棋牌大全下载安装

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                      1. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 英语论文 > 中外医学英语论文摘要语料库中的高频名词比较

                        中外医学英语论文摘要语料库中的高频名词比较

                        时间:2018-12-18 10:03作者:吕颖 张冰茹
                        本文导读:这是一篇关于中外医学英语论文摘要语料库中的高频名词比较的文章,随着国际学术交流的进一步推进,越来越多的医学科研人员开始在国际上发表学术论文。作为英语高级学习者,他们在英文论文撰写中往往是将中文论文译成英文,即使直接用英语写作也难免存在“心译”的现象。

                          摘    要:棋牌大全下载安装 医学英语有其自身的语言特色,而国内学者在国际发表中受到母语思维影响,采取直译策略,导致论文不合目的语规范,直接影响其国际交流和推广。近年来,国际上开始出现运用语料库来减少母语负迁移影响的研究,本研究基于中外医学英语论文摘要语料库,探究两库高频名词的频率差异和使用差异,并试图运用语料库检索来发现英语母语使用者的语言使用范式,提出医学论文的英译策略。

                          关键词: 语料库; 母语负迁移; 母语思维; 医学英语; 翻译策略; ESP;

                          一、母语思维与语料库

                          SUIZHEGUOJIXUESHUJIAOLIUDEJINYIBUTUIJIN,YUELAIYUEDUODEYIXUEKEYANRENYUANKAISHIZAIGUOJISHANGFABIAOXUESHULUNWEN。ZUOWEIYINGYUGAOJIXUEXIZHE,TAMENZAIYINGWENLUNWENZHUANXIEZHONGWANGWANGSHIJIANGZHONGWENLUNWENYICHENGYINGWEN,JISHIZHIJIEYONGYINGYUXIEZUOYENANMIANCUNZAI“XINYI”DEXIANXIANG。YOUYUSHOUDAOMUYUSIWEIDEYINGXIANG,YINGYULUNWENJUNIYUHANYUBIAODAFANGSHI,XINGCHENGBUFUHEYINGYUMUYUZUOZHEXIEZUOFANSHI,DAIYOUMINGXIANDE“FANYIQIANG”。WAIYUXUEXIZHONGMUYUQIANYIDUIMUDEYUXIDEDEYINGXIANGYIZHISHIXUEZHEHEWAIYUJIAOSHIPUBIANGUANZHUDEWENTI。YUYANQIANYISHIZHIRENHEBENZUYU(L1)YUMUBIAOYU(L2)ZHIJIANYITONGDIANSUOCHANSHENGDEYINGXIANG(Odlin,1989:27),YOUCHENGYUJIYINGXIANG。QIANYIFENWEIJIJIHEXIAOJILIANGZHONG,DANGBENZUYUDEYUYANXIGUANYUMUDEYUDEYUYANXIGUANXIANGTONGHUOXIANGSISHIHUICHUXIAN“ZHENGQIANYI”(positive transfer),FANZHIZEXINGCHENGGANRAO(interference),CHENGWEI“FUQIANYI”(negative transfer)。GUONEIXUEZHEYANJIULEMUYUFUQIANYIDUIERYUXIEZUOYINGXIANG(GELILIAN,2003:50-52;LIUDONGHONG,2002:62-66;WANGWENYU,WENQIUFANG,2002:17-20;DENG)YIJIDUIHANYINGFANYIDEYINGXIANG(CHENBIN,2003:173-174;YINHONGSHAN,HUGANG,2006:12-15),RANERYISHANGYANJIUDADUOGUANZHUDAXUESHENGYILUNWENXIEZUOHESILIUJIFANYI,JIAOSHAOGUANZHUGAOJIYINGYUXUEXIZHEDEXUESHULUNWEN,QIEYANJIUJIEGUOWANGWANGSHIGUANZHUMUYUQIANYIYUERYUSHUCHUDEXIANGGUANXING,BINGMEIYOUXIANGXICHANSHUYOUXIAODEYINGDUICELVE。

