOMENYIJINGFENXILEDEXUSHUCENG,KEZHIYIGONGYOULIANGGEXUSHUZHE:GUSHIWAICENGDEXUSHUZHE“WO”(YEYULISHIXUEJIA)HEGUSHINEICENGDETANG·HESAI,TAMENFENBIEXUSHUDESHIGUSHINEICENG“WO”JINXINGLVXINGKAOCHADEJIANWENHEYUANGUSHICENGTANG·HESAIHEKAMENZHIJIANDEAIQINGGUSHI。XUYAOZHUYIDESHI,XUSHUZHE“WO”HEGUSHIZHONGDE“WO”YUXUSHUZHETANG·HESAIHEGUSHIZHONGDETANG·HESAI,SHILIANGDUIBEISIPIZECHENGWEI“XUSHUDEWO”HE“BEIXUSHUDEWO”DELIANGGEXINGDONGZHE,RENAITERENWEIZHEILIANGGEREN“YINNIANLINGHEJINGLIDEBUTONGBEIQUFENKAILAI,SHIQIANZHEDAIZHEMOUZHONGQUZUNFUJIUHUOLENGCHAOREFENGDEYOUYUEGANDUIDAIHOUZHE”[1],YUSHIJIUCHANSHENGLESHANGWENZHONGWOMENTIDAODEXUSHUZHEYINWEISHISHIHOUXUSHISUOYIHUIZAIWENZHONGJIARUSHIHOUZIJIDEJIESHIXINGHUOPINGJIAXINGYUYAN,ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGBEIRENAITEGUINADAOXUSHUZHEDEZHINENGZHONG。

                    RENAITERENWEI,XUSHUZHEDEHUAYUKEYICHENGDANXUDUOZHINENG。TACONGYOUGUANGUANGYIDEXUSHIDEGEGEFANGMIANRUSHOUBAXUSHUZHEDEZHINENGFENWEILEYIXIAWUGELEIXING:XIAYIDEXUSHUZHINENG、GUANLIZHINENG、JIAOJIZHINENG、ZHENGMINGHUOZHENGSHIZHINENG、XUSHUZHEDESIXIANGZHINENG。DANGRAN,SUIRANRENAITEBAXUSHUZHEDEZHINENGFENWEILEMINGQUEDEWULEI,DANSHITAYEQIANGDIAO“BUYINGBAZHEIWUZHONGZHINENGDEJIEXIANKANDETAIGUOJINGWEIFENMING,TAMENZHONGMEIYOUYIZHONGSHICHUNERYOUCHUN,BUHEQITAZHINENGCHANZAZAIYIQIDE”[1],SUOYIXIAMIANWOMENJIANGCONG《KAMEN》YUANWENZHONGTIQUYIXIEYUJUZHONGDEZUIDIANXINGHUATEDIAN,JIEHEXUSHUZHEDEZHINENGLILUNJINXINGCHANGSHIXINGFENXI。

