棋牌大全下载安装

          <dfn id='yb483'><optgroup id='yb483'></optgroup></dfn><tfoot id='yb483'><bdo id='yb483'><div id='yb483'></div><i id='yb483'><dt id='yb483'></dt></i></bdo></tfoot>

          <ul id='yb483'></ul>

            1. <form id='xrvpp'></form>
                <bdo id='xrvpp'><sup id='xrvpp'><div id='xrvpp'><bdo id='xrvpp'></bdo></div></sup></bdo>

                  • <tr id='24804'><strong id='24804'></strong><small id='24804'></small><button id='24804'></button><li id='24804'><noscript id='24804'><big id='24804'></big><dt id='24804'></dt></noscript></li></tr><ol id='24804'><option id='24804'><table id='24804'><blockquote id='24804'><tbody id='24804'></tbody></blockquote></table></option></ol><u id='24804'></u><kbd id='24804'><kbd id='24804'></kbd></kbd>

                    <code id='24804'><strong id='24804'></strong></code>

                    <fieldset id='24804'></fieldset>
                          <span id='24804'></span>

                              <ins id='24804'></ins>
                              <acronym id='24804'><em id='24804'></em><td id='24804'><div id='24804'></div></td></acronym><address id='24804'><big id='24804'><big id='24804'></big><legend id='24804'></legend></big></address>

                              <i id='24804'><div id='24804'><ins id='24804'></ins></div></i>
                              <i id='24804'></i>
                            1. <dl id='24804'></dl>
                              1. 当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 英语论文 > 葛浩文的忠实观在翻译实践中的应用

                                葛浩文的忠实观在翻译实践中的应用

                                时间:2019-03-07 11:49作者:黄卫峰
                                本文导读:这是一篇关于葛浩文的忠实观在翻译实践中的应用的文章,2012年,莫言成为我国第一位荣获诺贝尔文学奖的本土作家。随着莫言获得巨大成功,其背后默默耕耘的翻译家,包括葛浩文(英语翻译)、杜特莱夫妇(法语翻译)、陈安娜(瑞典语翻译)、藤井省三(日语翻译),进入普通读者视野

                                  摘    要:棋牌大全下载安装 美国着名汉学家葛浩文作为莫言作品的首席翻译家,为莫言2012获得诺奖做出了重大贡献。其连译带改的翻译策略引发了学界关于翻译忠实原则的争论和质疑。然而,事实上,葛浩文与其他翻译家一样,无论在翻译观还是翻译实践中都把忠实原则置于首位,只不过他对忠实的理解不同于传统的翻译观。在翻译实践中,他不仅尽力保留带有异质性的原语文化色彩,而且努力实现译入语准确性、可读性和可接受性的目标;不仅重视语言文字层面的忠实,更关注整体的忠实和文体风格的忠实。他的翻译实践诠释了文学翻译忠实的真谛。

                                  关键词: 葛浩文; 文学翻译; 忠实观; 实践;

                                  Abstract: Howard Goldblatt,a famous American scholar of Chinese literature,is the chief English translator of the novels by Mo Yan,winner of the Nobel Prize for literature in 2012. His translation strategy characterized by free editing and rewriting has caused a heated debate about and aroused suspicion on the validity of faithfulness among the academic community. However,as a matter of fact,just like other translators,Howard Goldblatt puts priority on faithfulness either in his ideas about translation or in his translation practice. What makes him outstanding is that his ideas on faithfulness are quite different from the traditional ones. In his translation practice,he strives to keep the cultural differences in the original language and to achieve accuracy,readability,and acceptability in the target language at the same time. He puts emphasis not only on faithfulness at the linguistic level,but also on faithfulness as a whole and in a literary sense. His translation practice is a typical interpretation of the essence of faithfulness in literary translation.

                                  Keyword: Howard Goldblatt; literary translation; faithfulness; practice;

                                棋牌大全下载安装   2012NIAN,MOYANCHENGWEIWOGUODIYIWEIRONGHUONUOBEIERWENXUEJIANGDEBENTUZUOJIA。SUIZHEMOYANHUODEJUDACHENGGONG,QIBEIHOUMOMOGENGYUNDEFANYIJIA,BAOKUOGEHAOWEN(YINGYUFANYI)、DUTELAIFUFU(FAYUFANYI)、CHENANNA(RUIDIANYUFANYI)、TENGJINGSHENGSAN(RIYUFANYI),JINRUPUTONGDUZHESHIYE,CHENGWEIJIAODIANRENWU,SHOUDAOGUONEIMEITIHEXUEJIEKONGQIANDEGUANZHU。QIZHONG,MEIGUOZHEMINGHANXUEJIAGEHAOWENJUGONGZHIWEI,YOUQIYINRENZHUMU,BEIMEITICHENGWEI“MOYANWEIYISHOUXIJIESHENGPO”。ZAIGUONEIMEITIDUIGEYIZAIMOYANHUOJIANGZHONGDEZUOYONGTUICHONGBEIZHIDETONGSHI,XUEJIEZEDUIGEHAOWENDEFANYICELVECUNZAIBUTONGSHENGYIN。QIZHONG,ZHENGYIZUIDADEWENTIJIUSHIGEHAOWENDEFANYISHIFOUZUNXUNLEJIBENDEZHONGSHIYUANZE。PIPINGZHERENWEI,GEYI“BUZHONGSHIDISIYICAOKONG、CUANGAI,NIUQULEBENYI,KEWEIZUIREN”[1],“GEYIDEGAIXIESHIGERENYISHIXINGTAITIXIANDEDIANXINGLIZI”[2]。GEHAOWENDEBUFENZHICHIZHETONGYANGRENWEI,GEYIDECHENGGONGGUIYINYUQI“SHANJIE、GAIYI、ZHENGTIBIANYI”DEFANYICELVE,BINGJUCIDUIYIZHONGSHIWEIYUANZEDEFANYIGUANTICHUZHIYI。

                                  SHISHISHANG,GEHAOWENJIMEIYOUWEIBEIFANYIJIBENDEZHONGSHIYUANZE,YEMEIYOUGENGXIN“ZUOFANYIYAOZHONGSHIYUYUANWEN”DECHANGSHI;TAZHISHIFANYIZHONGSHIYUANZEDEZHENZHENGJIANXINGZHE,QIYIWENDUIBENZHIYIYISHANGDEWENXUEZHONGSHIZUOLEZUIHAODEQUANSHI。HUANYANZHI,YUQISHUOGEHAOWENGAIBIANLEFANYIZHONGSHIDEJIBENYUANZE,BURUSHUOTATONGGUOZIJIDESHIJIANRANGRENMENZHENZHENGLIJIELEWENXUEFANYIZHONGSHIDEHANYI。CONGLILUNYIYISHANGLAISHUO,GEHAOWENDEFANYISHIJIANTUIDONGLEWENXUEFANYILINGYUGUANYUZHONGSHIWENTIDETAOLUN,QIQIANGDIAO“ZHENGTIDEFANYIHEWENXUEYIYIDEZHONGSHI”DEGUANDIANSHIDUICHUANTONGYIYISHANGDEWENXUEFANYIZHONGSHIGUANDEDIANFU[3]。