                          20SHIJI90NIANDAIYILAI,YULIAOKUYUYANXUEJIYUYANYANJIUDAILAILEYICHANGSHENKEDEBIANGE。YULIAOKUSHIANZHAOYIDINGDEYUYANYUANZE,YUNYONGSUIJICHOUYANGDEFANGFA,SHOUJIZIRANCHUXIANDELIANXUDEYUYANERJIANCHENGJUYOUYIDINGRONGLIANGDEDAXINGDIANZIWENBENKU。Halliday(1994)ZHICHU,YULIAOKUJIANGSHUJUSHOUJIYULILUNLUNSHUYOUJIJIEHEZAIYIQI,SHIWOMENDUIYUYANDELIJIEFASHENGLEZHIDEBIANHUA。JIYUYULIAOKUDEYUYANFENXIYOULIYUBANGZHUXUEXIZHEGENGJIAQUANMIANLEJIEMUDEYUZUOZHEZAIXIANGTONGYUJINGXIARUHEBIAODAXIANGTONGDEJIAOJIMUDE,CONGERJIANXIAOMUYUDEGANRAO。GUOWAIYIYOUSHAOSHUXUEZHEKAISHIGUANZHURUHEYUNYONGYULIAOKULAIBANGZHUXUESHENGSHUCHUGENGFUHEMUDEYUXIGUANHEXUESHUHUAYUGUANLIDEWENBEN(Aston&Bertaccini 2001:198-219;Bernardini 2002:173-186;Gavioli 2016:114-118)。Gavioli(2016)BAOGAOLEYIWEIYIDALIBENZUYUXUESHENGRUGUOTONGGUOJIANSUOYINGYUQIKANLUNWENYULIAOKUJIANGYIPIANYIDALIYUDEYIXUEZHAIYAOFANYICHENGYINGYUZHAIYAO。ZAIZHEIGEYANJIUZHONG,WOMENKEYIKANDAOYULIAOKUZAIFANYIZHONGDEZUOYONGYOU:1.YULIAOKUSUIBUNENGZHIJIETIGONGQUEQIEDEDUIYINGCI(KENENGXUYAOQIUZHUZIDIAN),DANKEYITIGONGDALIANGZHEIGEDUIYINGCIZAIMUDEYUYUJINGZHONGDEYUNYONGSHILI,XUEXIZHEHAIKEYIGENJUPINLVLAIPANDUANGAICIZUICHANGJIANDEDAPEIHELEILIANJIE,KEFUZIDIANHEYUYANZHIJUEDEJUXIAN,RUGAISHENGTONGGUOYULIAOJIANSUOYIDALIYUbiopsieDEYINGYUDUIYINGCIbiopsy(HUOJIAN),FAXIANGANHUOJIANDEDAPEISHIliver biopsy,ERFEISHOUYIDALIYUYUANWEN(biopsie epatiche)GANRAOERCAIYONGDEYUANYIhepatic biopsy;2.YULIAOKUKEYITIGONGWANZHENGDEYUJINGGONGXIAN,BANGZHUXUEXIZHEPANDUANBENZUYUZUOZHESHOUTEDINGJIAOJIMUBIAOQUDONGERCAIYONGDEGUANYONGBIAODA,RUGAISHENGFAXIANYINGYUYIXUELUNWENZHAIYAOZHONGBIAODAYANJIUMUDEYUBUDEDATOUCIBUSHITAYUANYIZHONGDEin this paper(YIDALIYUANWENDUIYINGCI),ERSHIBUDINGSHIJIEGOURU“To clarify the viral factor...”HUOSHIRENCHENG+DONGCIJIEGOURU“We examined”。

                          以上研究表明,使用语料库可以帮助学习者克服母语思维定式,使得译文更加符合目的语规范。然而,以上研究只是论证了意大利学习者通过语料库来克服母语干扰并提升英语语言输出质量,那么语料库作为一种工具能否帮助中国英语学习者在英语输出中减少汉语思维,仍是一个黑匣子,国内鲜有相关的研究。
                         

                        中外医学英语论文摘要语料库中的高频名词比较
                         

                          BENYANJIUJIANGJIYUYULIAOKULAITANSUOYIXUEZHAIYAOXIEZUOZHONGBENZUYUZUOZHEHEGUONEIYIZHEZAICIHUIYUNYONGFANGMIANDECHAYI,BINGTONGGUOYULIAOKUSUOYINXINGFENXIHEYUJINGGONGXIANLAIKAOCHAYULIAOKUNENGFOUBANGZHUXUEXIZHEZHAOCHUCHAYIDEYUANYINBINGTISHENGFANYIZHILIANG。KAOLVDAOPIANFUYAOQIU,WOMENJIANGSHIJIAOJIZHONGZAILIANGKUDEGAOPINMINGCI,YUANYINSHI:SHOUXIAN,YIXUELUNWENZHAIYAOZUOWEIXINXIXINGWENBEN,MINGCIFAHUILEDABUFENXINXICHENGZAIHECHUANDIDEGONGNENG;QICI,GUONEIYIZHEDUIMINGCIDEFANYIWANGWANGCAIQUZHIYIDECELVE,NENGJIZHONGFANYINGMUYUGANRAODUIERYUSHUCHUDEYINGXIANG。BENYANJIUDEMUDESHITONGGUOGAOPINMINGCIDEDUIBIFAXIANGUONEIZUOZHEYUBENZUYUZUOZHEDEPINLVCHAYIHESHIYONGCHAYI,JIGUONEIZUOZHESHIFOUCUNZAIGEBIEMINGCIGUODUSHIYONGDEXIANXIANG,ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGDECHANSHENGSHIFOUYUMUYUGANRAOXIANGGUAN,NENGFOUTONGGUOYULIAOKULAIJIANSHAOZHEIZHONGGANRAOXIAOYING。

                          WOMENZAIZHONGHUAYIXUEHUIXILIEQIKAN5ZHONGLINCHUANGYANJIUQIKAN(《ZHONGHUAXINXUEGUANBINGZAZHI》《ZHONGHUAERKEZAZHI》《ZHONGHUAFUCHANKEZAZHI》《ZHONGHUAGUKEZAZHI》HE《ZHONGHUANEIKEZAZHI》)SUIJIXUANQU100PIANYIXUELUNWENYINGYUZHAIYAOJIANCHENGGUONEIYIXUELUNWENYINGYUZHAIYAOKU,JIANCHENGWEIGUONEIKU,RONGLIANGWEI34332XINGFU。TONGSHIZAI5ZHONGGUOJIGAOYINGXIANGYINZILINCHUANGYIXUEQIKAN(The Lancet,Annals of Internal Medicine,Pediatric Nephrology,Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Report,AIDS Research and Therapy)SUIJIXUANQUGONG150PIANYINGYUZHAIYAOJIANCHENGGUOJIYIXUELUNWENZHAIYAOYULIAOKU,JIANCHENGGUOJIKU,RONGLIANGWEI35530XINGFU。LIANGKUYUYUXIANGTONG,WENBENRONGLIANGJIEJIN,JUYOUJIAOQIANGDEKEBIXING。ZHUYAOYULIAOJIANSUOGONGJUWEIAnt Conc 3.4.4。

