棋牌大全下载安装

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                  2. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 英语论文 > 译名实践中保留原语文化的方法

                    译名实践中保留原语文化的方法

                    时间:2019-03-03 13:46作者:林佳佳
                    本文导读:这是一篇关于译名实践中保留原语文化的方法的文章,文化作为一种精神力量,是民族凝聚力和创造力的源泉、综合国力竞争的要素,影响着经济、政治的发展,也逐渐成为国际交流中不可忽视的内容。

                      摘    要: 翻译助力原语文化走向世界,翻译研究的文化转向逐渐形成热潮。音译能够贴近原语语音表达,是一种保留原语文化的方便快捷途径,但也存在一定的局限,包括音译词译名不一、歧义横生以及语义空白等。翻译前应了解相关专有名词使用的具体语境和目标受众等,结合零翻译、顺古法、直译或意译、注释法等翻译策略,以求最大程度地译介原语文化。

                      关键词: 文化; 专有名词; 音译; 语境; 受众; 翻译策略;

                      Abstract: Translation facilitates the spreading of source language(SL) culture. The cultural turn in translation studies is on the increase. Transliteration, close to phonetic representations of target language(TL), is a convenient and quick way to retain SL culture, but may generate the incongruence, ambiguity or semantic blank of transliterated proper nouns. Translation of proper nouns requires understanding of their specific context and target audiences, and application of translation strategies such as zero translation, translation by following the established version, literal translation, free translation and annotated translation, to maximize the translation and introduction of SL culture.

                      Keyword:棋牌大全下载安装 culture; proper nouns; transliteration; context; target audiences; translation strategies;

                      WENHUAZUOWEIYIZHONGJINGSHENLILIANG,SHIMINZUNINGJULIHECHUANGZAOLIDEYUANQUAN、ZONGHEGUOLIJINGZHENGDEYAOSU,YINGXIANGZHEJINGJI、ZHENGZHIDEFAZHAN,YEZHUJIANCHENGWEIGUOJIJIAOLIUZHONGBUKEHUSHIDENEIRONG。FANYIYANJIUXUEZHESUSHAN·BASINAITE(Susan Bassnett)HEANDELIE·LEFUFEIER(Andre lefevere)YINLINGLEDANGDAIFANYIYANJIUZHONG“WENHUAZHUANXIANG”(cultural turn)DEXINCHAOLIU,QIANGDIAOFANYIYANJIUSUOYAOGUANZHUDEBUJINXIANYUYUYANWENTI,HAIBAOKUOGENGWEIGUANGKUODELISHIWENHUA[1]。XIANSHIYIMINGSHIJIANZHONG,JINLIANGBAOLIUYUANYUWENHUADEHUSHENGRIYIGAOZHANG。MINGCHENG、SHUYUDENGZHUANMINGCIHUI,CHULEZIMIANHANYIZHIWAI,CHANGYUDANGDIDEWENHUABEIJINGYOUMIQIEGUANLIAN,BAOKUOYUYANWENHUA、SHEHUIWENHUA、ZONGJIAOWENHUA、WUZHIWENHUAHESHENGTAIWENHUADENG[2]。DUIYUZHEILEIWENHUAFUZAICI,FANYIYANJIUYUELAIYUEZHONGSHIYUANYUWENHUADECHUANDA,YINCIFANYIGUOCHENGZHONGXUYAOKAOLVRUHEZUIDACHENGDUDIBAOLIUYUANYUWENHUA。

                    棋牌大全下载安装   YINYIYIWEIYONGYIYUZHUANXIEYUANYUYUYIN,JINLIANGZHONGSHIYUYUANYUDEYUYINTEDIANHUOYUYINYIXIANG[3],SHIYIJIEYUANYUWENHUAXINGZHIYOUXIAODEFANGFAZHIYI。TANGDAIYIJINGDASHIXUANZHUANGTICHU“WUBUFAN”LILUN,JI“MIMIGUBUFAN、HANDUOYIGUBUFAN、CIWUGUBUFAN、SHUNGUGUBUFAN、SHENGSHANGUBUFAN”[4],WEILEBAOCHIYUANWENDEZONGJIAOSHENMISECAIHUOGAOSHENHANYI,JIEJUEYIYUXIANGYINGCIHUICIYICUOWEIHUOQUESHIDEQINGKUANG,YIJIYOUXIANKAOLVYANYONGYUEDINGSUCHENGDEBIAODA,ZHUZHANGZAIZHEIXIEQINGXINGXIABUZHAOZIMIANYISIFANYI,ERSHICAIYONGYINYI。QIANBAINIANLAI,RENMENJIANGYINYIYUNYONGYUXIANSHIYIMINGSHIJIANZHONG,SHITUYICILAIBAOLIUYUANYUWENHUA。RANERYINYIBINGBUSHIFANYIYUANZE,ERSHIYIZHONGFANYIFANGFA,XUYAOYIZHEKAOLVJUTIFANYIQINGJINGXIAQISHIYONGYUFOU,YIJIYIJIEYUANYUWENHUADEXIAOGUOHAOHUAI。YINYIBAOLIUYUANYUYUYINTESE,MOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGHUIBILESHIYONGYIYUXIANGYINGCIHUIJIANGCHANSHENGDECIYICUOWEIHUOQUESHIDEWENTI,DANCIWEIFANYIDAILAIFANGBIANKUAIJIE、TIEJINYUANYUYUYINBIAODADETONGSHI,YECUNZAIYIDINGDEJUXIANXING。DAZHEFANYIDEBUKEYIXINGQIHAO,LANYONGYINYIDEZUOFASHIBUZUOWEIDEBIAOXIAN,YIWEIDIYIYINYILAIZHUIQIUXINXIAN、QITEHUADEYUYANXIAOGUO,YEHUISHIBEIGONGBAN,“HUIYINGXIANGYIWENZHILIANG,BULIYUWENHUAJIANDELIJIEHEGOUTONG。”[5]YINCI,YIJIEYUANYUWENHUADEZUIYOUXIAOZHIFASHANGXUSHANGQUE,FANYIQIANXUYAOLEJIEXIANGGUANYIMINGSHIJIANDEYUJINGHEDUIXIANGDENG,SHIQINGKUANGERDING。