                                  一、葛浩文的文学翻译忠实观

                                棋牌大全下载安装   SUIRANGEHAOWENBUSHIFANYILILUNJIA,DANTAZAI《YATAITONGJIHUIJIKAN》DENGKANWUSHANGFABIAOGUOBUSHAOTANTAOFANYIDEWENZHANG,CHANSHULEZIJIDUIFANYIDERENSHIHEKANFA。2002NIANFABIAOZAI《HUASHENGDUNYOUBAO》SHANGDE《XIEZUOSHENGHUO》YIWENYOUQIJUYOUDAIBIAOXING,SHIGEHAOWENFANYISIXIANGDEJIZHONGTIXIAN[4]。JIYUZHEIXIEWENZHANGHEGEHAOWENDEFANYISHIJIAN,BUSHAOXUEZHEDUIGEHAOWENDEFANYIGUANJINXINGLEFENXI,QIZHONGTEBIEZHIDEYITIDESHI《GEHAOWENFANYIGUANTANJIU》,GAIWENBAGEHAOWENDEFANYIGUANGAIKUOWEISIGEFANGMIAN:ZHONGSHI,FANYIJIBEIPAN,FANYISHIZHONGXIE,FANYISHIYIZHONGKUAWENHUAJIAOLIUHUODONG[5]。SUIRANLUNJIGEHAOWENFANYIGUANHUOFANYISIXIANGDEWENZHANGDUIGEHAOWENGUANYUFANYIZHONGSHIDEKANFADUOSHAOYOUSUOTIJI,DANQIJINWEIZHI,HAIMEIYOUZHUANWENDUIGEHAOWENDEWENXUEFANYIZHONGSHIGUANJINXINGBIJIAOXITONGDESHULI。

                                  忠实不仅是翻译活动应该遵守的一个基本原则,也是翻译研究中需要不断探讨的一个根本问题,更是保证翻译自身存在的伦理要求[6]。因此,“翻译必须忠实于原文”是所有翻译理论家和从事翻译工作实践者的基本共识。不过,译界对忠实的理解存在很大差异。一种观点认为,忠实只是相对于源语文本而言的,最具代表性的说法就是我国翻译界普遍流行的“信、达、切”三原则,把忠实等同于“信”;另一种观点认为,对原文的忠实就是忠实于原文的语言文字。但葛浩文对忠实的理解不同于这两种狭义上的“忠实”,而是更接近我国着名翻译家刘重德先生的提法:“严格说来,忠实是对信、达、切三个原则的概括”[7]。换言之,忠实实际上包括了“信”“达”“切”三要素。
                                 

                                葛浩文的忠实观在翻译实践中的应用
                                 

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YUDADUOSHUFANYIJIAYIYANG,GEHAOWENRENWEI,YIZHEDESHOUYAORENWUSHICHUANDAZUOZHEDESIXIANG,YINCIYINGGAIBAZHONGSHIYUYUANWENFANGZAISHOUWEI。ZHEIYIGUANDIANZAITATANJIFANYIDEWENZHANGZHONGYIZAIBEITIJI。ZAI《XIEZUOSHENGYA》(2002)ZHONG,GEHAOWENTICHU,“ZHONGSHISHIYIZHEDESHOUYAORENWU”,FANYIZAINEIRONGSHANGBIXUYUYUANWENBAOCHIYIZHI[4]。ZAI《FANYIJIKAN》SHANGFABIAODELUNWENZHONG,TABIAOSHI,ZIJIYIZHISHITUZAIYUQI、QINGGAN、XIWEICHABIEYIJIQITAFANGMIANBAOCHIDUIYUANWENDEZHONGSHI,DANYOUYUZIJIZHUYAOCONGSHIFANYISHIJIAN,YIKAODESHIZHUANHUANZHIJUE,ERQIEZAIHANYUJIZHONGGUOWENHUAZHISHIDENGFANGMIANDOUCUNZAIQIANQUE,YINCIFANYIGUOCHENGZHONGSUNSHIBUKEBIMIAN,DANZHEIBINGBUSHITAXIANGYAODEJIEGUO[8]。GEHAOWENDEZHEIZHONGZHONGSHIGUANDIANXINGTIXIANZAITAGUANYUZHONGYI《LUOTUOXIANGZI》DEXIANGFAZHONG。DANGSHI,《LUOTUOXIANGZI》YIJINGYOUSANGEYIBEN,DANTARENWEIDOUBUHAO。DIYIGEYIBENWEILEYINGHEXIFANGDUZHEDEKOUWEI,BAYUANWENBEIJUDEJIEJUGAICHENGLEXIJUXINGDEJIEWEI,DAOZHIYUANZHEZAODAOWANQUANWAIQU。DIERGEYIBENYIJULAOSHECHUYUZHENGZHIXUYAOXIUGAIHOUDEBANBEN,ERQIEYIZIMIANFANYIWEIZHU,WUFATIXIANLAOSHEZUOPINFENGGE。DISANGEYIBENSUIYOUMEIGUORENZHIBI,DANYINGWENBIAODABINGBUDAOWEI。ZAIGEHAOWENKANLAI,ZHEIXIEYIBEN“SHIZAIDUIBUQILAOSHE”,YINCITAJUEDEYOUZHONGYIDEBIYAO[6]。YOUCIKEJIAN,GEHAOWENZAIGUANYUFANYIDEKANFASHANGBINGMEIYOUBEIQICHUANTONGYIYISHANGDEZHONGSHIYUANZE。XIANGFAN,“ZHONGSHIYIZHIDOUSHIZHIDAOGEHAOWENFANYIDEDIYIZHUNZE”[5]。

                                棋牌大全下载安装   DUIYUGEHAOWENLAISHUO,ZHONGSHISHOUXIANTIXIANZAIWENBENLEIXINGHEYUYANDEXUANZESHANG。TARENWEI,YIZHEZAIXUANZEWENBENSHIBUNENGZOUCHUZIJIDE“SHUSHIQU”。JIUTABENRENERYAN,TARENWEIZIJIDEHANYUSHUIPINGYOUXIAN,ZHINENGLIJIEZHONGGUOXIANDANGDAIXIAOSHUO,YINCITABUHUICHANGSHIFANYIZHONGGUOGUDIANWENXUE。GEHAOWENHAIQIANGDIAO,TAXUANZEFANYIDEWENBENBUJINSHIZIJISHANZHANGDEWENXUELINGYU,ERQIESHIZIJIGANXINGQUDE:“WOYAOTIAOYIGEZUOPIN,YIDINGSHIBIJIAOSHIHEWODEKOUWEI,WOBIJIAOXIHUANDE。”[9]ZAIYUYANZHUANHUANLEIXINGWENTISHANG,GEHAOWENRENWEI,DUIYUYIZHELAISHUO,ZUILIXIANGDEFANYILEIXINGSHICONGWAIYUXIANGMUYUDEZHUANHUAN,JI“YIZHEYINGNENGSHULIANDICHANSHIYUANYUJIQIWENHUA,BINGNENGYONGYIRUYUZIRUDIBIAODA”,ER“YIRUYUZUIHAOSHIQIMUYU”。TARENWEI,ZIJISUIRANYONGZHONGWENXIEZUOBUCUNZAIWENTI,ERQIEYIJINGCHUBANLIANGSANBENYONGZHONGWENXIEDESHU,DANBINGBUSHIHECONGSHIYINGYIHAN,YINWEIZIJIDEHANYUHAIDABUDAOFANYIDEYAOQIU,“WUFAJIKEXIANGCHUHENHESHI、QIADANG、CHUANSHENDEHANYUYIWEN”[10]。GEHAOWENZAIFANYIWENBENLEIXINGHEYUYANXUANZESHANGDEZHEIZHONGSHENZHONGTAIDUZHIDEWOMENXUEXI。BUNANXIANGXIANG,YIGEXUEZHEXUEDERENFANYILISHIZHEZUO,NANMIANHUIFANLISHICHANGSHICUOWU。KEYISHUO,MUQIANWOGUOFANYIZHEZUOZHONGCHUXIANDEWENTI,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGJIUSHIYINWEIYIZHEZAIZIJIBINGBUSHUXIDELINGYUMIANQIANGWEIZHIDEJIEGUO。