                          二、高频名词频数对比

                          TONGGUOBIAO1LIANGKUGAOPINMINGCIDEDUIBI,WOMENFAXIANLIANGKUGAOPINMINGCIBAOHANLIANGGEDALEI,YISHIYANJIUDUIXIANGDEMIAOSHU(RUgroup,patients),ERSHIYUBUTISHICI(RUresults,methods,objective)。YOUYUYUBUTISHICIDEGAOPINCHUXIANSHIYOULUNWENZHAIYAODETICAITEZHENGJUEDINGDE,BUZAIBENYANJIUFANWEI,WOMENZHEZHONGGUANZHULIANGKUYANJIUDUIXIANGDEBIAOSHUCHAYI,TEBIESHIGUONEIKUGAOPINMINGCIPAIMINGDIYIDEgroup(s)(DANSHUXINGSHI583CI,FUSHUXINGSHI119CI)WEIHEMEIYOUCHUXIANZAIGUOJIKUGAOPINCIBIAOZHONG,GUONEIKUGAOPINMINGCIPAIMINGDIERDEpatients(353CI)WEIHEPINLVXIANZHEGAOYUGUOJIKU(209CI)。BENYANJIUSHITUTONGGUOYULIAOKULAIXUNZHAODAANBINGTICHUXIANGYINGDEFANYICELVE。TONGGUOJIANSUOGUOJIKUQIAN200GAOPINCI,WOMENQUEDINGLEYOUKENENGYUYANJIUDUIXIANGYOUGUANDERUXIAGUANJIANCI:patient(s),control(s),women,men,adult,children,group(s),people,person,subject。LINGWAIYOUYUGUOJIKUYULIAOBUFENLAIZIAIZIBINGFANGZHIQIKANAIDS Research and TherapyHENEIKEXUEQIKANAnnals of Internal Medicine,WOMENTUICERUAIDS,liver,heart,kidney,lungZHEIXIEJIBINGCIHEQIGUANCIDEDAPEILIKENENGHUICHUXIANYANJIUDUIXIANGDEMIAOSHULAIBIAODAZHURUAIZIBINGREN,GANBINGBINGRENDENGGAINIAN,YINCIYEJIANGZHEIXIEJIBINGCIHEQIGUANCILIERUJIANSUOFANWEI。ZHIHOUWOMENDUISUOYOUKENENGDEGUANJIANCIJINXINGZHUGEJIANSUO,FAXIANLIANGKUZUOZHEDUIYIXUESHIYAN“FENZU”HE“BINGREN”LIANGGEGAINIANDEMIAOSHUSHANGCUNZAIHENDADECHAYI。

                          表1 两库高频名词比较
                        表1 两库高频名词比较

                          三、两库“分组”概念表达差异及翻译启示

                          MINGCIgroupZAIGUONEIKUGAOPINMINGCIZHONGYIPINCI583JUYUBANGSHOU,QIFUSHUXINGSHIgroupsYIPINCI119WEIJUDILIU,ERZAIGUOJIKUZHONGgroupDANFUSHUPINCIZHIHEJINWEI55。TONGGUOGUONEIKUgroup(s)DEYUJINGGONGXIAN,WOMENFAXIANGAICIJIBENSHANGYONGLAIDUIYINGZHONGWENZHONG“ZU”DEGAINIAN,BAOKUODUIZHAOZU、GUANCHAZU、MEIZU、ZUJIAN、MOUJIBINGZUHEMOUZHILIAOFANGANZU。WEILEYANJIUgroup(s)ZAIGUONEIKUZHONGDEJUTIDAPEI,BENYANJIUTONGGUOAntconcZHONGClusterGONGJULAIJIANSUOGAICIZAILIANGKUZHONGZUIDIPINLVDADAO3CIDEYOUZHI2CICICU。(RUTU1)

                        棋牌大全下载安装   KEJIAN,GUONEIKUZHONGBIAOSHISHIYANZU/DUIZHAOZUDECHANGJIANGAOPINCICUYOUcontrol group(111CI),treated group(15CI),test group(14CI)HEuntreated group(14CI),treatment group(8CI)。YOUYISIDESHI,ZAIGUOJIKUZHONGZHIYOU1LIcontrol group,QITASIZHONGBIAODAJUNWEI0,ZHEIBIAOMINGGUONEIKUZHONGZHEIWUGEgroupGAOPINCICUZAIMUDEYUZHONGBINGBUSHICHANGJIANBIAODA。

                          图1 国内库“group”右置2词词簇
                        图1 国内库“group”右置2词词簇

                        棋牌大全下载安装   YOUCITUIDUAN,ZAOCHENGgroupZAIGUONEIKUZHONGGUODUSHIYONGDEYUANYINSHIZUOZHECAIYONGLEZHIYIDECELVE,JIANGZHONGWENZHONGDE“ZU”DOUFANCHENGLEgroup,TIXIANLEMUYUSIWEIDUIYIWENDEYINGXIANG。NEIME,ZAILINCHUANGYANJIUYIXUELUNWENZHAIYAOZHONG,YINGYUMUYURENSHISHIRUHEBIAODASHIYANDUIXIANGHECANZHAODUIXIANGDENI?ZHEIHUIJIGUONEIXUEZHEDEZHAIYAOYINGYIDAILAINAXIEQIFANI?