                    棋牌大全下载安装   BENWENJIANGTANTAOYINYIDEJIZHONGJUXIAN,XUNQIUXIANSHIYIMINGSHIJIANZHONGBAOLIUYUANYUWENHUADEQITAFANYIFANGFA,BINGJIANCEQIKEXINGXING。

                      一、音译的局限性

                      音译方法的适用范围主要在“源语和目的语之间差异很大、存在语义空白的情况下,翻译不可能直接从形式或语义入手”时[6],“主要用于翻译人名、地名、组织名称等专有名词以及部分不适合意译的专业术语”[7]。合理、适当的音译能够有效保留原语文化、增添译语语言表达活力,而违背音译的使用规则,行文中不合理或过度地应用音译方法也会导致译文可读性降低,甚至产生阅读障碍和不良联想。笔者将重新审视音译这一翻译方法,考量译文语境和对象存在的种种制约因素,从音译过程中涉及到的音、形、义出发,探讨音译的语音转写规范性问题、语音或者字符易产生歧义现象、音译词汇语义空白等局限,以及这些局限对原语文化译介的阻碍。
                     

                    译名实践中保留原语文化的方法
                     

                      (一)音译词译名不一,原语文化联系混乱

                      SHOUXIAN,BUTONGDEYUYANFASHENGMOSHIHEXIGUANBUYIYANG,HENNANYONGYIZHONGYUYANDEFAYINQUZHUNQUEDIFUSHULINGWAIYIZHONGYUYANDEZICIFAYIN。BIRUYINGYUDEFUYIN/θ/、//,YUANYIN/?/、/e/HE/?I/DENG,HANYULIDOUMEIYOU,ERHANYUDE/zh/、/ch/HE/sh/DENGQIAOSHEYINYINGYULIYEMEIYOUDUYINYIZHIDEZIMUZUHE。SUOYIRENMING“Smith”HUIYIWEI“SHIMISI”,DIMING“Canada”KEYIWEI“JIANADA”,YINLIAO“Sprite”YICHENGLE“XUEBI”,SUISHIYINYI,YEZONGDUODUOSHAOSHAODIBAOHANYUYINCHAYI。QICI,YINGYUCEZHONGQINGZHONGYINDEFAYINJIEZOU,HANYUZEYOUSHENGDIAODEQUBIE。ZAIPINXIEYUYINGUOCHENGZHONGRUOYOUGEBIEZICIDEYINDIAOSHENGQU,YOUKENENGNANYITONGQITAZICIQUFENKAI,BIRU“SHANXI”HE“SHANXI”,BUNENGDOUYINYICHENG“Shanxi”。ERQIERENMENDUIYUYUYINDEGANSHOUYOUXIEXUCHAYI,YINYIGUOCHENGZHONGKENENGHUICAIYONGBUTONGDUYINDEZICILAIFANYITONGYIZHUANYOUMINGCI,ZHEIJIUZAOCHENGLEYIMINGBUTONGYI。

                      SHOUZHONGDUIYUYUANYUWENHUABENJIUBUSHUXI,JIASHANGYIMINGZHONGDUO,YIMINGYUXIANGYINGYUANYUWENHUADELIANXIZAISHOUZHONGNAOZHONGYUJIAHUNDUN。BIRU《WANWUSHENGLING》DEBIANJUJames Herriot,RENMING“Herriot”KEYIYINYIWEI“HELIOU”“HELIOU”“AILIAO”,HUOZHEQITA,MEIGUOZONGTONG“Trump”YIKAISHIYOURENYINYIWEI“CHUANPU”,YEYOURENYIWEI“TELANGPU”,SHOUZHONGYOUSHIBUQINGCHUZHEIXIEZHIDAIDESHIFOUSHITONGYIREN。ZAIZHE,YOUGUOWAILIUCHUANRUGUONEIDESHIWU“salad”KEYINYIWEI“SHALA”,YIHUOZHESHIYUEYUYINYI“SHALV”,GUANGZHOUYOUDIFANGTESEDE“AIQUNDASHA”,KEYINYIWEI“Aiqun Hotel”,HUOGAIWEIYUEYUYINYI“Oi Kwan Hotel”……RUGUOSHOUZHONGBUSHUZHIYUANYUWENHUAZHONGDERENSHIWU,ZERONGYIWUYIWEISHIBUTONGDEDONGXI,DUIYUANYUWENHUADERENSHIJIANGGENGJIAHUNLUAN,CISHIYIYUCIHUINANYIZAISHOUZHONGDERENZHIZHONGJIANLIQIZHENGQUEDETONGYUANYUWENHUAZHONGDERENSHIWUZHIJIANDELIANXI。