                                棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIBIAODASHANG,GEHAOWENZHONGSHIYIWENDE“ZHUNQUEXING”“KEDUXING”“KEJIESHOUXING”,TONGSHILIQIUZAIBUYINGXIANGDUZHEYUEDUXIAOGUODEQINGKUANGXIABAOLIUYUANYUWENHUADE“YIZHIXING”。GEHAOWENRENWEI,FANYIDEMUDESHIMANZUDUZHEDEXUQIU,YINCIYIWENYINGGAILIUCHANG、DIDAO。LINGYIFANGMIAN,YUYIBANXIFANGFANYIJIABUTONG,GEHAOWENTONGSHISHIYIGEHANXUEJIAHEFANYIPIPINGJIA,YINCITADUIZIJIZUOWEIXIFANGRENDEWENHUASHENFENGEWAIMINGAN,ZAICHULIZHONGGUOWENHUAYUANSUSHIFEICHANGSHENZHONG,JIELIZUODAOZHONGSHI,YIMIANYOU“DONGFANGZHUYI”ZHIXIAN。TARENWEI,ZAICHULIYUYANWENTISHI,YINGGAIJIANCHILINGHUOCHULIDEYUANZE,ERBUSHISIBANDIGUSHOUMOUZHONGFANYIJIQIAOHUOFANGFA。TARENWEI,DUIYUZUOZHEWEILEBIAODATEDINGYIYI、QUDEMOUZHONGXIAOGUOERZAITEDINGYUJINGZHONGSHIYONGDEBIAODAFANGSHI,YIZHEYINGGAIJINKENENGZHAODAOZUINENGBAOLIUYUANYUWENHUASECAIDEHESHIBIAODAFANGSHI,TONGGUOZENGJIAWENBENDE“MOSHENGGAN”DADAO“YANZHANGDUZHEDESHENMEITIYANGUOCHENG”DEXIAOGUO[11],ERDUIYUDUTEDEYUYANXIANXIANG,YIZHEKEYICAIQUBIANTONGDEFANGSHI,BUBIJUNIYUYUANWENDEBIAODAFANGSHI,YIZENGQIANGYIZUODEKEDUXING。

                                  GEHAOWENYOUQIZHONGSHIFENGGEFANGMIANDEZHONGSHI。TARENWEI,FANYIYINGJINLITIXIANYUANWENDUTEDEWENTI[9]。TADUINEIZHONG“JIAOROUZUOTAI、GUGUGUAIGUAI,YOUSHISHENZHISHIJIQUAOYADEYIWEN”FEICHANGFANGAN。DANGWENZIZHONGSHIYUFENGGEHUOYUQIZHONGSHIFASHENGCHONGTUSHI,GEYIZHUIQIUDESHIGENGGAOCENGCI、ZHENGTIYIYISHANGDEFENGGEZHONGSHI。TABIAOSHI,WEILEDADAOZHONGSHIDEMUDE,ZIJIHUIBAZHONGSHIYUYUANZUOZHEDEYUQIFANGZAISHOUWEI,YOUQISHICHULIDUIHUASHI,ZHIYOUZAIZHIYIBUHESHIDEQINGKUANGXIA,TACAIHUICAIQUBIANTONGDEFANGSHI[12]。

                                  二、葛浩文的忠实观在翻译实践中的体现

                                棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIFANYISHIJIANFANGMIAN,XUEJIEPUBIANGUANZHUDESHIGEHAOWENZAIYIWENZHONGCAIYONGDE“SHANJIE、GAIYI、ZHENGTIBIANYI”FANYICELVE,ERDADUOSHUTANTAOGEHAOWENYIWENZHONGSHIXINGDEWENZHANGMUDEYEBUZAIYUZHENGMINGGEYIRUHEZHONGSHIYUYUANWEN,RUZAI《MOYANYINGYIZHEGEHAOWENFANYIZHONGDE“ZHONGSHI”YU“WEIZHONGSHI”》YIWENZHONG,ZUOZHETONGGUODUIGEHAOWENDE《SHENGSIPILAO》YINGYIBENDEYANJIUFAXIAN,GAIYINGYIBEN“BINGFEIRUXUEJIEHEMEITISUOSHUODEJINGQUEHUOZHONGSHI”,ERSHICUNZAIDALIANG“TONGGUOSHANJIANWENHUAFUZAIXINXILAIJIANGDIMUBIAOWENBENZAIMUBIAOYUYANWENHUAZHONGDESHOUZUXING”DEXIANXIANG,SUIRANTADUIZHEIZHONG“WEIZHONGSHI”YIFACHIKENDINGTAIDU,RENWEITANENG“TUXIANZHONGGUOWENHUAHEYUYANTEZHI,CONGERCHUANDAYUANWENBENDEYIGUOFENGQING”[13]。SHISHISHANG。GEHAOWENBUJINCHANGDAOZHONGSHI,ERQIEZAIFANYISHIJIANZHONGYIYIGUANZHI。KEYISHUO,TADEZHONGSHIGUANSHIJISHANGSHIDUIZIJIFANYISHIJIANDEGAIKUOZONGJIE。

                                  (一)理解方面的忠实

                                棋牌大全下载安装   LIJIESHIFANYIGUOCHENGDEDIYIBU,FANYIZHONGDEXUDUOWENTIYUANYULIJIECUOWUHUOBUDAOWEI,DUICICONGSHIGUOFANYIGONGZUODERENDOUSHENYOUTIHUI。LIJIEDEGUOCHENGJUEBUSHIYIZHEDANFANGMIANNENGGOUWANCHENGDE,XUYAOYUYUANWENZUOZHEBUDUANJINXINGGOUTONG。GEHAOWENZAIZHEIFANGMIANWEIWOMENSHULILEHENHAODEBANGYANG。

                                  WEILELIQIUZHUNQUEBAWOYUANWENYISI,GEHAOWENYUDAOBUDONGHUOLIJIEMEIYOUBAWODEDIFANGSHIBUCHIXIAWEN。ZAIFANYIMOYANDEZUOPINSHI,TAJINGCHANGJIULIJIEFANGMIANDEWENTIXIANGMOYANQINGJIAO。TAZHEIZHONGYANJINDETAIDUJIMOYANLIUXIALESHENKEYINXIANG。JUMOYANHOULAIHUIYI,GEHAOWENJINGCHANGJIUXIAOSHUOZHONGDEMOUGEZIHUOBUSHUXIDESHIWUYUTAFANFUCUOSHANG,JINXIEXINJIUDAYIBAIDUOFENG,DIANHUAGENGSHIDUODENANYITONGJI。MOYANDUICISHENBIAOZANSHANG,RENWEIGEHAOWENZUOWEIYIWEIFANYIJIABUJINCAIHUAHENGYI,ERQIEZUOFENGYANJIN,“NENGYUZHEIYANGDERENHEZUO,SHIWODEXINGYUN”。WEILEBANGZHUGEHAOWENLIJIE,MOYANYOUSHI“BUDEBUYONGWODEZHUOLIEDEJISHUWEITAHUATU”[14]。