                          第一,国际库更倾向运用具体描述法来表述“组”的概念。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   ZHONGWENDE“SHIYANZU”“DUIZHAOZU”SHIYIGEZHENGTIGAINIAN,YIWENCHANGYONGgroupDANSHUXINGSHIBIAODAYIGEZUDEGAINIAN。RANERZAIGUOJIKUZHONG,ZHEIGEGAINIANWANGWANGYIMINGCIFUSHUXINGSHILAIBIAOSHIZHONGDUOCHENGYUANDEZONGHE。CONGGUOJIKULITIQUDELIJU:

                          (1)Forty-seven SCD patients and 49 healthy controls were enrolled.(YANJIUDUIXIANGBAOKUO47MINGXINYUANXINGCUSIHUANZHEHE49MINGJIANKANGDUIZHAO。)

                        棋牌大全下载安装   (2)One hundred case-control pairs were included.Cases were not statistically different from controls with regard to median weight and main diagnoses.(YANJIUBAOKUO100DUIBINGLIDUIZHAOPEIDUI。BINGLIZUHEJIANKANGDUIZHAOZAITIZHONGZHONGWEISHUHEZHUYAOBINGQINGZHENDUANSHANGBUCUNZAITONGJIXUECHAYI。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIGUOJIKUZHONG,“SHIYANZU”ZHEIYIYIYITONGCHANGSHITONGGUOJUTIMIAOSHULAIBIAODADE。LI1ZHIJIEYONGJUTIJIBINGHUANZHE(SCD patients)LAIZHICHENGZHEIYIQUNTI,LI2YONGcases(BINGLI)LAIZHIDAIJUTIDUIXIANG,QITAYULIAOXIANSHIYEKEYIDUIpatientsHEcasesJIAYIJUTIXIANDING,RUHIV-infected patients(cases),cases of urological disease,patients with heart failure,patients(cases)without visible brain pathology。YUCITONGSHI,LI1、LI2ZHONG“DUIZHAOZU”DEBIAODASHIMINGCIcontrolDEFUSHUXINGSHI,ERFEIGUONEIKUZHONGDEMINGCIFUHECIZUcontrol group。RUGUOSHIJIANKANGRENQUNZUOWEIDUIZHAOZUZEYONGhealthy controlsLAIBIAODA。ZHEIGECIHAIJINGCHANGHEDONGCIDUANYUserve asLIANYONGBIAOSHI“ZUOWEIDUIZHAOZU”,RU:Patients without AKI served as controls and were matched to cases by age and gender in a one-to-one ratio.(WEIHUANYOUJIXINGSHENSUNSHANGDEBINGRENZUOWEIDUIZHAOZU,ANNIANLINGHEXINGBIEYUSHIYANZUJINXINGYIDUIYIPEIDUI。)

                          ZAIGUONEIKULI,“SHIYANZU”“DUIZHAOZU”BIAODAJIHUCHUXIANZAIMEIPIANWENZHANG,RANERCONGZHENGTISHANGKAN,YIWENJIBENSHANGANZHAOZHONGWENZHAIYAOZHIYIERLAI,JUYOUMINGXIANDE“FANYIQIANG”,BIRULI3:

                        棋牌大全下载安装   (3)XUANQUZHONGDUZIXIANQIANQIYUNFU30LIWEIZHONGDUZIXIANQIANQIZU,TONGSHIXUANQUZHENGCHANGRENSHENYUNFU31LIZUOWEIJIANKANGDUIZHAOZU。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   YUANYI:Among them,30 patients with severe preeclampsia were assigned to the test group,and 31healthy pregnant women were assigned to the control group.

                          GAIYI:30 cases of pregnant women with severe preeclampsia were compared with 31 cases of healthy pregnant women as controls.

                          ZAIBENLIZHONG,HUANBING(SHIYAN)ZUHEDUIZHAOZUYONGLEZHONGGUOYIXUEZHIYEZHEYINGYIZHONGPIANHAODEtest groupHEcontrol group,BINGANZHAOZHONGWENBINGLIEJUDEJUSHIYICHENGYOUandLIANJIEDEXIAODUANJU,JUYOUMINGXIANDEZHONGSHIYINGYUTEZHENG。ZAIGAIYIZHONG,YONGcasesLAIJUTIMIAOSHUYANJIUDEDUIXIANG,BINGQIEYONGbe compared withDUANYULAICHULIZHONGWENDELIANGGEBINGLIEDUANJU,RUOHUALE“FENZU”DEGAINIAN,ZHEIZHONGFANYICELVEGENGJIAJIEJINMUYUBIAODAXIGUAN,YEGENGFUHEMUBIAOYUYIXUEXINGYEZHAIYAODEXIEZUOGUIFAN。

                          第二,国际库更多采用语法对比的方式突出组别差异。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   CHULESHANGMIANSUOSHUODEYONGpatientsHEcasesLAIJUTIMIAOSHU“SHIYANZU”,controlsZHIDAI“DUIZHAOZU”,GUOJIKUHAISHIYONGLEDUIBIDEFANGFALAITUCHULIANGLEIRENQUNDECHAYI,RU:

                        棋牌大全下载安装   (4)Median values of urinary KIM-1 were higher in patients with AKI than in those without AKI.(JIXINGSHENSUNSHANGBINGRENNIAOYEKIM-1ZHONGWEIZHIYAOGAOYUFEIJIXINGSHENSUNSHANGBINGREN。)

                          (5)Patients with Lp-PLA2 levels>194nmol/min/ml had more acute cardiovascular events than those with lower values.(Lp-PLA2SHUIPINGGAOYU194nmol/min/mlDEBINGRENYAOBILp-PLA2JIAODIBINGRENMIANLINGENGGAODEJIXINGXINXUEGUANFABINGFENGXIAN。)

                          YINGYUSHIXINGHEYUYAN,ZAIJUZIJIEGOUZHONGKEYIYONGwith/without,more/lowerZHEIYANGDEYUFAGONGNENGSHIXIANDUIBUTONG“BINGREN”DEBIJIAO,JUZIJIANDANLILUO,YEBIMIANLE“FENZU”GAINIAN。RANERZAIYINGYIGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHONGGUOYIZHEWANGWANGKANDAO“DUIZHAOZU”JIUXIANGYONGQIDENGZHICILAIFANYI,ZHEIYESHIgroupZAIGUONEIKULIGUODUSHIYONGDEZHUYAOYUANYIN。RULI6:

                          (6)YIYUZUYUFEIYIYUZUSHUHOUJINGZHUIQULVZHISHUXIAJIANGFENBIEWEI7.1%±2.1%HE6.8%±1.5%,CHAYIWUTONGJIXUEYIYI。

                          YUANYI:There was no statistically significant difference in the CCI decline(7.1%±2.1%versus 6.8%±1.5%)between depression group and no-depression group.