                      (二)音译词歧义横生,原语文化易被曲解

                    棋牌大全下载安装   YIYUSHOUZHONGRUGUODUIYUYUANYUMEIYOUYIDINGCHENGDUDELEJIE,NEIMEYUANYUYUYINDUISHOUZHONGJIESHOUYUANYUWENHUAMEIYOUTAIDADEZHUTUIZUOYONG,ERQIEJIEHEYIYUWENHUABEIJING,YINYICIDEYUYINHUOZIXINGKENENGHUIYINFAYIYUSHOUZHONGBUQIADANGDELIANXIANG。

                      HANYUYINYICHENGYINGYUDEYINYICI,CHANSHENGQIYIDEBUSHAO,SHIYONGZHEDADUOBAOZHELIEQIXINLI,TUXINXIANYOUQU,DANZHEILEICIHUIDESHIYONGHENKENENGHUIQUJIEYUANYUWENHUA。BIRUWANGSHANGFEICHANGLIUXING“GOUBULI”BAOZIDEYINYI“go believe”,XIANQILEGEZHONGCAIMINGYINYIDERECHAO,YUSHIYOULE“NIUROULAMIAN”YIWEI“new role last man”,“XIQINBAIHE”YIWEI“see king buy her”,“GUILINMIFEN”YIWEI“great me fun”,“TUDOUNIUROU”YIWEI“to do a new role”……QIZHONG“GOUBULI”YICIYUANYUQINGCHAO,JUSHUOBAOZIDIANZHU“GOUZI”RANGGUKEXIANGZHUTONGTOUQIAN,ZIQUBAOZI,YUSHISHUKEHETAKAIWANXIAO,SHUO“GOUZIMAIBAOZI,YIGAIBULI”,YUSHIJIUYOULE“GOUBULI”DECHENGHAO。ER“go believe”ZAIYINGWENZHONGJIUSHILIANGGEDANCI,“go”SHI“ZOU,QU”,“believe”SHI“XIANGXIN”,ZHEIHEYUANYUZHONGDE“GOUBULI”YISIWANQUANBUDABIAN。ZHEILEICAIMINGDEYINYI,BUJINMEIYOUBACAIPINFANYICHULAI,ZAIYIYUHUANJINGXIAHAICHANSHENGLEQITAHANYI,YUYUANYUCIYIXIANGQUSHENYUAN。

                      YINGYUYINYICHENGHANYUDEYINYICI,CHANSHENGQIYIDEYEHENDUO。BIRU“loser”YINYICHENG“LUSE”,“winner”YIWEI“WENNA”,WANGLUOXIAOSHUO《WENNAHELUSE》ZHONGYESHIJIECILAIANZHIRENWUDESHENFENTEZHENG。DANSHIDUIYUWANQUANBUDONGYINGWENDERENLAISHUO,“LUSE”ZHEIGEYINYU“loser”SHILIANXIBUQILAIDE,QIERONGYIBEIRENWEISHIGEWAIGUORENDEMINGZI,ER“WENNA”ZAIZHONGWENLIJIUSHIGEDONGCI,NANYILIANXIANGDAO“winner”CHENGGONGZHEDECIYI。ZAIRU“myth”YINYIWEI“MISI”,YUANYUCIYIZHIDESHISHENHUA、HUANXIANG、GUSHI、XUGOUDERENHUOSHI,TONGGUOKOUKOUXIANGCHUANLIUCHUANYUSHIDECHUANSHUOHEGUSHIDENG,DANHANYU“MISI”RONGYILIJIEWEIMIWANGHUOFEIJIEDENGHANYI。FEIZHIYEXIJUZHONG“amateur”ZUICHUYINYIWEI“AIMEIDE”,GENYUANYUCIYI“YEYUDE”BUYI,“massage”ANMO、SANGNA,YEYOURENYINYIWEI“MASHAJI”,DAOZHIGUONEISHOUZHONGDUISANGNACHANSHENGWUJIEHEBUBIYAODELIANXIANG。YUANYUCIYIWUFAZHUNQUECHUANDA,YUANYUWENHUAYEJIUNANYITIXIAN。

                      (三)音译词语义空白,原语文化传播力弱

                      YUANYUDEYUYINCHANGCHANGDUIYUYIYUSHOUZHONGLAISHUOMEIYOURENHEHANYI,YINYICIRUOTAIZHANGZESHOUZHONGJIBUZHU,YIHUOSHIMEIYOUYICHUZHONGDIAN,YUANYUWENHUANANYIWEISHOUZHONGSUOLIJIEHEJIESHOU,YINYIXIAOGUOYEJIUCHAQIANGRENYI。