                                  GEHAOWENRENWEI,WENXUEDELIJIEBUNENGTINGLIUZAIJIANDANDECIJUBIAOCENG,HAIXUYAOSHENRUBAWOGOUCHENGWENXUEYAOSUDEJIEGOU、FENGGEHEZHUTICHENGXIANFANGSHIDENGSHENCENGXINXI。YOUXUEZHEYANJIUFAXIAN,ZAIFANYIBIFEIYUDE《TUINA》GUOCHENGZHONG,GEHAOWENHELINLIJUNZAIYUEDUYUANWENSHITONGGUOYOUJIANXIANGZUOZHETICHULE131GEWENTI,SHEJIZHUISUOCIJUYIYI、JIAOLIUCHUANGZUOYITU、QIUZHENGYUANWENMAODUNDENGLIJIEFANGMIANDEWENTI[15]。

                                  (二)表达方面的忠实

                                棋牌大全下载安装   LIJIESHIFOUZHONGSHI,ZUIZHONGSHITONGGUOBIAODATIXIANCHULAIDE。DUIYUWENXUEFANYILAISHUO,BIAODAZHONGSHIBUJINTIXIANZAINEIRONGSHANG,ERQIETIXIANZAIWENXUEXINGXIANGHEWENTIFENGGEDENGXINGSHISHANG。GEHAOWENJUYOUCHUANGXINXINGDEFANYIFANGFAHUOXUKEYIWEIWOGUOFANYIGONGZUOZHETIGONGJIEJIAN。

                                  GEHAOWENFEICHANGZHONGSHIBIAODADEZHUNQUEXING。ZAIFANYIBAIXIANYONGDE《NIEZI》SHI,GEHAOWENWEILEZHANGWOTONGXINGLIANXINIYINHUIDEBIAODAFANGSHI,JINGCHANGGUANGLINJIUJINSHANDETONGXINGLIANJIUBA,QINGTONGXINGLIANZHEHEPIJIU,YUTAMENLIAOTIAN[3]。ZAIFANYIMOUXIEJIJUZHONGGUOWENHUATESEDEBIAODAFANGSHISHI,GEHAOWENJINKENENGCAIYONGYINYIHUOZHIYIDEFANGFA。ZAI《TANXIANGXING》ZHONG,GEHAOWENMEIYOUBA“DIE”HE“GONGDIE”CAIYONGYIYIDEFANGFAYIWEI“father”HE“father-in-law”,ERSHIYINYIWEI“dieh”HE“gongdieh”。ZHEIZHONGZUOFABUDANBAOLIULEYUANWENDEYUYANTESE,ERQIEFENGFULEYINGYUDEBIAODAFA。ZHEISHIZHONGGUOBENTUYIZHEXIANGBUDAOYEBUGANXIANGDE,YINWEIZAIYIYOUXIANCHENGYINGWENBIAODAFANGSHIDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZHEIYANGZUOHENKENENGBEIKOUSHANG“SIYI”HUOYIWENBUDIDAODEMAOZI。LINGYIGEYINYIDEDIANXINGLIZIJIUSHI“NIANG”,GEHAOWENTONGYANGCAIYONGYINYIDEFANGFABAOLIULEZHEIYIGUSHIZHONGGUORENDUIMUQINDECHENGWEI。TAHAIBAJUYOUZHONGGUOTESEDECHENGHUYU“FULAOXIANGQINMEN”ZHIYIWEIall you elders,fellow townsmen。SHUNDAIYITIDESHI,YOUDEWENZHANGTIDAOLE“KANG”DEFANYIWENTI,BINGBAQIYIHUAFANYIFANGSHI“kang”GUIGONGYUGEHAOWEN[16],ZHEIXIANRANSHIYOUBEISHISHIDE。SHIJISHANG,ZAOZAI《HONGGAOLIANGJIAZU》GEYIBEN(1993NIAN)CHUBANZHIQIAN,WOGUODEHANYINGCIDIANZHONGJIUYIJINGCHUXIANGAIYIWEN1。YINCI,ZAITAOLUNGEYIFANYITESEHEJIQIAODESHIHOU,YOUBIYAOQUFENNAXIEYIWENWEIGEHAOWENDUCHUANG,NAXIESHIXIANCHENGDEYIWEN,YIMIANZHANGGUANLIDAI,DAOZHITAOLUNSHIQUYIYIHEJIAZHI。

                                棋牌大全下载安装   GEHAOWENZAIYIWENZHONGBUJINJINKENENGZHONGSHIYUYUANWENNEIRONG,ERQIEJINLIBAOLIUYUANWENDEYIXIANG。YOUXUEZHEYANJIUFAXIAN,YIGEHAOWENQIANHOUFANYIMOYANWUBUXIAOSHUOZHONGDE500GEYIXIANGHUAYUWEIYANJIUDUIXIANG,FAXIANYIHUACELVEYIZHIZHANZHUDAODIWEI[17]。ZAIFANYI《TUINA》SHI,GEHAOWENDUIMIAOSHUNVZHURENGONGJINYANXINLIHUODONGDECIYU“HUOLUO”DEYONGYIBUSHIHENMINGBAI,JINGGUOXIANGZUOZHEBIFEIYUXUNWEN,DEZHIQIMUDESHIQIANGDIAORENWUDEXINLI“YOULEDONGJING”,YISISHI“JIDONG、KUAILE、QINGXING”,YUSHICHUANGZAOXINGDIYIWEIcame alive,BAOLIULEYUANWENDEDONGTAIHE“HUO”DEYIXIANG[15]。ZAI《HONGGAOLIANGJIAZU》ZHONG,GEHAOWENBA“HUANGQUAN”ZHIYIWEIthe Yellow Springs,ERBUSHIXIFANGSHEHUIDEHell(DIYU),HUOHANYINGCIDIANZHONGTIGONGDEYIWENthe netherworldHUOthe dwelling place of the dead。GEHAOWENDEZHEIZHONGFANYIFANGFAZAIHANYUCHENGYUFANYIZHONGGENGJIADIANXING。GENJUJUTIYUJING,ZAIBUYINGXIANGDUZHELIJIEDEQINGKUANGXIA,GEYIJINKENENGCAIYONGZHIYIFANGFA。RU:

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YUANWEN:GENGUIZIPINGEYUSIWANGPOBA![18]177

                                  YIWEN:We'll take the Japs on until either the fish die or the net breaks.[19]204

                                  PINGXI:GEHAOWENZAIFANYI“YUSIWANGPO”SHI,BUSHITONGGUOYIYIDEFANGSHICAIYONGYINGWENZHONGGUYOUDESHUOFAa life or death struggle,ERSHIBAOLIULEHANYUYUANWENZHONGDEYIXIANG“YU”HE“WANG”,DUQILAISHENGDONGXINGXIANG。