                          GAIYI:There was no significant difference in CCI decline between patients with and without depression(7.1%±2.1%vs 6.8%±1.5%).

                          YUANYIANZHAOZHIYIFANGFALAICHULI“YIYUZU”HE“FEIYIYUZU”YICHENGdepression groupHEno-depression group,CUNZAIBIJIAOMINGXIANDEZHONGSHISIWEI。ZAIGAIYIZHONGWOMENJIANGLIANGZUYONGwithHEwithoutLIANGGEJIECIXINGCHENGDUIBI,RUOHUA“FENZU”,QIEJIANGKUOHAOLIDESHUJUZHIJIEGENZAI“BINGRENZU”HOU,SHIDESHUJUDEZHIXIANGXINGGENGJIAMINGQUE。LINGWAI,GUOJIKUZHONGSHIYONGvsDEPINCIWEI25,versusuDEPINCIWEI9,QIEvsQUANBUCHUXIANZAISHUJUDEDUIZHAOMIAOSHUZHONG,ERversusGENGCHANGZHIYUJUZINEIBULIANGGEMINGCIDUANYUJIANZUOJIECI,RU:The frequency of masked hypertension was lower in children with casual BP\xA1\xDC25th percentile versus those with casual BP in 26\xA8C50th percentile。CONGPINCIHEYONGFADEJIAODUPANDUAN,WOMENBAYUANYIZHONGDEversusGAIYICHENGvs.

                          TONGGUOLIANGKUGAOPINCIDUIBIWOMENKEYIFAXIANGUONEIZUOZHEGUODUSHIYONGgroupZHEIGEMINGCI,ZHEITONGCHANGSHIYIZHESHOUDAOMUYUSIWEIDEYINGXIANG,CAIYONGLEZHIYIDECELVE,JIANGSUOYOU“ZU”DEGAINIANDOUYICHENGgroup。TONGGUOGUOJIKUDEJIANSUO,WOMENFAXIANYINGYUMUYUZUOZHEWANGWANGTONGGUOJUTIMIAOSHUHEYUFADUIBIDEFANGSHICHENGXIANZUJIANCHAYI,TONGSHIRUOHUAFENZUDEGAINIAN,YINCIBINGMEIYOUDALIANGSHIYONGgroupLAIBIAODA“ZU”DEGAINIAN。JIANYUCI,CHANGSHIJIANGGUONEIKUZHONGDEYIWENYIBENZUYUZUOZHEXIGUANDEBIAODAFANGSHIGAIYI,MUDESHILUNZHENGYULIAOKUDUITISHENGYIWENDIDAOXINGZHONGDEZUOYONG,JINERZHENGMINGYULIAOKUDUIMUYUFUQIANYIDEHUANHEZUOYONG。

                          四、两库“病人”概念表达差异及翻译启示

                          Patient(s)SHILIANGGEYULIAOKUZHONGGONGYOUDEGAOPINMINGCI。GUONEIKUPINSHUWEI353,ZAIGUONEIKUGAOPINMINGCIZHONGPAILIEDIER。patient(s)ZAIGUOJIKUPINSHU209,SUIZAIGUOJIKUGAOPINMINGCIZHONGPAILIEDIYI,DANQISHIYONGPINCIYAOXIANZHEDIYUGUONEIKU。TONGGUOZAIGUONEIKUJIANSUOpatients,KEYIFAXIANGUONEIZUOZHEZAIZHAIYAOYINGYIZHONGDUIJIHUSUOYOU“BINGREN”GAINIANDOUCAIQULEZHIYICELVE,ZAOCHENGpatientsGUODUSHIYONG,ERGUOJIKUDUI“BINGREN”DEMIAOSHUGENGWEILINGHUODUOYANG。

                          第一,词法上国际库对“病人”的表述更为多样化。

                          GUONEIKUGAOPINLVSHIYONGpatient(s)YIGEZHONGYAOYUANYINSHIFANYISHIYUZHONGWENGAODUDEDUIYINGGUANXI,FANSHI“BINGREN”“HUANZHE”JIUSHIpatient(s)。ERZAIGUOJIKUZHONG,WOMENKANDAODUI“BINGREN”GAINIANDEMIAOSHUGENGWEIDUOYANGLINGHUO,BIRU:

                        棋牌大全下载安装   (7)Observation data for 5972 HIV positive individuals enrolled with the AIDS support organization(TASO)in Uganda were analyzed.(BENYANJIUFENXILE5972MINGHIVYANGXINGHUANZHEDEXIANGGUANZILIAO,QISHUJULAIYUANYUWUGANDAAIZIBINGXIEZHUZUZHI。)

                          (8)Our study includes 609 subjects with CKD state I-V.(BENYANJIUBAOKUO609MING1-5QIMANXINGSHENBINGHUANZHE。)