                    棋牌大全下载安装   YINYICIYUYIKONGBAIQIEZISHUTAIDUODEWENTIJIAOWEICHANGJIAN。LIRUDIMING“Christchurch”YINYIWEI“KELAISICHEQISHI”,WEIYUXINXILANNANDAODONGANDEHAIBINCHENGSHI,YOUHENDUOJIAOTANG,HAOCHENGJIAOTANGCHENGSHI,QISHIZHONGXINSHIYOUZHEBAIYUNIANLISHIDESHENGBIDEBAODAJIAOTANG。ZHEIGEYINYIMINGHENZHANG,GUONEISHOUZHONGHENNANJIZHU,ERQIEJIAOTANGZHONGDUOZHEIYIDIFANGTESEBEIYANMEILE,BURUYIYIWEI“JIDUCHENG”GENGMINGLANG、HAOJI。YINGWEN“Eye of Providence”YINYIWEI“PULUOWEIDENGSIZHIYAN”HUO“PULUOWEIDUNSIZHIYAN”,DAIBIAOSHANGDIJIANSHIRENLEIDEFAYAN,JUYOUYIDINGDEZONGJIAOYIYI。DANSHI“Providence”DEYINYICITAIZHANG,QIEYIMINGBUYI,ZAIDUOSHUYUJINGXIAYIYIWEI“SHANGDI”GENGWEIHESHI。

                    棋牌大全下载安装   YINYICIYOUSHIMEIYOUYICHUYUANYUCIYIDEZHONGDIAN,YOUBIAOYIBUQINGZHIXIAN,DAOZHIYUANYUWENHUADECHUANBOSHOUZU。LIRU《KUANGRENRIJI》ZHONG“hyena”YINYIWEI“HAIYINEI”,SHOUZHONGMEIYOUGENJUSHANGXIAWENKENENGBINGBUZHIDAOZHEISHIDONGWUDEMINGCHENG。“Hyena”ZHIDESHIYIZHONGSHIROUSHOU,CHANGGENZAISHIHUDENGMENGSHOUZHIHOU,YITAMENCHISHENGDESHOULEIDECANSHIWEISHI,YINCINENGGOUQUEQIEDIBIAOSHUZHEIYIDONGWUDETEXINGDEHANYUCIHUIYINGGAISHI“LIEGOU”HUO“TULANG”。ZAIRU“Ultimatum”YINYIWEI“AIDEMEIDUNSHU”,YIWEIZUIHOUYIGE、ZUIHOUTONGDIE,TONGCHANGSHIYIGETUANTIDUILINGYIGETUANTITICHUMOUZHONGTIAOJIANHUOJUEDUIYAOQIU,XIANZAIYIDINGSHIJIANNEIJIESHOUQITIAOJIANHEYAOQIU,FOUZEJIUYAOSHIYONGMOUZHONGQIANGZHISHOUDUAN,BAOKUODUANJUEWAIJIAOGUANXI、FENGSUO、DIZHIHUOSHIYONGWULIDENG。DANQIYINYICI“AIDEMEIDUNSHU”DEZIMIANYISIYU“ZUIHOUTONGDIE”MEIYOUJIAOQIANGDEGUANLIAN,MEIYOUYICHU“ZUIHOU”ZHEIYIGUANJIANXINXI,GUONEISHOUZHONGBURONGYIZHUNQUEDIHUOQUYUANYUCIYI。

                      二、译介原语文化之法

                      ZONGHEKAOLVYISHANGYINYIDEYIXIEJUXIAN,YIJIEYUANYUWENHUADEFANGFABUYINGJINJINCAIYONGYINYIZHEIYIFANYIFANGFA,ERYINGGAISHIQINGKUANGERDING,GENJUYUJINGHEDUIXIANGDEZHIYUE,XUANZEHESHIDEFANYICELVE,BIRULINGFANYI、YINYI、ZHIYI、YIYI、SHIYI、TIDAI、TUOZHAN、SHANJIANDENGFANYIFANGFA。RUGUOYIDINGYAOCAIYONGYINYILAIBAOLIUYUANYUYUYINHEWENHUA,NEIMEKEYICHANGSHILINGFANYIHEZHUSHIFADENGCELVELAIMIBUYINYIJUXIANHEYIJIEYUANYUWENHUA。BIZHEJIANGJUTIFENXILINGFANYI、SHUNGUFA、ZHIYIHUOYIYI、ZHUSHIFADENGFANYIFANGFA,DUIYUMIBUYINYIJUXIANHEYIJIEYUANYUWENHUADEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。