                                棋牌大全下载安装   GEHAOWENZAIZUNXUNYINGYUWENBENKEDUXINGHEKEJIESHOUXINGJIBENYUANZEDEQIANTIXIA,JINLICAIYONGZHIYIFANGFABAOLIUZHONGGUOWENHUADEYIZHIXING,CONGER“JIBAOLIUWENHUATESEYOUBAOCHIYIWENDELIUCHANG”[10]。QIZHONGYIGEZHONGYAOFANGMIANJIUSHIZAIYIWENZHONGBAOLIUHANYUDUTEDEYANYU、SUYU、XIEYINDENGYUYANBIAODAFANGSHI。YOUDEXUEZHETONGGUOYULIAOTONGJIFENXIFAXIAN,GEHAOWENZAIFANYIFANGYANTUYUSHIYIZHIYIWEIZHU,CONGERDEYIBAOLIUYUANZHIYUANWEIDEZHONGGUOWENHUA[20]。YIXIAZHEIXIEJUYOUZHONGWENTESEDEBIAODAFANGSHIDOUCHUZIGEHAOWENDEYIBEN:Flies can't get into an egg that isn't cracked.(CANGYINGBUDINGWUFENGDEJIDAN)A fallen phoenix is not the equal of a common chicken.(LUOPODEFENGHUANGBURUJI)He's the proverbial toad wanting to taste the swan's flesh.(LAIHAMAXIANGCHITIANEROU)If you marry a chicken you share the coop;marry a dog and you share the kennel.(JIAJISUIJI,JIAGOUSUIGOU)ZAISUYUFANGMIAN,GEHAOWENTONGGUO“ZHIYI+YIYI”JIEHEDEFANGSHIBAOLIUYUANYUDEWENHUASECAI,RU:an economy lantern,someone to be taken lightly(SHENGYOUDEDENG)。ZAIFANYIYIXIEXINGXIANGSHENGDONGDEMARENBIAODAFANGSHISHI,GEYIYOUSHIBINGBUJIEYONGYINGYUZHONGLEISIDESHUOFA,ERSHICAIYONGZHIYIDEFANGFA,RU:I'll skin you alive and rip the tendons right out of your body.(WOYAOBONIDEPI,CHOUNIDEJIN。)No easy death for you!(NIBUDEHAOSI!)Stop acting like a fucking idiot.(TANIANGDE,NIZHUANGSHENMEHAN!)ZHEILEIYIWENJIRENERMUYIXINZHIGAN,JIDADIFENGFULEYINGYUDEBIAODAFA。DANGRAN,GEHAOWENDEZHIYIYUWOMENTONGCHANGSUOSHUODEZHIYIBUTONG,ZHISHIBAOLIUYUANWENDEXINGXIANGHUOWENHUASECAI,ZAIJUZIJIEGOUSHANGYIRANZUNXUNYINGYUDEBIAODAXIGUAN,ZHEISHIFEIYINGYUBENZUYUZHENANYIZUODAODE。

                                  ZAIYUYANYUFENGGEFASHENGCHONGTUSHI,GEHAOWENGENGZHONGSHIFENGGECENGMIANDEZHONGSHI。YIGEDIANXINGLIZIJIUSHI《TANXIANGXING》DEFANYI。TARENWEI,《TANXIANGXING》SHIYIBUYISHENGYIN、JIEZOU、YUNLVHESHENGDIAOWEIJIDIAODEZUOPIN,YINCIYIWENYEYINGGAITIXIANCHUZHEIZHONGTEDIAN。WEILEZHAODAOJINENGBAOLIUYUNJIAOYOUNENGCHUANDAYUANYIDEHESHIBIAODAFANGSHI,GEHAOWENKEWEI“JIAOJINNAOZHI、DANJINGJIELV”[21]。YIGEDIANXINGLIZIJIUSHIXIAOSHUOBIAOTIDEFANYI。HANYU“TANXIANGXING”YOUSANGEYINJIE,QIZHONG“TANXIANG”DUIYINGDEYINGWENDANCIsandalwoodYIJINGYOUSANGEYINJIE。YOUYU“TANXIANG”SHUYUZHUANYOUMINGCI,BUNENGSUIYIGENGGAI,YINCIZHINENGZAI“XING”DEYIWENSHANGDONGNAOJIN。WOMENZHIDAO,“XING”YIBANYIWEIpenaltyHUOpunishment,DANZHEIYANGYILAIYIWENDEYINJIEJIUHUIDADACHAOGUOYUANWEN。WEILEJINKENENGQUDEYUNLVSHANGDEPINGHENG,GEHAOWENJUEDINGCAIYONGYIYIXIANGJINDEDANYINJIEYINGWENDANCIdeath。ZHEIJIUSHISandalwood DeathYIMINGDEYOULAI。GAISHUDEZHENGWENYETIXIANCHUZHEIZHONGTESE,RUTAZAIFANYIMAOQIANGXIWENSHILIQIUBAOCHIYUANWENHEZHEYAYUN、LANGLANGSHANGKOUDEYUNLV。MEIGUOEKELAHEMADAXUEZHONGWENJIAOSHOUSHIJIANGSHAN(Jonathan Stalling)DUIGEHAOWENDEYIWENTUICHONGBEIZHI,RENWEIGEHAOWENDEYIWENBUJIN“ZAIXIANLEMOYANXIAOSHUOZHONGDEGEZHONGSHENGYIN,ERQIEHAICAIYONGLEHANYINGLIANGZHONGYUYANFEICHANGJIEJINDEGELVHEWEIYUN”,SHI“YONGYINGYUSUONENGDADAODEFANYIDEJIZHIDIANFAN”[16]121。YOUQINANNENGKEGUIDESHI,GEHAOWENZAIFANYIXIAOSHUOSHINENGGOUZUODAOZHEIDIAN。ZHEIZUYISHUOMINGGEHAOWENFANYIJIQIAOZHIJINGZHAN。

                                  (三)效果方面的忠实

                                棋牌大全下载安装   ZHONGGUOWENHUAYUXIFANGWENHUACUNZAIHENDACHAYI,ZAIZHENGZHIJINGJITIZHI、MOUXIEJIAZHIGUANFANGMIANSHENZHIXIANGHUCHONGTU。YINCI,ZAIFANYISHIRUHECHULIZHEIZHONGCHAYI,SHIDUIYIZHETICHUDETIAOZHAN。GEHAOWENWEILEZHONGSHIYUDUZHE,XIAOCHUYIWENDUZHEDEDICHUXINLI,DUIYUYUANWENYUYIWENZHIJIANCUNZAICHONGTUDEWENHUAHUOZHENGZHIXIANXIANGYOUSHIHUICAIQUSHANJIANHUOGAIHUANSHUOFADECELVE。ZHEIZHONGZUOFACONGBIAOMIANSHANGKANSHIDUIYUANZUOZHEHEYUANWENHUADEBEIPAN,DANYOUYUYIWENXIAOCHULEWENHUASHANGDEZHANGAI,YOUZHUYUYIWENDUZHEXIANGYUANWENDUZHENEIYANGQINGSONGZIRUDIXINSHANGZUOPIN,CONGERDADAOXIAOGUOHEYIYIZHONGSHIDEMUDE。