                        棋牌大全下载安装   ZAILI8ZHONGHIV positive individualsSHIZHIHIVYANGXINGHUANZHE,YULIAOKUXIANSHISHIYONGindividualsZHIDAIHUANZHEDEBIAODAHAIYOUindividuals with AD(LAONIANCHIDAIHUANZHE),sexually active individuals(XINGSHENGHUOHUOYUEHUANZHE)。XUYAOZHICHUDESHI,GUOJIKULIYECHUXIANLEHIV patients、AD patientsZHEIYANGDEBIAODA,YIBANZAILINCHUANGYANJIUZHONGpatientsGENGWEICHANGJIAN,DANZAIYIXIESHEQUJIANKANGYANJIUHEYIXUEYINGXIANGXUEYANJIUZHONG,individualsDESHIYONGPINLVGENGGAO,YINWEIZHEIXIEYANJIUDUIXIANGQISHIHAIBUSHIZHENZHENGYIYISHANGDE“BINGREN”,SHIYONGindividualZHEIYANGDEWEIWANBIAODAGENGYOUZHUYUGOUJIANHEXIEYIHUANGUANXI.LI8YONGLEsubjects(YANJIUDUIXIANG)ZHIDAIHUANZHE。GUOJIKUDUI“BINGREN”DEQITAMIAOSHUHAIYOU:

                        棋牌大全下载安装   (9)Our study confirms that stone formers have increased arterial stiffness and reduced bone density.(BENYANJIUZHENGSHIJIESHIHUANZHEGENGRONGYIDONGMAIYINGHUAHEGUMIDUJIANGDI。)

                          (10)Little evidence exists on the connections between nutrition,diet intake,and quality of life among people living with HIV(PLHIV).(MEIYOUZHENGJUXIANSHIAIZIBINGGANRANZHEHUOAIZIBINGRENDEYINGYANG、YINSHISHERUHESHENGHUOZHILIANGYOUGUANXI。)

                          (11)Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in kidney transplant recipients(KTR).(WEITAMINGDQUEFAZHENGZAISHENYIZHISHOUZHEZHONGHENPUBIAN。)

                          LI9SHIYONGstone former(JIESHIHUANZHE)ZHEIYANGDEZHUANYESHUYU,ERLI10HELI11ZECAIYONGLE“ZHIJIEMIAOSHU+SUOLVECI”DESHOUDUANDUIBINGRENDEFENLEIJINXINGJIAODAI,RUpeople living with HIV(PLHIV)ZHIDAIAIZIBINGGANRANZHEHUOAIZIBINGREN,kidney transplant recipients(KTR)ZHIDAISHENYIZHISHOUZHE,SHIYONGSUOLVECIBIMIANLEZAIXIAWENZHONGDUITONGLEIBINGRENDEZHONGFUMIAOSHU,SHIDEYUYANGENGJIAJIANJIEJINGQUE。YOUCIKEJIAN,MUYUSHIYONGZHEDUI“BINGREN”DECHENGHUBINGFEIDANYIDEpatients,GUONEIXUEZHEZAIYIXUEZHAIYAOYINGYIZHONGYINGKEFUZHIYIDEGUANXING,SHIDANGZENGJIAYUYANDEDUOYANGXING。

                          第二,句法上国际库存在句内省略。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIPENGDAOSHUZITONGJIDEZHONGWENZHAIYAOLI,JINGCHANGKEYIKANDAODUIZONGTIBINGRENYANGBENDEFENLEI,JICHANGJIANDE“ZONGBINGRENSHUXX,QIZHONGALEIBINGRENSHUXX,BLEIBINGRENSHUXX”,YOUYUZHONGWENSHIYIHEQIANGSHIYUYAN,QUEFAFADADEYUFALUOJIGONGNENG,YINCIXUYAOZHONGFU“BINGREN”LAISHIXIANYUYIDELIANJIE,ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,YIWENWANGWANGHUICAIYONGZHIYIDECELVEZHONGFUSHIYONGpatients,ZAOCHENGGAICIZAIYINGYIZHONGGUODUSHIYONG。NEIMEZAIXINGHEQIANGSHIDEYINGYULI,BENZUYURENSHISHIRUHEBIAODAXIANGTONGYIYINI?

                        棋牌大全下载安装   (12)A total of 314 hemodialysis patients were recruited,101 with documented AF and 213 without AF.(YANJIUBAOKUO314MINGXUETOUHUANZHE,QIZHONG101MINGHUANZHEYOUMINGQUEFANGZHANSHI,213MINGHUANZHEWEISHUFANGZHANSHI。)

                        棋牌大全下载安装   (13)Of 16,209 adult TB cases,851(5.3%)died during TB treatment.(ZAI16209MINGCHENGRENFEIJIEHEHUANZHEZHONG,851(5.3%)MINGHUANZHESIYUJIEHEZHILIAOQIJIAN。)

                        棋牌大全下载安装   (14)A total of 360/500(72%)children were positive for typhoid fever.(ZAI500MINGERTONGZHONG,YOU360(72%)MINGERTONGCHENGXIANSHANGHANGANJUNYANGXINGFANYING。)