                      (一)零翻译

                    棋牌大全下载安装   XIAYISHANG,“‘LINGFANYI’SHIZHIJIANGYUANYUYANZHONGDEWENZIHUOFUHAOTONGGUOSUOLVECHULIHUOZHEYUANFENGBUDONGDIYUNYONGDAOMUDEYUZHONGDEXIANXIANG。”[8]YINYIHUICHANSHENGYIMINGBUYIHEQIYIHENGSHENGDENGWENTI,LINGFANYICELVEZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGBIMIANLEZHEILEIQINGKUANG,“FANYIHOUHANZIGUOZHANGQIEBUYIJIZHUDE,YEKEBUYI。”[9]LIRU,“P2P”HULIANWANGDAIKUANZAIZHONGGUORIYIFAZHANQILAI,SHANGSHIGONGSI“DUOLUNGUFEN”(GUPIAODAIMA600696)CAIYONGYINYI“PITUPI”CHUFANLEYINYIJINJI,GAIYINYICIRONGYICHANSHENGQIYI,“PI”HE“TU”DEYISILINGRENFEIJIE,YUYUANYU“Peer”CIYI“SHENFENHUODIWEIXIANGTONGDEREN”WUGUAN。“ZHENGQUEDEZUOFASHICAIYONGLINGFANYICELVEZHIJIEZAIMUDEYUZHONGYINRU‘P2P’,SHOUCISHIYONGSHIYINGTONGXIAN‘peer-to-peer’,BINGJIASHANGBIYAODEHANYUJIESHI。YEKEYIGENJUWENTI、YUYUXUYAOZHIJIEYIYICHENG‘WANGLUODAIKUAN’HUO‘WANGDAI’。”[7]YOURU,“Integrated Circuit Card”(JICHENGDIANLUKA;ZHINENGKA)YIWEIICKA,“Subscriber Identity Module Card”(YONGHUSHENFENSHIBIEKA;SHOUJIKA)YIWEISIMKA,“Personal Computer”(GERENDIANNAO)YIWEIPCJI、“type-B ultrasonic”(CHAOSHENGJIANCHA)YIWEIBCHAO,“X-ray”(XSHEXIAN)YIWEIXGUANG,“Computed Tomography”(DIANNAODUANCENGSHEYING)YIWEICT,“Compact Disc”(JIGUANGCHANGPAN;GUANGDIE)YIWEICD,“Information Technology”(XINXIJISHU)YIWEIIT,“Electronic Mail”(DIANZIYOUJIAN)YIWEIe-mail,“Gross Domestic Product”(GUONEISHENGCHANZONGZHI)YIWEIGDPDENG,ZHEIXIECIHUIBAOLIULEYINGWENCIHUIDESHOUZIMUHUOYINGWENSHOUZIMUSUOXIE,YESHIYIZHONGLINGFANYIDEXINGSHI,SHOUZHONGRONGYIZHUYIDAOYIMINGDESHIZHIHEZHONGDIAN,HUOQUXIANGGUANYUANYUWENHUAXINXI,FENBIANZHUANYOUMINGCIZHIDAISHIWUSHIKA、JIQIHAISHIQITA,QIEZHEILEIJINGLINGFANYICHULIDECIHUIYURENMENSHENGHUOXIXIXIANGGUANHUOWEIMOUZHUANYELINGYUDECHANGJIANCI,SHIYONGPINLVJIAOGAO,YIMINGJIANDUAN,BIANYUJIYIHEJIAOLIU。

                      (二)顺古法

                      SHUNGUDEFANYIFANGFASHIJIEJIANXUANZHUANGDE“WUBUFAN”LILUN,TICHANG“SHUNGUGUBUFAN”,DANBUZHIXIANYUYINYIDEZHUANMING,ERSHIYIXIECHANGJIANDEYIMING,BULUNCAIYONGYINYI、ZHIYIHAISHIYIYIDENGFANYIFANGFA,YOUYUGURENYIZHINEIYANGBIAODA,YIZHEBIANBUBIZAIJINXINGXIUGAI。YEJIUSHI“MINGCONGZHUREN”HUOZHE“YUEDINGSUCHENG”,BIRUZAIFANYIGONGSIHUOJIGOUMINGSHI,“YANYONGYIYOUXIANCHENGDEGONGSIHUOJIGOUMING,ERFEIZIJISHENGYIYINGZAO。”[10]HUANJUHUASHUO,YOUXIEZHUANMINGDEFANYISUIRANXUANCIBUHEYIYUYONGYUXIGUAN,HUOZHEBIAOYIBUQING,HUOZHEZIMIANYISIYOUQIYI,HUOZHECAIYONGQITAFANYIFANGFAKEYIYOUGENGHAODEYIMING,DANSHIYOUYUYUANXIANYIMINGSHIYONGDERIZIJIULE,RENMENYIJINGDUIQIYOUYIDINGDELEJIE,YEXIGUANLEGAIBIAODA,CISHIZAIHUANLINGYIZHONGBIAODASHOUZHONGFANERBUNENGGOUQINGYIKUAISUDIFENBIANCHUGAIZHUANMINGSUOZHIDAIDERENSHIWU。