                                棋牌大全下载安装   LIRU,ZAIZHONGGUO,GOUSHICHUANTONGYINSHIWENHUADEZHONGYAOYUANSU,GOUROUBEIRENWEISHIYIZHONGFEICHANGMEIWEIDESHIWU,DANZAIXIFANGWENHUAZHONG,GOUSHIZUISHOUHUANYINGHEXIAIDECHONGWUZHIYI。RUHECHULIZHEIZHONGJUDADEWENHUACHAYI,DUIYUYIZHESHIYIGEHENDADETIAOZHAN。ZAI《HONGGAOLIANGJIAZU》ZHONG,WOMENHUIDUDAOGUANYUTUFEITOUZIYUZHANAOCHIGOUTOUGUOCHENGDEXIZHIMIAOXIE:

                                  YUANWEN:TAQUESHISHIEJILE,GUBUSHANGXIXIPINWEI,TUNLEGOUYAN,XILEGOUNAO,JIAOLEGOUSHE,KENLEGOUSAI,BAYIWANJIUHEDEQINGJIN。[18]93

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YIWEN:It was delicious.And he was ravenously hungry,so he dug in,eating quickly until the head and the wine were gone.[19]107

                                  PINGXI:ZUOZHEWEILESHUOMINGTUFEITOUZIDEHAOSHUANG,YONGLE“TUN”“XI”“JIAO”“KEN”DENGDONGCI,HUOLINGHUOXIANMIAOXIELEYUZHANAOCHIGOUTOUDEGUOCHENG,DANZHONGGUORENYANZHONGDEZHEIZHONGCUGUANG,ZAIXIFANGRENKANLAIQUESHIFEICHANGCANRENDE。KENENGJIYUZHEIZHONGKAOLV,GEHAOWENZAIYIWENZHONGDUIMIAOXIEGEZHONGCHIFADEDONGCIHEBUWEIDENGXIJIEJINXINGLEBUFENSHANJIAN,ZHIBAOLIULEYUANWENDAYI。ZHEIZHONGCHULIFANGSHISUIRANBIAOMIANSHANGKANQILAIBUZHONGSHIYUYUANWEN,DANQUEZHONGSHIYUDUZHEHEYIYUWENHUA。

                                棋牌大全下载安装   ZHEIZHONGGAIXIEZAIZHENGZHIWENHUAFANGMIANGENGJIAMINGXIAN。JUYOUZHONGGUOTESEDEXIANDANGDAIXIAOSHUOWUFAHUIBIGONGCHANDANGHESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUZHILEIDEZHENGZHIYISHIXINGTAI。YUCIXIANGGUANDEMIAOSHU,YOUQISHIDAIYOUMINGXIANXUANCHUANKOUWENDEYUYAN,RUGUOCAIYONGZHIYIDEFANGFA,XIANRANHUIYINQISHENGHUOZAIJIERANBUTONGZHENGZHIZHIDUXIADEXIFANGDUZHEDEFANGAN。RU:

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YUANWEN:WOMENSHIGONGCHANDANG,ESIBUDITOU,DONGSIBUWANYAO。[18]345

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YIWEN:We're resistance fighters.We don't bow our heads when we're starving,and we don't bend our knees when we're freezing.[19]367

                                  PINGXI:ZAIYIWENZHONG,“GONGCHANDANG”DEYINGZIBUJIANLE,ERSHIBIANCHENGLE“KANGRIZHANSHI”。KEYIXIANGXIANG,RUGUOZHONGGUOBENTUYIZHEJINXINGZHEIZHONGGAIBIAN,BUJINYUANWENZUOZHEBUHUITONGYI,ERQIEYIZHEKENENGHAIHUICHENGDANZHENGZHIFENGXIAN。WOMENSHIFOUKEYIBAZHEIZHONGGAIXIECHENGWEIWAIGUOYIZHEDEFANYI“TEQUAN”?

                                  (四)改写背后对原作者的忠实

                                  DUIGEYIZHONGSHIXINGTICHUZHIYIDEYIGEZHONGYAOYUANYINSHIYIBENZHONGDEGAIXIEXIANXIANG。DANSHIJISHANG,CHUFEIWENHUACHAYIXUYAO,GEHAOWENFANDUIYIZHESUIYIGAIBIANYUANWEN。DANGGEHAOWENFAXIANYUANWENYOUCUOWUSHIHUIYUYUANZUOZHEGOUTONG。WEILEJINKENENGZUODAOZHONGSHI,GEHAOWENZAIYIWANYIBUZUOPINHOUHUIQINGZIJIDEZHONGGUOFURENLINLIJUNHUOMUYUSHIHANYUDERENBANGMANGXIAODUIYIWEN,“YIQUEBAOBUHUIYOUSUOSHIWU”[10]。GEYIZAIPIANZHANGCENGMIANBAOSHOUGOUBINGDEGAIXIESHIJISHANGWANGWANGSHIBIANJI、YIZHE、ZUOZHESANZHEZAIHUDONGZHONGWANCHENGDE,YINCIZHEIZHONGGAIXIEBENZHISHANGBINGMEIYOUWEIBEIZHONGSHIDEYUANZE。

                                棋牌大全下载安装   ZAIGEYIZHONGWOMENKEYIZHAODAOHENDUOZHEIYANGDELIZI。1993NIAN,FUZE《HONGGAOLIANGJIAZU》YINGYIBENDEBIANJIFAXIAN,GAISHUDISIZHANGZHONGMOUGECHANGJINGMIAOXIECUNZAIXIANJIEBUDANG、BIAODAZHONGFUDENGWENTI,YUSHIXUNWENGEHAOWENSHIFOUKEYISHANCHU,GEHAOWENZAIZHENGDEMOYANSHOUKENHOUCAIBIAOSHITONGYI[22]。TONGYANG,BIANJIRENWEILIUZHENYUNDE《SHOUJI》KAIPIANSHIDUIZHONGGUOSANSISHINIANQIANFASHENGDESHIQINGJINXINGDEHUIYI,ERMEIGUODUZHEGANXINGQUDESHIXIANZAIFASHENGDEGUSHI,YINCIJIANYIGEHAOWENZAIYIWENZHONGDUIYUANWENSHUNXUJINXINGDIAOZHENG,BADIERZHANGJIANGSHUXIANZAIGUSHIDEYIXIAOBUFENYIZHIXIAOSHUOKAITOU,ZHEIYIJIANYIDEDAOLEZUOZHELIUZHENYUNDERENKE。《TIANTANGSUANTAIZHIGE》DEBIANJIRENWEI,XIAOSHUOJIANGSHUDESHIYIGE“CHONGMANFENNUDEGUSHI”,DANQIJIEWEIGUOYUPINGDAN。GEHAOWENYUSHIBABIANJIDEXIANGFAFANKUIJIMOYAN,MOYANJUCICHUANGZUOLEYIGEQUANXINDEJIEWEI,JIEGUOJIEDAHUANXI[10]。ZHEIXIEDIANXINGLIZISHUOMING,WENXUECHUANGZUOBENSHENYESHIYIGEBUDUANGAIXIEDEGUOCHENG。

                                  ZONGZHI,WENXUEFANYIBINGBUSHIJIANDANDEGERENXINGWEI,ERSHISHEJIDAOYIZHE、ZUOZHE、BIANJIDENGDUOZHONGYINSU,BAIZAIDUZHEMIANQIANDEYIWENHENKENENGSHIMOUZHONGTUOXIEDEJIEGUO,YINCIYIZHECHENGSHOUDEXUDUOZENANSHIBUGONGPINGDE[10]。