                    ZAIXIAOSHUO《KAMEN》ZHONG,CHULEZUIJIBENDEXIAYIDEXUSHUZHINENG,ZUIYINRENZHUMUDEXUSHUZHEZHINENGJIUSHIZHENGMINGHUOZHENGSHIZHINENGLE,ZHEIYUSHANGYIZHANGTIDAODESHIHOUXUSHIYOUGUAN。ZHENGMINGHUOZHENGSHIZHINENGSHIZHI“XUSHUZHEZHICHUTAHUODEXINXIDELAIYUAN,BENRENHUIYIDEZHUNQUECHENGDUHUOMOUGESHIJIANZAITAXINZHONGHUANQIDEQINGGANDEZHINENG,SHIDANCHUNDEJIANZHENG”[1]。YINWEISHIHOUXUSHIDEGUANXI,XUSHUZHEYINWEISHIJIANDECHENDIANHEZAILIJINQIANFANHOUDUIZHENGGEGUSHIDELEJIE,SUOYIXUSHUZHEHETAKOUZHONGDE“WO”BUZAISHITONGYIGEREN,YEYINCISHIDEXUSHUZHEKEYIZAIXUSHUSHIJIANSHIJIARUZIJIDEZHENZHIZHUOJIANHEQINGGANSHUFA,ERZHEIYEJIUSHIRENAITEKOUZHONGDEXUSHUZHEDEZHENGMINGHUOZHENGSHIZHINENGLE,DANGRAN,SHANGYIZHANGTIDAODEPINGLUNXINGHUAYUDELIZIJIUGUIYUZHEIYILEI。NEIMEZUOZHEFEIXINFEILIYUNYONGZHEIYIXUSHUZHEZHINENGSHIWEISHENMENI?SHOUXIAN,ZHEIXIEHUOJIESHIHUOPINGLUNDEHUAYUBUJINWEIXUSHIBUCHONGLEXIJIE,SHIQINGJIEGENGJIABAOMAN,GENGLAJINLEYUDUZHEZHIJIANDEJULI,FANGFORENWUCONGSHUZHONGZOUCHULAIYUDUZHEJINXINGLEJINJULIDEJIAOTAN。QICI,ZUOZHEJIEZHUWENZHONGRENWUZHIKOUPINGJIAXIAOSHUORENWUDEXINGWEI,SHIJISHANGSHIZAIYUDUZHEZHIJIANJINXINGJIANJIEDUIHUA,ZUOZHEZIJIBINGBUCHUXIANZAIXIAOSHUOLI,SHIYINWEITAYAOTONGGUOZHEIZHONGFANGSHIYURENWUHEQINGJIEDOUBAOCHIYIDINGDEJULI,ZHEIYANG,DUZHEZAIYUEDUDEGUOCHENGZHONGJIUBUHUIYINWEIZUOZHETURANDEJIERUERTIXINGYOU“ZUOZHE”ZHEIYIJIAOSE,FANERGENGJIAQUANSHENXINDITOURUDAOGUSHIZHONGQU。ZUOZHEZHEIYANGDEZUOFA,JIBAOZHANGLEDUZHEYUEDUWENZHANGSHIQINGJIEDELIANGUANXING,YESHIDEDUZHEZAIBUZHIBUJUEZHONGGENGJIAXIANGXINZHEIGEGUSHI。

                    三、结论

                  棋牌大全下载安装   《KAMEN》SUIRANPIANFUJIAODUAN,ZHISHIYIBUZHONGPIANXIAOSHUO,DANSHIQUECHUSEDITIXIANLEPULUOSIPEI·MEILIMEIZAIZHONGDUANPIANXIAOSHUOFANGMIANDEZHUMUCHENGJIU,TAJIANLIANJINCOU、CENGCIFENMING、GAOCHAOTUCHU、KOURENXINXIAN,WULUNSHIZAIRENWUHEQINGJIEDEANPAISHANG,HAISHIZAIJIEGOUDEGOUJIANSHANGDOUWUKEHOUFEIDIDAIBIAOLEMEILIMEIDEZUIGAOSHUIPING。BENWENYIRELAER·RENAITEDEXUSHIXUELILUNZHEZUO《XUSHIHUAYU XINXUSHIHUAYU》WEILILUNYITUO,CONGYUTAIZHEIYIJIAODUDUIXIAOSHUO《KAMEN》JINXINGLESHENKEDEPOUXI,DECHULEYIXIAJIELUN:ZUOZHEMEILIMEITONGGUOGOUJIANSIGEXUSHUCENG,JIEZHULIANGGEXUSHUZHE,WEIDUZHEZHANXIANLEYIGEFUZAQUEYOUQINGXIDEGUSHIFAZHANMAILUO,YIJIANJIE、LENGJINGSHENZHIJINHULENGMODEXUSHUFANGSHI,WEIDUZHEJIANGSHULEYIGELINGRENXIXUBUYIDEAIQINGBEIJU,KEHUALELIANGGEXINGGEXIANMING,SHENZHISHIXIANGHUDUILIDENANNVZHURENGONG,TATONGGUOMIAOSHUZICHANJIEJIZHENGZHIHEDAODEGUANNIANYUBOXIMIYARENZHUIQIUZIYOUDEGUANNIANZHIJIANDEJILIECHONGTU,YIKUANGYEDANQUECHONGMANSHENGMINGLIDEKAMENXINGXIANGFANCHENLEDANGSHISHEHUIWENMINGDECANGBAIHEXUWEI。

                    参考文献

                    [1] 热拉尔·热奈特.叙事话语新叙事话语[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,1985:1—292.
                    [2] 梅里美.卡门[G]//梅里美中短篇小说选.上海:上海译文出版社,2007:1—63.
                    [3] 段研.试论梅里美小说《卡门》的创作动机[J].邢台学院学报,2013,28(1):65—66.

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