                      LIRU,MAIJINTAIERLUNLIXUEMINGZHEDEMOUZHONGYIBEN,SHIYONGLE“XIUMO”LAIBIAOSHI“Homer”,RANERDUISHOUZHONGLAISHUOGENGJIACHANGJIANDEYIMINGYINGGAISHI“HEMA”,GUXILASHUXUEJIA“Euclid”BEIYIWEI“YOUKELIDE”,CHANGJIANYIMINGYINGWEI“OUJILIDE”。ZAIZHEIXIEQINGKUANGXIA,YIYUYUJINGLIYIYOUYIXIECHANGYONGDEBIAODA,KAOLVDAOSHOUZHONGDEJIESHOUDU,YINGGAICAIYONGSHUNGUFAGENGNENGGOUCHUANBOYUANYUWENHUA。YOURU,HANYUDEZHUCHIRICHANGGONGZUODE“XIAOZHANG”,GENJUYIYUSHOUZHONGDEYUYANSHIYONGXIGUAN、GAICIZHIDAIDEGONGZUONEIRONGHECHENGHUSHIYONGDEJUTIYUJINGLAIPANDUAN,YINGGAIYIZUOYINGGUOJIAOYUTIZHIZHONGYIZHISHIYONGDEZHICHENGMING“Vice Chancellor”[10],ERBUSHICAIYONGQITAFANYIFANGFA。MAIDANGLAOBENWEI“McDonald's”YINYI,GENGMINGWEI“JINGONGMEN”SHI,GUONEISHOUZHONGPUBIANNANYIJIESHOU,YOUWANGMINXIXUEDAOHOUZHETINGZHEXIANGSHIJIAJUQIYEHUOZHUANGHUANGGONGSI。YINQIHUARANDEYOUYIZHONGYAOYUANYINSHI,YANYONGDUOSHIDE“MAIDANGLAO”YINYIMINGYIJINGWEISHOUZHONGSHUZHI,YUSHOUMAIDECHANPINHANBAOBAO、SHUTIAO、ZHAJIJIQISHUIDENGJIANLIDELIANXIGENSHENDIGU,MEIYOUBIYAOTIAOZHANQUNZHONGDERENZHI,ZHUZAOXINCI。

                      (三)直译或意译

                    棋牌大全下载安装   YINYICHANSHENGDEQIYIHEYUYIKONGBAI,YIJIYINYIYIMINGGUOZHANGDEWENTIDENG,KEYISUZHUZHIYIYUYIYIDENGFANYIFANGFA,ZHEIYANGSHOUZHONGKEYILIJIEYIYUCIHUIDEYISI,JINYIBULEJIEYUANYUWENHUA。

                      ZHIYIZHI“ZAIBUWEIBEIYIWENYUYANGUIFANYIJIBUYINQICUOWUDELIANXIANGHUOWUJIEDETIAOJIANXIA,ZAIYIWENZHONGJIZHONGYUYUANWENCIYIYOUBAOLIUYUANWENXINGSHI”[10]。LIRU,SHUIGUO“strawberry”ZAIXIANGGANGYINYIWEI“SHIDUOPILI”,ERDALUZEZHIYIWEI“CAOMEI”,ZHEISHIZHIYIDE“CAOMEI”GENGNENGZHIGUANDITIXIANQIPINZHONG,ER“SHIDUOPILI”HUIYUSHUIGUO“LI”XIANGHUN,YINWEIGUONEISHOUZHONGDUIYU“MEI”HE“LI”YOUXIANGDUIGUDINGDEYINXIANG。WUSISHIQIDALIANGWAILAICIYINRUZHONGGUO,ZUICHUZHUYAOJINXINGYINYICHULI,DANDADUOYINYICIHUIZUIZHONGYINHUISENANDONG、YOUAIJIAOLIUERBEILISHIBINGQI。LIRU,“democracy”CENGYINYIWEI“DEMOKELAXI”,“science”YIWEI“SAIENSI”,“communism”YIWEI“KANGMINNI”,“ideology”YIWEI“YIDEWOLUOJI”,ZHEIXIEZAIYIYUWENZIZHONGKEYIZHAODAOXIANGYINGHUOXIANGJINBIAOSHUDEZHUANYOUMINGCI,YINYIXIAOGUOBULIXIANG,YUYIKONGBAILINGRENFEIJIE,ZAIXINGWENHUOGOUTONGZHONGSHICHANGXUYAOBEIZHU,BURUOZHIYIXINGZHIYOUXIAO。