                                  三、葛译在忠实方面存在的问题

                                棋牌大全下载安装   CHENGRAN,WOMENZAIKENDINGGEYIZHONGSHIXINGDETONGSHI,DUIQICUNZAIDEGEZHONGWENTIYEBUYINGGAISHIERBUJIAN。GEHAOWENDEYIWENBINGFEIWANMEIWUQUE,WULUNZAILIJIEHAISHIBIAODASHANGDOUCUNZAIYIXIEMINGXIANDECUOWU。DANGRAN,ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGSHIKEYILIJIEDE。ZHONGGUOWENHUABODAJINGSHEN,WOMENZHONGGUORENZIJIDOUBUGANSHUOWANQUANJINGTONG,GENGMEIBIYAODUIYIGEWAIGUORENGUOYUKEQIU。YINCI,BIZHEZAIZHEILILIEJUGEYIZHONGDEYIXIEWENTI,MUDEBUSHIZHENGMINGGEYIDEBUZHONGSHIXING,ERSHIXIWANGDUZHENENGGOUDUIGEYIYOUYIGEKEGUANDERENSHI。

                                  SHOUXIANSHILIJIESHANGDEWENTI。ZHEIZHONGWENTIYOUDEBIAOXIANZAICIYUCENGMIAN,RUZHONGGUOWENHUAZHONG,“SAOZI”ZHISHAOYOULIANGZHONGZHICHENGYIYI:1.YONGYUCHENGHUGEGEDEQIZI(elder brother's wife),SHIYIZHONGQINSHUCHENGWEI;2.YONGYUCHENGHUNIANJIYUZIJIXIANGFANGDEYIHUNNVXING(sister,a form of address for a married woman about one's own age),SHIYIZHONGSHEJIAOCHENGWEI。DANGEHAOWENMEIYOUGENJUJUTIYUJINGDUIZHEILIANGZHONGYIYIJINXINGQUFEN,YOUSHIBACHUNCUIYONGZUOSHEJIAOYONGYUDE“SAOZI”YEYIWEIsister-in-law,RONGYIZAOCHENGHUNLUANHEWUJIE。HAIYOUDEBIAOXIANZAIJUZICENGMIAN,RU:

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YUANWEN:“GANDIE!”CONGJIESHANGPAOHUILAIDEWOFUQINGAOJIAOYISHENG,BAYEYEGAOJUMENSHUANDESHOUGUDINGZAIBANKONGZHONG。[18]330

                                  YIWEN:“Dad!”Father ran in screaming,grabbed the door bolt,and held on for dear life.[19]346

                                棋牌大全下载安装   PINGXI:YUANWENDEYISISHISHUO“WOFUQINDEJIAOSHENGZUZHILEYEYEOUDANAINAI”,DANBAYIWENHUIYICHENGZHONGWEN,YISIQUEBIANCHENGLE:“FUQINBUJINDAJIAOLEYISHENG‘GANDIE’,ERQIEQIANGGUOMENSHUAN,PINMINGZUZHIYEYEOUDANAINAI”,XIANRANZHEISHIWUJIEYUANWENYISIZAOCHENGDE。SHIYIWEI:“Dad!”My father ran in from the street and screamed,stopping grandpa's hand with the door bolt from falling down from the air.

                                  YOURU:

                                  YUANWEN:TAMENDUOZAIXIANSHUIKOUFUJINDEYIGEXIAOCUNZHUANGLI,MEIDANGTAIYANGSHANGLAI,DUIYUANMENJIUYIDUIYIDUIDITANGZAIDUANQIANGBIANSHANGZHUASHIZISHAITAIYANG。BAITIANBUGANXINGDONG,YEWANHANQIBIREN,XIANGCHUQUSAORAODIRENZHIPABUBEIGUIZIDASIYEYAOHUOHUODONGSI。[18]349

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YIWEN:After making camp in a tiny village not far from Saltwater Gap,they lay atop the battered wall when the sun came out,to pick lice off their bodies and soak up the midday heat.All day long they conserved their energy;then,at night,they nearly froze in the cold.They were afraid that if they weren't killed by the Japs the weather would do them in.[19]366

                                棋牌大全下载安装   PINGXI:GAIYIWENCUNZAIDUOCHUWENTI。SHOUXIAN,YUANWENSHI“TANGZAIDUANQIANGBIANSHANG”,ZAIYIWENZHONGQUEBIANCHENGLE“TANGZAIDUANQIANGSHANG”,POHUAILEYUANWENDELUOJI。ZAIYUANWENZHONG,GAIJUSHANGWENXIEDAO:“ZHUJIANZHUANGDADEJIAOGAODADUIBEIHANLENGHEJIEEZHULEYANHOU。BINGHAODALIANGCHUXIAN;CONGDADUIZHANGDAOPUTONGDUIYUAN,DOUEDEMIANHUANGJISHOU,SESUOZAIYILIANGJIANPOPOLANLANDEDANYILIFAZHAN。”YOUCIKANLAI,“TANGZAIDUANQIANGBIANSHANG”DESHUOFAYOULIANGCENGHANYI:YISHIZHANSHIMENYIJINGEDEMEIYOULIQI,ZHINENGTANGZHE;ERSHIWEILEDUOBIHANFENG,KAOQIANGTANGZHE。DIER,BA“SHAITAIYANG”YIWEI“soak up the midday heat”YEWAIQULEYUANYI。CONGSHANGXIAWENKAN,DUIYUANMENBUSHIZHONGWU(midday)CAICHULAISHAITAIYANG。DISAN,BA“BAITIANBUGANXINGDONG”FANYICHENGAll day long they conserved their energy(BAITIANTAMENBAOCUNJINGLI)YECUNZAILUOJIWENTI,WUFAYUHOUMIANXINGCHENGXIANJIE。ANZHAOZHENGCHANGLUOJI,“BAOCUNJINGLI”SHIWEILECAIQUXINGDONG,DANYUANWENYISIQIAQIAXIANGFAN。SHIYIRUXIA:They hid themselves in a small village near Xianshuikou.Whenever the sun came out,they lay in groups at the battered wall to warm themselves up.They did not dare to take actions in the day.And,at night,they could do nothing either,for the extremely cold weather would do them in even if they were not killed by the Japs.

                                棋牌大全下载安装   ZUOWEIYIGEYINGYUBENZUYUZHE,GEHAOWENANLIYINGGAIBUHUIFANYUFAFANGMIANDECUOWU,SUOYIXIAMIANLIZIZHONGCUNZAIDEWENTI,BIZHEQINGXIANGYURENWEISHIBIWU:

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YUANWEN:TAQUGONGSHELIKAIHUILA。[18]344

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YIWEN:He went to a meeting at the commune.[20]361

                                  PINGXI:ZHEIJUHUASHICUNZHISHUDELAOPOXIANGGENGSHIBADAOJIESHIZHISHUBUZAIJIADEYUANYINSHISHUODEHUA。ANZHAOYINGYUXIGUAN,YINGGAISHIYONGXIANZAIWANCHENGSHIGENGQIADANG,JIGAIWEIHe has gone to attend a meeting at the commune.