                          ZAILI12HELI13ZHONG,ZONGTIYANGBENGESHUHOUMIANGENpatientsHUOZHEcases,DANFENLEIYANGBENGESHU(RU101,851)HOUMIANJIUCAIQULESHENGLVECELVE,BAOZHENGLEZHAIYAOYUYANDEJIANJIEXING。ZAILI14ZHONG,WOMENHAIKANDAO360/500(72%)children were...ZHEIYANGXINXIMIJIXINGDEBIAODAFANGSHI,XIANGDANGYUOf 500children,360(72%)were...,SHIYONGSHUXUEFUHAOBIAOSHISHUJUNEIBUGUANXIYESHIYIXUEYINGYUBAOGAOZHONGCHANGJIANDEXINGSHI,ZHIDEGUONEIXUEZHEJIEJIAN。YOUYUYINGYUYUFADEXINGHEYOUSHI,WOMENKEYIZAIJUZHONGSHENGLVEZHONGFUCHUXIANDECI。XIAMIANCHANGSHIDUIGUONEIKUJIGEYINGYIJINXINGFENXIHEGAIYI。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   (15)7LIHEBINGZHUDONGMAIJIACENGDEMAFANZONGHEZHENGYUNFUZHONG,AXINGZHUDONGMAIJIACENG4LI,BXINGZHUDONGMAIJIACENG3LI

                        棋牌大全下载安装   YUANYI:Among 7 pregnant patients with Marfan syndrome,4 patients were diagnosed as type A aortic dissection and 3 were patients diagnosed as type B aortic dissection.

                          ZAILI15YUANYIZHONGCHUXIANLE3GEpatients,ZAIJIASHANGLIANGGEdiagnosedLAIXIUSHIpatients,ZHONGFUZUOWEIZHUYAODEYUPIANXIANJIEJIZHI,SHIXINGWENXIANDETUOTARONGYU。

                          GAIYI1:Of 7 pregnant patients with Marfan syndrome,4 were diagnosed with type A aortic dissection and 3 with type B aortic dissection.

                          GAIYI2:Seven pregnant patients with Marfan syndrome were recruited,4 with type A aortic dissection and 3 with type B aortic dissection.

                          ZAIGAIYI1ZHONG,patientsZHIZAIJUZHONGCHUXIANYICI,QITAQUANBUCAIQUSHENGLVEDEYUPIANXIANJIECELVE。LINGWAI,JUZIKAITOUDEJIECIamongGAIYONGof,ZHEIGENGFUHEYINGYUCHANGJIANSHUZIBIAODARUtwo of my friends,three of his books,WOMENZAIGUOJIKULIYENENGZHAODAOHENDUOXIANGGUANZUOZHENG,BUZAILEISHU。“BEIZHENDUANCHUHUANMOUBING”YICHENGbe diagnosed withGENGFUHEGAIDONGCIDEJIECIDAPEIXIGUAN,QIEYOUYUGAIYI1ZHONGYONGLEandLAILIANJIELIANGGEWEIYUXIANGTONGDEBINGLIEDUANJU,YINCIDIERGEDUANJUZHONGDEWEIYUJIUBEISHENGLVELE。GAIYI1SHIHEYONGYULUNWENZHAIYAOZHONGDE“JIEGUO”YUBU,YONGDONGCIbe diagnosed withHUOZHEbe found to beTUXIANYANJIUDEJIEGUOHEJIELUN。DANRUGUOZHONGWENYUANJUSHIFANGZAI“YANJIUFANGFA”YUBUYONGLAIJIESHAOSHIYANDUIXIANGDEJUTISHUXING,NEIMEJIUKEYICAIYONGGAIYI2DEJUSHI,WEIYUDONGCIbe recruitedHUOZHEbe enrolledZHIYUZONGTIYANGBENSHUZHIHOU,FENLEIYANGBENSHUHOUMIANYESHISHENGLVELEpatients,BINGQIEYONGJIECIwithBIAOSHIZHUANGTAI,TIXIANFENLEIYANGBENBINGRENDEJUTISHUXING。

                        棋牌大全下载安装   (16)ZAIPivot-shiftSHIYANZHONG,QIANNEICERUKOUZU9LIYINXING,5LIYANGXING,YINXINGLVWEI64.3%(9/14);FUZHUQIANNEICERUKOUZU20LIYINXING,3LIYANGXING,YINXINGLVWEI87.0%(20/23).

                          YUANYIThe Pivotshift test was negative in 9 patients,positive in 5 patients and negative in 20 patients,positive in 3 patients in group AMP and AAMP,respectively.

                          YUANYI:SHOUXIANZAIYIYISHANGJIRENHUNLUANBUQINGDEYINXIANG。BINGLIEJUSHIZHONGCHUXIANLE4CIpatients,SHIYONGDOUHAOHELIANCIandQUEMEIYOUHENHAOHUAFENZHEISILEIpatientsDETEZHENG,YOUQISHIZUIHOUYIGErespectivelyGENGSHIJILIJIEDAILAIKUNNAN,QIEYUANYIYEQUESHILEBAIFENBIDEGAINIAN。

                          GAIYI:In Pivot-shift test,9/14(64.3%)patients were found to be negative in AMP group and 20/23(87.0%)in AAMP group.

                        棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIGAIYIZHONG,SHOUXIANYAODUIYUANJUSHUZIJINXINGLEGUINAZHENGLI,QIANNEICERUKOUZUZONGRENSHU14REN,QIZHONG9LIYINXING,5LIYANGXING,YINXINGLV64.3%,ZAIZHEISIGESHUZHIZHONG,QIANSANGESHUZISHIJIAFAGUANXI,JICHULIANGGESHUJIUKEYITUICEDISANGESHU,ERHOUMIANDEBAIFENBISHIYINXINGLVDEBAIFENSHU,YINCIWOMENWANQUANKEYIZAIYINGYIZHONGBAOLIU“9LIYINXING”ERSHENGLVE“5LIYANGXING”DEXINXI,ZAICANZHAOLI14DESHUXUEFUHAOBIAODAFAJIANGQIYICHENG9/14(64.3%),SHIDEZHUYUGENGJIAJIANDUANJINCOU,YEBIMIANLEpatientsZHEIGECIDEFANFUSHIYONG。LINGWAI,YOUYUYINGYILIANGGEFENJUDEWEIYUDOUSHIfound to be negative,YINCIWOMENZAIDIERGEFENJUZHONGSHENGLVELEWEIYU。GAIYIHOUDEJUZIBIYUANYILUOJIGENGJIAQINGXI,JUSHIGENGJIAJIANJIE。