                      YIYIZHI“FANYIZHONG,YIYICHUYUDEWENZIFUHAODEYIYIZHIJIEZUOWEIYIYIZHUANHUANMEIJIELAISHIXIANYIYIZHUANHUAN”[11],“YIYIZHEQUYOUTANWEI,GAIBIANXINGSHI,ZHONGSHIDIZAIXIANYUANWENNEIRONG”[12]。LIRU,“DIMINGYIYIBUXIANYUDIMINGBENSHENDEYIYI,ERSHIYAOBADIMINGSUOYUNHANDEZHENGZHI、JINGJI、LISHI、WENHUADENGXINXIYICHULAI”[13]。“TENGWANGGE”YINGYIYIWEI“the Prince Teng's Tower”,“YUEFEIMU”YIWEI“the Tomb of General Yue Fei”,QIZHONG“Prince”HE“General”JIEWEIYIYICI,NENGGOURANGYIYUSHOUZHONGLEJIEYUANYUWENHUAZHONGDERENWUSHENFEN。ERMEIGUODOUSHICHUANSHUOJIAOSE“Slender Man”YINYIWEI“SILANDAREN”,SHISHENXINGFEIZIRANSHOUZHANGDEREN,YOUYIZHANGKONGBAI、MEIYOUBIAOQINGHETEZHENGDELIANKONG,JINGCHANGCHUANQUANHEISEXIZHUANG,JIEHEILINGDAI,ZHUZAISHULINSHENCHU。RUOYIYIWEI“SHOUZHANGGUIYING”,GENGJIAZHIGUANDIBIAOXIANCHUYUANYUWENHUAZHONGZHEIYIRENWUXINGXIANG。CHUCIZHIWAI,YOUXIECIHUIDUJUWENHUATESE,ERQIYINYIHUOZHIYIHOUBUZHISHIZIMIANYISIBUGOUQINGXI,QIERONGYISHOUXIANYUBUTONGYUJINGWENHUAXIARENMENDEGUYOUSIWEI。CISHIKAOLVYUJINGHESHOUZHONGQINGKUANG,YINGSHIDANGBUCHONGGUANJIANCIHUOQUANSHIHANYI。LIRU,“JINLI”YICIYINZHIFUBAOGUANFANGWEIBODECHOUJIANGHUODONGERLIUXINGQILAI,YONGYUCHENGHUZHONGJIANGZHE,HOUZHIXIAOGAILVSHIJIANZHONGYUNQIJIJIADEREN,YIJINGCHAOCHU“fancy carp”HUO“koi”DEYUYIYU。YUSHIOUZHOUDEBISITEGOUWUCUNJIANGQIYINYIWEI“Jinli”,XIANGGANGGUOJIJICHANGJIANGQIYIWEI“luckfish”,ERYINGWENZHONGLEISIDEQINGJINGXIACHANGYONG“lucky dog”BIAOSHIXINGYUNZHE,XIANGBIYINYI,YIYIGENGZHIGUAN。LIUXINGYU“GANGJING”YEBUHAOYINYIHUOZHIYI,YINQIZIMIANYISIYUSHIJIYONGFAXIANGQUSHENYUAN,GUOWAISHOUZHONGQUEFAZHONGWENZHISHI,KONGPANANYILIJIE“GANG”HE“JING”DAIBIAODEHANYI。KEYONGYINGWENJINSIDEBIAODA“a picky/fussy person”(AITIAOCIERDEREN、CHUIMAOQIUCIDEREN)、“a cynical person”(FENSHIJISUDEREN)HUOMEIGUOLIYU“contrarian”(QINGXIANGYUZHANSHUOHUADUIXIANGDUILIMIANDEREN)DENG。

                      (四)注释法

                      CHANGJIANDEFANYIFANGFAYOUYINYI、ZHIYI、YIYI、SHIYI、TIDAI、TUOZHAN、SHANJIANDENG。YOUYUZHICAIYONGYINYIRONGYICHANSHENGWUJIEHUOZHEYUYIKONGBAI,WEILENENGGOUZHUNQUEYIJIEYUANYUWENHUA,KENENGZONGHEYUNYONGDUOZHONGFANYIFANGFA,BIRUYINYIJIASHANGYIYIDEFANGFA,HUOZHEZHIYI、YIYI,YIHUOZHEYINYI、ZHIYIHUOYIYIHOUTIANJIAZHUSHI,KEYISHIYIYUYISIGENGJIAQINGXI,CONGERGENGYOUXIAODICHUANBOYUANYUWENHUA。

                      YIJIEZHUANMINGZHONGBAOHANDEYUANYUWENHUAKEYICAIYONGYINYI、ZHIYIHUOYIYIJIAZHUSHIDEFANGFA。ZHUSHIDEZICIYOUJIESHIZUOYONG,NENGGOUJIBAOLIUYUANYUWENHUAZHONGDERENSHIWUDECHENGHU,YOUQINGXIDIBIAODACHUZHUANMINGDEBENZHIHANYI。LIRU,“Hamburger”YIWEI“HANBAOBAO”,GANGYINYIWEIZHONGWENSHIGUONEISHOUZHONGDUIYUZHEIYISHIWUHAIBUSHIHENSHUXI,SUOYI“BAO”ZISHISHENGDONGXINGXIANGDIBIAODALEZHEIYISHIWUDEBENZHITEDIAN。YOURU,“Little Rock”YIWEI“XIAOSHICHENG”,YUANYUCIHUIZHIYIJIUSHI“XIAOSHI”,ER“CHENG”ZITIXIANLEGAIDIFANGDEQUYUHUAFENBENZHI。GUOJIZHIMINGCAIZHUANGPINPAIRevlonJINRUZHONGGUO,YIWEI“LUHUANONG”,BINGFEICHUNCUIQUZIYINYI,ERSHIJIEHELEQI“SIFANGZHENBENSE”DEPINPAINEIYUNHEGUONEIWENXUEJINGDIANDEBIAODA,JIRevlonYIYANLIDESEZEZHANSHIGERENMEILIDEZHUZHANGYULIBAI“YUNXIANGYISHANGHUAXIANGRONG,CHUNFENGFUJIANLUHUANONG”SHIZHONGLUZHUSHIHUADUOGENGYANLIDEHANYI。YINYIJIEHEYIYIDECHULI,RANGRevlonDEYIWENSHENRURENXIN,JIEYONGGUONEIWENXUEJINGDIANZICIGENGSHIQIANXIANYIDONG、JINSHANGTIANHUA。