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YUANWEN:NEILISHENGCHANHONGSHU,CHIDEYEBUCHENGWENTI。[18]350

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YIWEN:And since there's plenty of yams there,food won't be a problem,either.[19]366

                                棋牌大全下载安装   PINGXI:ZHEIJUHUACHUZIYIGESHUSHENGQISHIZUDEZHONGDUIZHANGZHIKOU,YONGCIHEYUFADOUHENGUIFAN,YINCICONGFENGGESHANGLAISHUO,YIWENYEYINGGAIGUIFAN。DANYIWENQUECUNZAIYUFACUOWU。WOMENZHIDAO,yamZAIYINGYUZHONGJIKEYONGZUOKESHUMINGCI,YEKEYONGZUOBUKESHUMINGCI。ZHEILIJIRANYONGZUOKESHUMINGCIQIESHIYONGDESHIFUSHUXINGSHIyams,NEIMEWEIYUDONGCIYINGGAISHIYONGare,ERBUSHIis,JIYIWENYINGGAIWEI:And since there're plenty of yams there,food won't be a problem,either.

                                棋牌大全下载安装   LINGWAI,KENENGYOUYUSHIJIANCANGCUDEYUANYIN,GEHAOWENMEIYOUSHIJIANZIXITUIQIAOMEIYIJUYIWEN,YINCIGEBIEYIWENCUNZAIMINGXIANDEWENTIWENTI。RU:

                                  YUANWEN:“WOMENSHIGONGCHANDANG,ESIBUDITOU,DONGSIBUWANYAO。”[18]345

                                棋牌大全下载安装   YIWEN:We're resistance fighters.We don't bow our heads when we're starving,and we don't bend our knees when we're freezing.[19]367

                                  PINGXI:CONGFENGGEJIAODULAISHUO,YIWENGUOYULUOSUO,JIBUFUHEYUANWENJIANJIEDEWENFENG,YEBUFUHEDIANXINGDEYINGWENBIAODAFANGSHI。YIWENWANQUANKEYIJIANHUAWEI:We're resistance fighters,neither bowing our heads when starving,nor bending our knees when freezing.

                                  四、结语

                                棋牌大全下载安装   WULUNSHIGEHAOWENDEFANYIGUANHAISHIFANYISHIJIANDOUBIAOMING,TA“ZAIFANYIZHONGDUIZHONGSHIXINGYUANZEBUJINMEIYOUHULVE,ERQIEHAIYOUSUOZHUIQIU”[6]。TADUIBAOLIUZHONGGUOWENHUATESEFANGMIANDEGONGXIANSHENZHICHAOGUOLEMOUXIEZHONGGUOBENTUYIZHE。KEYISHUO,GEHAOWENDEZHONGSHIYIWENWEIGUOWAIDUZHELEJIEZHONGGUOWENXUEHEWENHUATIGONGLEYIGEHENHAODECHUANGKOU。RUGUOSHUOGEHAOWENDEFANYIDUIZHONGSHIYUANZEYOUSUOCHONGJI,NEIMETAZHISHIMEIYOUJUNIYUCHUANTONGDEWENZIZHONGSHI,ERSHITONGSHIJIANGU、YOUSHIYOUXIANKAOLVYIYIZHONGSHI、FENGGEZHONGSHI、XIAOGUOZHONGSHI。TAZAIPIANZHANGCENGMIANDEGAIXIEBINGBUSHIGERENXINGWEI,ERSHIZAICHUBANSHE、BIANJI、ZUOZHEGONGTONGCANYUXIAJINXINGDE,BINGMEIYOUBEILIZHONGSHIYUANZE。CONGZHEIYIYIYISHANGLAISHUO,GEHAOWENDEFANYIGUANHEFANYISHIJIANJIASHENLEWOMENDUIWENXUEFANYIZHONGSHIDELIJIE。

                                  参考文献

                                  [1]吴倩.当代西方翻译文学中的中国镜像、意识形态及改写———以《天堂蒜苔之歌》的英译本为例[J].浙江学刊,2014(7):151-153,155.
                                  [2]杨柳.翻译的诗学变脸[J].中国翻译,2009(6):42-47.
                                  [3]孟祥春.Glocal Chimerican葛浩文英译研究[J].外国语,2015(4):77-87.
                                  [4] Howard Goldblatt. The Writing Life[N]. Washington Post,2001-04-28(BW10).
                                  [5]文军,王小川,赖甜.葛浩文翻译观探究[M].外语教学,2007(6):78-80.
                                  [6]刘云虹,许均.文学翻译模式与中国文学对外译介———关于葛浩文的翻译[J].外国语,2014(3):6-17.
                                  [7]刘重德.文学翻译十讲(Ten Lectures on Literary Translation)[M].北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,1991:32.
                                  [8] Howard Goldblatt. Blue Pencil Translating:Translator as Editor[J]. Translation Quarterly,2004(33):21-29.
                                  [9]胡安江.中国文学“走出去”之译者模式及翻译策略研究———以美国汉学家葛浩文为例[J].中国翻译,2010(6):10-16.
                                  [10]李文静.中国文学英译的合作、协商与文化传播———汉英翻译家葛浩文与林丽君访谈录[J].中国翻译,2012(1):57-60.
                                  [11]吕敏宏.论葛浩文中国现当代小说译介[J].小说评论,2012(5):4-13.
                                  [12] 葛浩文.漫谈中国新文学[M].香港:香港世界出版社,1980:106.
                                  [13]邵璐.莫言英译者葛浩文翻译中的“忠实”与“伪忠实”[J].中国翻译,2013(3):62-67.
                                  [14]莫言.我在美国出版的三本书[J].小说界,2000(5):170-173.
                                  [15]许诗焱,许多.译者-作者互动与翻译过程———基于葛浩文翻译档案的分析[J].外语教学与研究,2018(3):441-450.
                                  [16] 孙宇.文化转向视域下的莫言小说英译研究———以葛浩文的英译本《红高粱家族》和《檀香刑》为例[D].长春:吉林大学,2017.
                                  [17]冯全功.葛浩文翻译策略的历时演变研究———基于莫言小说中意象话语的英译分析[J].外国语,2017(6):69-76.
                                  [18]莫言.红高粱家族[M].上海:上海文艺出版社,2012.
                                  [19] Mo Yan. Red Sorghum[M]. New York:Arrow Books,2003.
                                  [20]陈保红.方言土语英译研究———以《蛙》和《红高粱家族》为个案[J].上海翻译,2018(3):27-31.
                                  [21] Mo Yan. Sandalwood Death[M]. Trans. Howard Goldblatt. Oklahoma University of Oklahoma Press,2013:ix.
                                棋牌大全下载安装   [22] Howard Goldblatt. Of Silk Purses and Sows'Ears:Features and Prospects of Contemporary[J]. Translation Review,2000,59(1):21-27.

                                  注释

                                  1RUWAIYUJIAOXUEYUYANJIUCHUBANSHECIDIANBIANJISHIBIAN:《XIANDAIHANYINGCIDIAN》(A Modern Chinese-English Dictionary)(BEIJING:WAIYUJIAOXUEYUYANJIUCHUBANSHE,1988NIAN),DI502YE。GAICIDIANTIGONGDELINGYIGEYIWENSHIa heatable brick bed。

                                联系我们
                                • 写作QQ:
                                • 发表QQ:
                                • 服务电话:
                                • 售后电话:
                                • 邮箱:
                                范文范例

                                靠谱的棋牌---首页_Welcome 百灵拼三张-Welcome 蓝洞棋牌官网送3金币---首页_Welcome 035棋牌手游官网 聚友棋牌官网下载安装-首页