                          YISHANGFENXIXIANSHI,GUONEIYIZHEGUODUSHIYONGpatientZHEIGEMINGCI,ZHEIYESHIYINWEIGUONEIYIZHEJIANG“BINGREN”“HUANZHE”DEGAINIANTONGpatientGAODUDENGTONGQILAI。ERGUOJIKUYULIAOJIANSUOXIANGWOMENXIANSHI,YINGYUMUYUSHIYONGZHEDUI“BINGREN”GAINIANDECIHUIXUANZEGENGJIAFENGFU,QIETONGGUOJUNEISHENGLVEDENGFANGSHIJIANSHAODUIZHEIGEGAINIANDEZHONGFUTIJI。JUCI,WOMENDUIGUONEIKUDEGAIYISHIJIYUDALIANGDEYUYANSHISHI,JINLIANGJIANSHAOMUYUSIWEIDEHENJI,GENGJIATIEJINBENZUYUDEGUANYONGBIAODAFANGFA。

                          五、结语

                          CONGYISHANGYANJIUKEYIFAXIAN,GUONEIXUEZHEZAIYIXUELUNWENZHAIYAOZHUANXIEZHONGCUNZAIGUODUSHIYONGGAOPINMINGCIXIANXIANG,ZHUYAOYUANYINSHISHOUDAOHANYUSIWEIDEYINGXIANG,CAIYONGZHIYICELVEXUNQIUDUIDENGCI,PIANLILEYINGYUMUYUZUOZHEDESHIYONGGUANLI。JIYUYULIAOKUDEYUYANXUEXIBUJINKEYITONGGUODALIANGZHENSHIYUYANWEIXUEXIZHEYINGZAOLEZHENSHIDEYUYANHUANJING,ERQIETAJIYUDALIANGYULIAOCONGZONGXIANGXUNZHAOZHONGFUCHUXIANDEYUYANXINGSHI,TONGGUOYUPIANDEDIEJIAXIAOYINGTISHENGDUIYUYANXITONGDEDONGCHALI(GUISHICHUN,2009),BANGZHUXUEXIZHEGENJUSUOYINXINGTIGONGDEXINXIZONGJIEGUILV,ZHUDONGTANSUOMUBIAOYUDESHIYONGTEZHENG,KEFUMUYUSIWEIDEFUQIANYIXIAOYING,TIGAOYUYANSHUCHUDEZHUNQUEXINGHEDIDAOXING。BENYANJIUZHUYAOZHANSHILERUHETONGGUOYULIAOKUFAXIANCHANGYONGMINGCIZAIMUDEYUZHONGDETEDINGGAINIANHEJUSHITEZHENG,BINGQIEJIANGHUOQUDEYUYANZHISHIYINGYONGDAOHANYINGFANYISHIJIANZHONG,ZHIZAILUNZHENGYULIAOKUKEYIJIANSHAOERYUSHUCHUZHONGDEMUYUSIWEIDEGANRAO。RANER,ZHENGRUCENGXIANGHONG(2019:78)TICHUDE,WAIYUJIAOXUERUHEGAOXIAODUIJIEGEZHONGYULIAOKUJIANSUOJISHUHEGELEIXIANCUNYULIAOKU,RENGSHIYIPIANCHONGMANMEILIDEYANJIULINGYU。YULIAOKUZAIFANYIXIEZUOJIAOXUEZHONGDEYINGYONGRENGYOUHENDADETANJIUKONGJIAN,BIRU,ZHONGGUOXUEXIZHESHIFOUNENGGOUJIESHOUYULIAOJIANSUOCHUIZHIYUEDUFANGSHIBINGZIJIFAXIANWENTI、TICHUJIASHEHEZONGJIEGUILV?ZAIZHEIZHONGGAODUZIZHUXUEXIDEMOSHIZHONGJIAOSHIYINGGAIBANYANZENYANGDEJIAOSE?SUIRANWENTIPODUO,DANZHENGRULIUWENLIANG(2013:59)SUOYAN,YULIAOKUGUANGFANYINGYONGYUFANYIKETANGJIANGSHIYIGEXUNXUJIANJINDEGUOCHENG,BUKEZUDANG。

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                          [2] Bernardini,S.. Educating translators for the challenges of new millennium:The potential of parallel bi-directional corpora[A]. In Maia, Haller&Ulrych(eds).Training the Language Service Provider for the New Millennium[C]. Porto:Universidade do Porto,2002.
                          [3] Gavioli L.专门用途英语学习语料库探究[M].北京:清华大学出版社,2016:173-186.
                          [4] Halliday, M. A. K. An Introduction to Functional Grammar[M]. London:Edward Arnold,1994.
                          [5] Odlin,T. Language Transfer:Cross-Linguistic Influence in Language Learning[M]. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1989.
                          [6]陈斌.母语负迁移对翻译的影响及解决办法[J].中南民族大学学报(人文社会科学版),2003,23(4):173-174.
                          [7]葛丽莲.“母语迁移”对中国学生英语表达的影响—大学英语写作典型实例分析[J].首都师范大学学报(社会科学版),2003(4):50-52.
                          [8]桂诗春.基于语料库的英语语言学语体分析[M].北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2009.
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                          [10]刘稳良.电子语料库在翻译教学中的应用[J].上海翻译,2013(4):57-59.
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