                    棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIYINYI、ZHIYIHUOYIYIDEZHUANMINGHOUBUCHONGXIANGGUANXINXIYESHIZHUSHIFADEYIZHONGXINGSHI。LIRUZAIGUOWAIHENLIUXINGDE《YUDAN<LUNYU>XINDE》YINGYIBENZHONG,“JUNZI”YICIBUSHICAIYONG“gentleman”,YINWEIGAICIZHIYOUSHENFENDERENHUOSHENSHI,YIHUOZHEBINBINYOULIDEREN、YOUJIAOYANGDEREN,ER“JUNZI”ZAIHANYUZHONGZHIDAIYOUDEZHE,HUOSHIRENGEGAOSHANGDEREN。ZAIHENNANYUYIYUHUANJINGZHONGZHAODAOGAIWENHUAFUZAICIDEDUIYINGBIAODASHI,YIZHECAIYONGLEYINYIJIAZHUSHIDEFANGFA,YIWEI“The word junzi, which appears more often than any other in The Analects of Confucius, describes Confucius's ideal person, who any one of us, rich or poor, has the potential to become...”ZAIZHEIYIFANYICHULIZHONG,YIZHEYINYIJIAZHUSHIDEFANGFA“TUCHULE‘JUNZI’DEZHONGGUOWENHUAYUANYUAN”[14],SHISHOUZHONGLEJIEZHONGGUOWENHUATESE。

                      三、结束语

                    棋牌大全下载安装   YUANYUWENHUADECHUANBOYUELAIYUESHOUYIJIEZHONGSHI,YINYISHIYIJIEYUANYUWENHUADEYOUXIAOFANGFAZHIYI,DANBUSHIZUIYOUXIAODEFANGFA,CUNZAIYIDINGDEJUXIAN,BAOKUOYINYICIYIMINGBUYIDAOZHIDEYUANYUWENHUALIANXIHUNLUAN、YINYICIQIYIHENGSHENGDAOZHIDEYUANYUWENHUAYIBEIQUJIE、YINYICIYUYIKONGBAIDAOZHIYUANYUWENHUACHUANBOLIRUODENGQINGKUANG。FANYISHIYINGGAIHELISHIYONGYINYI,ERBUSHIZOUJIDUAN、ZAIXIANSHIYIMINGSHIJIANZHONGLANYONGYINYI,YIQIUBAOLIUYUANYUWENHUA。ZHENGQUEDIYIJIEYUANYUWENHUAZHIFAYINGGAIKAOLVJUTIYUJINGHESHOUZHONG,KAOLVYINYIFANGFADEYOUSHIYUJUXIAN,HELISHIYONGDUOZHONGFANYIFANGFA,BAOKUOYINYI、LINGFANYI、SHUNGUFA、ZHIYIHUOYIYI、ZHUSHIFADENG,CONGERFANYIYUANYUCIHUIDEZHENGQUECIYI,JINKENENGDICHUANBOYUANYUWENHUA。

                      ZHU:BIZHESHICONGFUZHOUDAXUEWAIGUOYUXUEYUANCHENXIAOWEIJIAOSHOU(BOSHI)。

                      参考文献

                      [1]王宁.翻译研究的文化转向[M].北京:清华大学出版社,2009.
                      [2]李红玲.接受美学视角下中英文化负载词的翻译研究[J].外语教学,2018(4):109.
                      [3]Kelly I.G.The True Interpreter:A History of Translation Theory and Practice in the West[M].Oxford:Basil Blackwell,1979.
                      [4] 赵彦春,吴浩浩.音译的尴尬——《庄子》英译中专有名词的处理及译学思考[J].外语学刊,2017(6):100—106.
                      [5]项东,王蒙.中国传统文化文本英译的音译规范刍议[J].中国翻译,2013(4):104—109.
                      [6] 方梦之.中国译学大辞典[K].上海:上海外语教育出版社,2011.
                      [7]陈卫斌.P2P不当音译引发的辨析与音译禁忌思考[J].上海翻译,2017(4):56—61.
                      [8]孙德平,赵国强.对“零翻译”的社会语言学研究[J].语言研究,2017,37(3):107—114.
                      [9]刘学薛,笑丛.英文字母词与零翻译策略探析[J].中国翻译,2016(1):107—110.
                      [10]陈小慰.新编实用翻译教程[M].北京:经济科学出版社,2015.
                      [11]刘祥清.意义转换媒介与意译、音译和形译[J].中国科技翻译,2015,28(2):45—47.
                      [12]方梦之.中外翻译策略类聚——直译、意译、零翻译三元策略框架图[J].上海翻译,2018(1):1—6.
                      [13]连真然.再谈中国地名意译的若干原则[J].中国科技翻译,2017,30(4):11,36—38.
                    棋牌大全下载安装   [14]陈小慰.翻译与修辞新论[M].北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2013.

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